Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)
Rellene los espacios en blanco con la forma adecuada del verbo to be.
El verbo to be
significa "ser o estar", y se conjuga de la siguiente manera en presente en afirmativa:
(yo soy o estoy)
(tú eres o estás / usted es o está)
(él es o está)
(ella es o está)
("ello" es o está)
(nosotros somos o estamos)
(vosotros sois o estáis / ustedes son o están)
(ellos son o están)
Las formas que acabamos de ver se usan en un estilo formal. En lenguaje coloquial, se emplean las formas contractas. Para contraerlas, quitamos la vocal y ponemos un apóstrofo ('). Véanse las formas contractas en afirmativa a continuación:
He __________ a barman.
They __________ very polite people.
We __________ in Londow now.
My sister __________ taller than you.
You __________ my best friend.
2. En la negativa, añadimos not después del verbo:
I am not
you are not
he is not
she is not
it is not
we are not
you are not
they are not
También existen formas contractas:
you aren't/you're not
he isn't/he's not
she isn't/she's not
it isn't/it's not
we aren't/we're not
you aren't/you're not
they aren't/they're not
a Mary __________ (not) a pretty girl, but she __________ very nice.
b It __________ (not) big.
c She __________ (not) from Barcelona.
d They __________ (not) ill in bed.
e I __________ (not) tired. I want to go on.
3. En la interrogativa, colocamos el verbo delante del sujeto:
a __________ you on holiday now?
b __________ he at the bank?
c __________ we financially ruined?
d __________ she your girl-friend?
e __________ I a good cook or not?
También cabe la posibilidad de encontrarnos con una interrogativa negativa:
am I not?
(informal)/are you not?
isn't he?/is he not?
isn't she?/is she not?
isn't it?/is it not?
aren't we?/are we not?
aren't you?/are you not?
aren't they/are they not?
__________ (not) they coming to see you?
__________ (not) he your brother?
__________ (not) this book yours?
__________ (not) you going to
tell me your secret?
__________ (not) I invited?
5. Ejercicio de revisión.
She __________ (not) in hospital. She __________ at home now.
"__________ you feeling unwell?"
"No, I __________ (not)."
"__________ he homesick?"
"Yes, he __________
"How __________ your soup?"
"It __________ delicious, thanks!"
"__________ you busy now?"
"No, I __________ (not)."
"__________ they in"
"No, they went out a moment ago"
I __________ afraid she __________ out. Could you ring back later?
This __________ a non-smoking area. So put out your cigarette.
He __________ a very good dancer.
"__________ we really going to stay here till dawn?"
"Yes, I __________ afraid so. We can't go now!"
"Tom and Margaret __________ getting married in May. Didn't you know?"
"No, I didn't."
"Why __________ your mother so cross with you?"
"Because I've left my room in a complete mess."
__________ (not) you going to buy that house? It __________ a real bargain!
Our new boss __________ a dear. He __________ always trying to help us.
The Catalan runner __________ in the lead now! Unbelievable!
I __________ (not) going to follow your advice any more. I've lost a fortune because of it.
They __________ (not) to blame for it. It __________ your own fault.
"__________ (not) you going to take me to the opera tonight?"
"I can't, darling!"
"But you promised."
"I __________ very sorry. We can go tomorrow if you like."
"Where __________ the children?"
"They __________ playing in the garden."
"Who __________ it?"
"It __________ me, darling."
__________ (not) he at school? It __________ the second time he has played truant this week!
My father __________ an avid reader of Ernest Hemingway. He loves The Old Man and the Sea
"__________ we in danger here?"
"Yes, we __________."
They __________ always poking their noses into my affairs. I __________ sick and tired of it.
She __________ in prison for theft.
My little daughter __________ doing her homework now. She __________ very hard-working.
