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Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIDAD 3


   Escriba la forma adecuada del verbo have en los espacios en blanco.


1. Have (got) significa "tener". Got se puede omitir en un estilo formal. Se conjuga de la siguiente manera:
   I have got (yo tengo)
   you have got (tú tienes / usted tiene)
   he has got (él tiene)
   she has got (ella tiene)
   it has got ("ello" tiene; más información sobre it aquí)
   we have got (nosotros tenemos)
   you have got (vosotros tenéis / ustedes tienen)
   they have got (ellos tienen)

   En forma contracta se escribe como indicamos a continuación:
   I've got1
   you've got
   he's got
   she's got
   it's got
   we've got
   you've got
   they've got

a  She __________ a big house.
b  They __________ a mansion.
c  I __________ a cold.
d  We __________ a lot of homework to do.
e  You __________ my approval.


2. La negativa se hace de la siguiente manera:
   I have not got2
   you have not got
   he has not got
   she has not got
   it has not got
   we have not got
   you have not got
   they have got

   Veamos ahora las formas contractas:
   I haven't got3
   you haven't got
   he hasn't got
   she hasn't got
   it hasn't got
   we haven't got
   you haven't got
   they haven't got

   Si prescindimos de got4, tenemos dos posibilidades:
   I have not/I do not5 have6
   you haven't/you don't have
   he hasn't/he doesn't have
   she hasn't/she doesn't have
   it hasn't/it doesn't have
   we haven't/we don't have
   you haven't/you don't have
   they haven't/they don't have

a  We __________ (not) all the material needed.
b  He __________ (not) enough patience to teach anybody.
c  She __________ (not) all the qualities of leadership.
d  They __________ (not) our support.
e  It __________ (not) four sides.


3. Observemos ahora la interrogativa:
   have I got?
   have you got?
   has he got?
   has she got?
   has it got?
   have we got?
   have you got?
   have they got?

   Sin embargo, si no mencionamos got, cabe asimismo la siguiente posibilidad:
   do I have?
   do you have?
   does he have?
   does she have?
   does it have?
   do we have?
   do you have?
   do they have?

a  __________ (you) everything on you?
b  __________ (he) all the courage required to go on with the plan?
c  __________ (they) three children?
d  __________ (I) enough of this?
e  __________ (it) wings?


4. En el pasado7 no utilizamos got, y solemos hacer la negativa y la interrogativa con did.


   I had
   I did not have8/I didn't have
   did I have9?

   you had
   you did not have/you didn't have
   did you have?

   he had
   he did not have/he didn't have
   did he have?

   she had
   she did not have/she didn't have
   did she have?

   it had
   it did not have/it didn't have
   did it have?

   we had
   we did not have/we didn't have
   did we have?

   you had
   you did not have/you didn't have
   did you have?

   they had
   they did not have/they didn't have
   did they have?

a  They __________ a parrot, but it died last month.
b  We __________ (not) time to do it.
c  __________ (you) their address?
d  Mr Parker __________ (not) that model.
e  We __________ (not) central heating last year.


5. Cuando have no significa "tener", got es imposible, y la negativa y la interrogativa se hacen con do o does en presente; en pasado, con did.
   They have a nap every afternoon. (Se echan una siestecilla todas las tardes.)
   She has coffee and biscuits for breakfast from time to time. (De vez en cuando desayuna café y galletas.)
   He doesn't have a shower at night. (No se ducha por las noches.)
   Do you have dinner at eight o'clock? (¿Cenas a las ocho en punto?)
   I had breakfast early this morning. (Esta mañana he desayunado temprano.)
   He didn't have a haircut yesterday. (No se cortó el pelo ayer.)
   Did you have a nice trip? (¿Tuvisteis buen viaje? / ¿Os lo pasasteis bien de viaje?)

a  We __________ (not) a long walk yesterday.
b  I __________ a holiday once a year.
c  They __________ a car accident last night.
d  __________ (he) a good time in Andalusia last month?
e  __________ (you) an argument with your husband last night?


