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Vocabulary for Beginners - Basic Vocabulary


Country Adjective Noun
Singular    Plural   
Its citizens
Afghanistan Afghan
An Afghan, two Afghans
The Afghans
Angola Angolan
An Angolan, two Angolans
The Angolans
Argentina / The Argentine Argentinian, Argentine
An Argentinian,
An Argentine,
two Argentinians
two Argentines
The Argentinians / The Argentines
Armenia Armenian
An Armenian, two Armenians
The Armenians
Australia Australian
An Australian, two Australians
The Australians
Austria Austrian
An Austrian, two Austrians
The Austrians
The Basque Country Basque
A Basque, two Basques
The Basques
Belgium Belgian
A Belgian, two Belgians
The Belgians
Bolivia Bolivian
A Bolivian, two Bolivians
The Bolivians
Brazil Brazilian
A Brazilian, two Brazilians
The Brazilians
Canada Canadian
A Canadian, two Canadians
The Canadians
Catalonia Catalan
A Catalan, two Catalans
The Catalans
Chile Chilean
A Chilean, two Chileans
The Chileans
China Chinese
A Chinese, two Chinese
The Chinese
Colombia Colombian
A Colombian, two Colombians
The Colombians
Costa Rica Costa Rican
A Costa Rican, two Costa Ricans
The Costa Ricans
Croatia Croatian
A Croatian, two Croatians
The Croatians
Cuba Cuban
A Cuban, two Cubans
The Cubans
Czechoslovakia Czech
A Czech, two Czechs
The Czechs
Denmark Danish
A Dane, two Danes
The Danes
Ecuador Ecuadorian
An Ecuadorian, two Ecuadorians
The Ecuadorians
Egypt Egyptian
An Egyptian, two Egyptians
The Egyptians
England English
An Englishman (male),
An Englishwoman (female),
two Englishmen
two Englishwomen
The English
Estonia Estonian
An Estonian, two Estonians
The Estonians
Findland Finnish
A Finn, two Finns
The Finns
France French
A Frenchman (male),
A Frenchwoman (female),
two Frenchmen
two Frenchwomen
The French
Germany German
A German, two Germans
The Germans
Greece Greek
A Greek, two Greeks
The Greeks
Guatemala Guatemalan
A Guatemalan, two Guatemalans
The Guatemalans
Holland / The Netherlands Dutch
A Dutchman (male),
A Dutchwoman (female),
two Dutchmen
two Dutchwomen
The Dutch
Honduras Honduran
A Honduran, two Hondurans
The Hondurans
Hungary Hungarian
A Hungarian, two Hungarians
The Hungarians
Iceland Icelandic
An Icelander, two Icelanders
The Icelanders
India Indian
An Indian, two Indians
The Indians
Iran Iranian
An Iranian, two Iranians
The Iranians
Iraq Iraqi
An Iraqi, two Iraqis
The Iraqis
Ireland Irish
An Irishman (male),
An Irishwoman (female),
two Irishmen
two Irishwomen
The Irish
Israel Israeli
An Israeli, two Israelis
The Israelis
Italy Italian
An Italian, two Italians
The Italians
Japan Japanese
A Japanese, two Japanese
The Japanese
Laos Loatian
A Loatian, two Loatians
The Loatians
Lithuania Lithuanian
A Lithuanian, two Lithuanians
The Lithuanians
Mexico Mexican
A Mexican, two Mexicans
The Mexicans
Mongolia Mongolian
A Mongolian,
A Mongol,
two Mongolians
two Mongols
The Mongolians / The Mongols
Morocco Moroccan
A Moroccan, two Moroccans
The Moroccans
Nepal Nepalese / Nepali
A Nepalese,
A Nepali,
two Nepalese
two Nepalis
The Nepalese / The Nepalis
New Zealand New Zealand
A New Zealander, two New Zealanders
The New Zealanders
Nicaragua Nicaraguan
A Nicaraguan, two Nicaraguans
The Nicaraguans
Nigeria Nigerian
A Nigerian, two Nigerians
The Nigerians
Norway Norwegian
A Norwegian, two Norwegians
The Norwegians
Pakistan Pakistani
A Pakistani, two Pakistanis
The Pakistanis
Panama Panamanian
A Panamanian, two Panamanians
The Panamanians
Paraguay Paraguayan
A Paraguayan, two Paraguayans
The Paraguayans
Peru Peruvian
A Peruvian, two Peruvians
The Peruvians
The Philippines Filipino
A Filipino, two Filipinos
The Filipinos
Poland Polish
A Pole, two Poles
The Poles
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican
A Puerto Rican, two Puerto Ricans
The Puerto Ricans
Russia Russian
A Russian, two Russians
The Russians
Portugal Portuguese
A Portuguese, two Portuguese
The Portuguese
Romania / Rumania / Roumania Romanian
A Romanian, two Romanians
The Romanians
Scotland Scottish / Scotch
A Scot(sman) (male),
A Scot(swoman) (female),
two Scots(men)
two Scots(women)
The Scots
Spain / Castile Spanish / Castilian*
A Spaniard / A Castilian, two Spaniards / two Castilians
The Spanish / The Castilians
Sweden Swedish
A Swede, two Swedes
The Swedes
Switzerland Swiss
A Swiss, two Swiss
The Swiss
Thailand Thai
A Thai, two Thais
The Thais
Turkey Turkish
A Turk, two Turks
The Turks
Uruguay Uruguayan
A Uruguayan, two Uruguayans
The Uruguayans
Venezuela Venezuelan
A Venezuelan, two Venezuelans
The Venezuelans
Vietnam Vietnamese
A Vietnamese, two Vietnamese
The Vietnamese
Wales Welsh
A Welshman (male),
A Welshwoman (female),
two Welshmen
two Welshwomen
The Welsh



Please note that nationality words are spelt with initial capital letters in English, but not in Catalan or Castilian: (The) Italians eat a lot of pasta.

As we have seen in the previous example, the definite article (the) may be omitted with plurals ending in s. Compare the following sentences:

I am going to study Catalan because I like the Catalans.

I am going to study Catalan because I like Catalans.

The Chinese grow a lot of rice. (The article the cannot be left out.)

The Swiss make very tasty chocolates. (The article the cannot be removed, as no s has been added to make the plural form.)


The sentences below mean the same:

(The) Germans are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.

German people are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.


More examples:

Japanese girls are beautiful.

(The) Canadians speak English and French.

We like Chinese food, so we ate at a Chinese restaurant.

A person who comes from Poland is Polish / A person who comes from Poland is a Pole.

Two people who come from Poland are Polish / Two people who come from Poland are Poles.


*Please note that the words Spain and Spanish are imperialist or colonialist. Castilian should be used to refer to the language of Castile:

He speaks Castilian.

However, if you are taking an examination, your teacher may prefer "Spanish". When in doubt, ask him or her.


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