6. Ahora véamos el verbo to be en pasado en afirmativa:
I was (yo era o estaba)
you were (tú eras o estabas)
a They __________ very friendly people.
b She __________ on cloud nine when he asked her to marry him.
c I __________ frustrated when they rejected my book.
d We __________ very happy there.
e You __________ an idiot to let them in, as you knew they would cause us a lot of trouble.
7. En la negativa, ponemos not detrás del verbo:
I was not
you were not
he was not
she was not
it was not
we were not
you were not
they were not
Podemos hacer asimismo una negativa contracta:
a Don't blame me for it. It __________ (not) my fault.
b He __________ (not) at the party.
c We __________ (not) very glad to see them there.
d I __________ (not) very well yesterday. I had a headache.
e She __________ (not) very polite to the Adams last night.
8. En la interrogativa, ponemos el verbo delante del sujeto:
a __________ they having dinner when you got there?
b __________ you really going to tell them?
c __________ he angry?
d __________ she up when you went to visit her?
e __________ I to be trusted?
9. Existe asimismo una interrogativa negativa:
wasn't I? (coloquial)/was I not? (formal)
weren't you?/were you not?
wasn't he?/was he not?
wasn't she?/was she not?
wasn't it?/was it not?
weren't we?/were we not?
weren't you?/were you not?
weren't they?/were they not?
a __________ (not) he elected chairman?
b __________ (not) she the person in charge of the whole affair?
c __________ (not) they siblings?
d __________ (not) we going to your mother's house this afternoon?
e __________ (not) you at the cinema yesterday evening?
Obsérvese la siguiente estructura:
+ un nombre en singular o incontable (presente)
+ un sustantivo plural (presente)
+ singular o incontable (pasado)
+ plural (pasado)
There is a cat.
(Hay un gato.)
There are two cats.
(Hay dos gatos.)
There was a cat.
(Había un gato.)
There were two cats.
(Había dos gatos.)
La negativa se hace insertando not
detrás del verbo, y la interrogativa, poniendo el verbo antes de there
There is not a cat/There isn't a cat/There's not a cat.
Is there a cat?
There are not two cats/There aren't two cats.
Are there two cats?
There was not a cat/There wasn't a cat.
Was there a cat?
There were not two cats/There weren't two cats.
Were there two cats?
There __________ a lot of milk in the fridge yesterday, but today there __________ (not) any.
There __________ lots of people at the funeral yesterday evening.
There __________ an old woman sitting in a rocking chair on the veranda. She was knitting a pullover.
__________ there a lof of traffic last night?
There __________ hundreds of mosquitoes last summer.
11. Ejercicio de revisión.
a "My mother __________ a housewife. My father __________ a farmer. What do your parents do?"
"They don't work at the moment. They __________ on the dole."
b They __________ exhausted when they reached the peak.
c They __________ (not) watching TV when we arrived home. They __________ already in bed.
d There __________ somebody at the door. Go and see who it __________.
e After the fire, there __________ nothing left. We had to start again.
f __________ you really going to give them a hand with their work? They don't deserve it.
g __________ (not) they going to come to the party tomorrow? They told me they would.
h He __________ (not) studying now. He __________ playing a football match with some friends.
i "__________ they teachers?"
"Yes, they __________. They teach history."
j "How many apples __________ there?"
"There __________ a lot. We don't have to buy any."
k "Where __________ your aunt going?"
"She __________ going to see the doctor."
"What __________ the matter with her?"
"It __________ her back. She's got a terrible pain in her back."
l "There __________ some tomato sauce in the refrigerator. Would you like some?"
"No, thanks. I don't like tomato sauce."
m My sister and I __________ in the middle of nowhere when we ran out of petrol.
n "When __________ you born?"
"I __________ born a hundred years ago."
o "__________ she a good student when she __________at school?"
"To tell you the truth, I rarely saw her studying."
p "__________ (not) he your father?"
"No, he __________ my uncle."
q "Why __________ you so annoyed?"