6. Ejercicio de revisión.10
a  I __________ a row with my wife yesterday evening.
b  Ingrid __________ a pekinese. She loves it very much.
c  We __________ (not) much time to finish our work. We must hurry.
d  He __________ a budgie long ago.
e  __________ (you) a hose? I need one to water the plants.
f  "__________ (you) a swim in the lake very often?"
   "Yes, every day. I like swimming a lot."
g  Last night he __________ toothache.
h  She usually __________ a sandwich for lunch.
i  We __________ (not) anything for supper last night. We __________ nothing in the fridge.
j  I __________ a date with the girl of my dreams this afternoon, so I'm impatient for the moment to arrive.
k  "__________ (you) any brothers or sisters?"
   "Yes, I __________ two brothers and a sister."
l  They __________ a quarrel yesterday.
m  "__________ (it) a beak?"
   "No, it __________ (not)."
   "Has __________ (it) wings?"
   "Yes, it __________11"
   "I give up! What is it?"
n  My son __________ a fight yesterday evening.
o  She __________ (not) any housework to do this afternoon, so she can go with you to the opera.
p  "__________ (you) a light?"
   "No, I __________ (not). I don't smoke."
q  __________ (he) a bath last night?
r  You __________ (not) enough eggs to make such a big omelette.
s  We __________ a cottage by the river. We love going there to spend the weekend.
t  My two daughters __________ an examination tomorrow, so they're at home studying.
u  We __________ a record by Elvis Presley, but it broke.
v  She __________ (not) a TV set. She doesn't like watching TV.
w  __________ (you) a dictionary? I must do some translation this afternoon?
x  "How much butter __________ (we)?"
   "I think we __________ enough."
y  "How many apricots __________ (she)?"
   "She __________ plenty, so don't buy any"
z  She __________ a look at it, but didn't find any mistake.


1  No podemos quitar got aquí para reforzar las formas contractas, y evitar confusión.
   It's got a window. (It has a window. » Tiene una ventana.)
   It's a window (It is a window. » Es una ventana.)
2  Got también se puede omitir aquí en un estilo más formal.
3  Got se puede omitir, pero no, con la siguiente forma contracta: I've not got.
4  Utilice do cuando have exprese obligación o hábito:
   Do you have to work today? (obligación » ¿Tienes que trabajar hoy?)
   No, I do not have to work today because it is Sunday. (obligación » No, no tengo que trabajar hoy porque es domingo.)
   He does not usually have money. He is very poor. (hábito » Normalmente no tiene dinero. Es muy pobre.)
   Véase también la unidad 4.
5  Cuando contraemos, do not cambia a don't, y does not, a doesn't.
6  Las formas con do y does se usan principalmente en los Estados Unidos de América, aunque están ganando terreno en el Reino Unido.
7  De hecho, got solamente se dice en el presente simple:
   He has (got) a motorcyle. (presente simple » Tiene moto.)
   She has had that motorbike for over twenty years now. (presente perfecto » Ya tiene esa moto más de veinte años.)
   He will never have the courage to do it. (futuro perfecto » Nunca tendrá el valor de hacerlo.)

   Cuando have es un verbo auxiliar, no lleva ni got ni do/does/did:
   I have found the key. (He encontrado la llave.)
   He has not driven a car for years. (Hace años que no conduce un coche.)
   Had you ever been there? (¿Habías estado alguna vez allí?)
8  Had not o hadn't (forma contracta) es posible, pero menos usual que la alternativa con did.
9  Had I?, etc., es posible, pero mucho menos usual.
10  Para ejercicios adicionales pulse aquí.
11  Got no se usa en las respuestas breves. En la afirmativa, no se puede contraer en las respuestas breves, pero en la negativa, sí:
   Have you got the key?
   Yes, I have./No, I haven't.
   Do you have the key?
   Yes, I do./No, I don't.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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