"Because my boy-friend has forgotten to phone me once again."
r __________ (not) you upset when you realised what __________ going on?
s He __________ away on holiday for a fortnight. Can I take a message?
t I couldn't speak to her, as she __________ in a meeting with Mr Green.
u "__________ there anything I can do for you?"
"No, I __________ afraid there __________ (not)."
v "There __________ no way out. We __________ trapped."
"Oh, dear! What __________ we going to do now?"
w He __________ in love with the girl next door. They want to live together in the near future.
x "We __________ taken prisoners!"
"What did you do then? __________ you frightened?"
y She __________ (not) there when the building went up in flames.
z Once upon a time, there __________ a princess who __________ looking for a prince to marry, but couldn't find one, since she__________ very evil.
12. Ejercicio de revisión. (Pase las siguientes oraciones a negativa y a interrogativa.)
a There are a lot of trees.
b There's a spider on the table.
c There were many soldiers.
d There was a dictionary on the bedside table.
e He's listening to music.
f They're writing to their parents.
g She's a publican.
h They were overseas last week.
i You're very clever.
j They are very intelligent.
k He's resting now.
l You're a lawyer.
m We are free.
n It's a glow-warm.
o They're brave.
p He is a fool.
q The birds were singing.
r The house was empty.
s The concert was a roaring success.
t There was a fly on the cake.
u He was a good suitor.
v My car is in its last legs.
w His leg was in plaster.
x John and his sister are over there.
y Tim was content with his pay.
z The house was on fire.
El gerundio y el participio de presente se forman añadiendo -ing
I love being at home.
(Me encanta estar en casa.)
She enjoys being with her plants.
(Le gusta estar con sus plantas.)
Being a beggar is very hard.
(Ser mendigo es muy duro.)
Those sheep are being shorn.
(Traducción literal: Esas ovejas están siendo esquiladas. Traducción aconsejable: (Se) están esquilando esas ovejas.)
En las tres primeras frases, being
es gerundio en inglés, y en la última, participio de presente. Sin embargo, la distinción
aquí no es importante. Solamente debe recordar que ambas se forman con el infinitivo sin "to" más -ing
You're __________ stupid today. What's wrong with you? You're always so nice.
The grass is __________ cut.
I'm looking forward to __________ with you. I miss you so much.
__________ so rich must be great. You can buy anything you want, and you don't have to work.
I hate __________ here.
14. El infinitivo es (to) be. Unas veces se pone to, y otras, no.
I want to be an actress. (Quiero ser actriz. Want + infinitivo con "to")
You could be promoted. (Podrías ser ascendido. Could + infinitivo sin "to")
Be there tonight, and don't be late. (Vaya allí esta noche, y no llegue tarde. Imperativos, es decir, el sujeto no se menciona.)
a I may __________ old, but I'm not stupid.
b He needs __________ with her.
c She wishes __________ given a rise.
d Will you __________ so nice as to wait here?
e Please __________ a good boy. Don't __________ naughty.
15. El participio de pasado es been, y va precedido de have, has o had.
We have never been to the USA. (Nunca hemos estado en los Estados Unidos de América.)
There must have been a mistake. (Debe haber habido un error.)
She has been expelled from school. (La han expulsado del colegio. Traducción literal: Ha sido expulsada del colegio.)
He had been ill. (Había estado enfermo.)
It was the first time that they had been there. (Era la primera vez que estaban allí.)
a It has __________ raining all day.
b He had never __________ so happy.
c There has __________ an accident.
d She hasn't __________ at home for two days.
e They may have __________ very busy.
16. Ejercicio de revisión.
a He had __________ in love with her all his life, but he __________ too shy to tell her. They could have __________ happy together.
b She used __________ very rich, but now she __________ very poor.
c There __________ (not) any garlic. Please go and buy some.
d The car __________ __________ towed to the garage. It needs __________ fixed.
e We avoided __________ told what to do.
f There __________ some flowers on the table. I have just bought them.
g "__________ (not) you aware of the situation?"
"No, I __________. Nobody told me."
h I think she __________ going __________ a very good doctor. Beside, she __________ so charming.
i " How __________ they going there?"
"I don't know. Their car __________ __________ serviced."
j " __________ (not) it lovely?"
"No, it __________ (not). It __________ awful. I don't like it at all."
k He __________ so tired that he fell asleep.
l Do you think I __________ born yesterday? You __________ (not) going to fool me.
m "Have you seen my glasses anywhere?"
"Yes, I have. They __________ on the table."
n Always __________ ready.
o "Waiter! There __________ some flies in my soup?"
"Sorry, sir. They should __________ in the salad."
"I beg your pardon!"
"It __________ a joke, sir."
p You may __________ right, but I __________ (not) going to invite them.
q Stop __________ a nuisance, will you? I __________ trying to concentrate.
r "__________ (not) you at home now?"
"No, I __________ . I __________ shopping for a new computer. The old one __________ broken."
s When we arrived there, the house seemed __________ empty. There __________ (not) any lights on, and everything looked deserted.
t Don't do that again! You could have __________ killed!
u I __________ advised __________ here before dark, and here I __________.
v "What __________ you doing here? You ought not __________ here. This place __________ very dangerous."
"I __________ looking for you. There has __________ a military coup, and we must leave the country immediately. There __________ no time to lose."
w If this becomes known, you will __________ in a very awkward situation, and __________ forced to resign.
x I __________ afraid she __________ out, but will __________ here any minute now. She must have forgotten that you __________ coming. She __________ so forgetful.
y There __________ people who __________ suffering a lot because food __________ scarce.
z Please __________ quiet. This __________ a library.
17. Ejercicio de revisión. (Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés.)
a Tengo veinte años, y soy alto.
b No había agua, pero había unos racimos de uva.
c Me encanta estar aquí. La vista es preciosa.
d Nunca tengas miedo.
e Deber haber sido el viento.
f Están pintando la valla. (= La valla está siendo pintada.)
g Llevan aquí toda la vida. (= Han estado aquí toda la vida.)
h Ha habido una fuga de agua.
i Estaba regando las plantas cuando llegaste a casa.
j "¿No me vas a dar un beso en la mejilla?"
"No, no te lo voy a dar. Estoy muy enfadada."
k Estaban enfermos ayer, pero no hoy.
l Había habido un terremoto.
m Puede que esté preñada.
n Creo que fue ayer, pero no estoy seguro. Pudo haber sido anteayer.
o ¿No estás cansado de hacer lo mismo todo los días?
p "¿Hay cerveza?"
"No, no hay, pero hay un poco de vino."
q No estaban bailando. Estaban cantando.
r Tuvimos mucha suerte de encontrar agua potable.
s ¿Me estoy perdiendo algo?
t No puede ser cierto. Tiene que ser mentira.
u No teníamos frío. Teníamos calor, y mucha sed.
v ¡Ten cuidado! Es muy frágil.
w Hoy es miércoles.
x Tienes razón. Tenemos prisa.
y "¿Qué tiempo hace hoy?"
"Está nevando y hace mucho frío."
z Eres escocés, ¿verdad?
Para más información, vea Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos y pronombres posesivos
Nótese que be going to
significa en castellano "ir a": They are going to resign.
(Van a dimitir.) Para más información sobre be going to
, vaya a la unidad 8
En las respuestas breves, no se contrae en afirmativa. Véase el siguiente ejemplo:
Are they your cousins?
Yes, they are.
(No se puede decir "Yes, they're", dado que es una respuesta breve.)
No, they are not/No, they aren't/No, they're not.
(Es una repuesta breve, pero está en negativa.)
Yes, they're my cousins/Yes, they are my cousins.
(Es una respuesta larga.)
Para ejercicios adicionales pulse aquí.