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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
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Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIDAD 1


Rellene los espacios en blanco con la forma adecuada del verbo to be.


1. El verbo to be significa "ser o estar", y se conjuga de la siguiente manera en presente en afirmativa:
    I am (yo soy o estoy)
    you are (tú eres o estás)
    he is (él es o está)
    she is (ella es o está)
    it is ("ello" es o está)
    we are (nosotros somos o estamos)
    you are (vosotros sois o estáis)
    they are (ellos son o están)

    Las formas que acabamos de ver se usan en un estilo formal. En lenguaje coloquial, se emplean las formas contractas. Para contraerlas, quitamos la vocal y ponemos un apóstrofo ('). Véanse las formas contractas en afirmativa a continuación:

a  He __________ a barman.
b  They __________ very polite people.
c  We __________ in Londow now.
d  My sister __________ taller than you.
e  You __________ my best friend.


2. En la negativa, añadimos not después del verbo:
    I am not
    you are not
    he is not
    she is not
    it is not
    we are not
    you are not
    they are not

    También existen formas contractas:
    I'm not
    you aren't/you're not
    he isn't/he's not
    she isn't/she's not
    it isn't/it's not
    we aren't/we're not
    you aren't/you're not
    they aren't/they're not

a  Mary __________ (not) a pretty girl, but she __________ very nice.
b  It __________ (not) big.
c  She __________ (not) from Barcelona.
d  They __________ (not) ill in bed.
e  I __________ (not) tired. I want to go on.


3. En la interrogativa, colocamos el verbo delante del sujeto:
    am I?
    are you?
    is he?
    is she
    is it?
    are we?
    are you?
    are they?

a  __________ you on holiday now?
b  __________ he at the bank?
c  __________ we financially ruined?
d  __________ she your girl-friend?
e  __________ I a good cook or not?


4. También cabe la posibilidad de encontrarnos con una interrogativa negativa:
    am I not?
    aren't you? (informal)/are you not? (formal)
    isn't he?/is he not?
    isn't she?/is she not?
    isn't it?/is it not?
    aren't we?/are we not?
    aren't you?/are you not?
    aren't they/are they not?

a  __________ (not) they coming to see you?
b  __________ (not) he your brother?
c  __________ (not) this book yours?
d  __________ (not) you going to1 tell me your secret?
e  __________ (not) I invited?


5. Ejercicio de revisión.
a  She __________ (not) in hospital. She __________ at home now.
b  "__________ you feeling unwell?"
    "No, I __________ (not)."
c  "__________ he homesick?"
    "Yes, he __________2."
d  "How __________ your soup?"
    "It __________ delicious, thanks!"
e  "__________ you busy now?"
    "No, I __________ (not)."
f  "__________ they in"
    "No, they went out a moment ago"
g  I __________ afraid she __________ out. Could you ring back later?
h  This __________ a non-smoking area. So put out your cigarette.
i  He __________ a very good dancer.
j  "__________ we really going to stay here till dawn?"
    "Yes, I __________ afraid so. We can't go now!"
k  "Tom and Margaret __________ getting married in May. Didn't you know?"
    "No, I didn't."
l  "Why __________ your mother so cross with you?"
    "Because I've left my room in a complete mess."
m  __________ (not) you going to buy that house? It __________ a real bargain!
n  Our new boss __________ a dear. He __________ always trying to help us.
o  The Catalan runner __________ in the lead now! Unbelievable!
p  I __________ (not) going to follow your advice any more. I've lost a fortune because of it.
q  They __________ (not) to blame for it. It __________ your own fault.
r  "__________ (not) you going to take me to the opera tonight?"
    "I can't, darling!"
    "But you promised."
    "I __________ very sorry. We can go tomorrow if you like."
s  "Where __________ the children?"
    "They __________ playing in the garden."
t  "Who __________ it?"
    "It __________ me, darling."
u  __________ (not) he at school? It __________ the second time he has played truant this week!
v  My father __________ an avid reader of Ernest Hemingway. He loves The Old Man and the Sea.
w  "__________ we in danger here?"
    "Yes, we __________."
x  They __________ always poking their noses into my affairs. I __________ sick and tired of it.
y  She __________ in prison for theft.
z  My little daughter __________ doing her homework now. She __________ very hard-working.


6. Ahora véamos el verbo to be en pasado en afirmativa:
    I was (yo era o estaba)
    you were (tú eras o estabas)
    he was
    she was
    it was
    we were
    you were
    they were

a  They __________ very friendly people.
b  She __________ on cloud nine when he asked her to marry him.
c  I __________ frustrated when they rejected my book.
d  We __________ very happy there.
e  You __________ an idiot to let them in, as you knew they would cause us a lot of trouble.


7. En la negativa, ponemos not después del verbo:
    I was not
    you were not
    he was not
    she was not
    it was not
    we were not
    you were not
    they were not

    Podemos hacer asimismo una negativa contracta:
    I wasn't
    you weren't
    he wasn't
    she wasn't
    it wasn't
    we weren't
    you weren't
    they weren't

a  Don't blame me for it. It __________ (not) my fault.
b  He __________ (not) at the party.
c  We __________ (not) very glad to see them there.
d  I __________ (not) very well yesterday. I had a headache.
e  She __________ (not) very polite to the Adams last night.


8. En la interrogativa, ponemos el verbo delante del sujeto:
    was I?
    were you?
    was he?
    was she?
    was it?
    were we?
    were you?
    were they?

a  __________ they having dinner when you got there?
b  __________ you really going to tell them?
c  __________ he angry?
d  __________ she up when you went to visit her?
e  __________ I to be trusted?


9. Existe asimismo una interrogativa negativa:
    wasn't I? (coloquial)/was I not? (formal)
    weren't you?/were you not?
    wasn't he?/was he not?
    wasn't she?/was she not?
    wasn't it?/was it not?
    weren't we?/were we not?
    weren't you?/were you not?
    weren't they?/were they not?

a  __________ (not) he elected chairman?
b  __________ (not) she the person in charge of the whole affair?
c  __________ (not) they siblings?
d  __________ (not) we going to your mother's house this afternoon?
e  __________ (not) you at the cinema yesterday evening?


10. Obsérvese la siguiente estructura:
     there is + un nombre en singular o incontable (presente)
     there are + un sustantivo plural (presente)
     there was + singular o incontable (pasado)
     there were + plural (pasado)

     There is a cat. (Hay un gato.)
     There are two cats. (Hay dos gatos.)
     There was a cat. (Había un gato.)
     There were two cats. (Había dos gatos.)

     La negativa se hace insertando not detrás del verbo, y la interrogativa, poniendo el verbo antes de there:
     There is not a cat/There isn't a cat/There's not a cat.
     Is there a cat?
     There are not two cats/There aren't two cats.
     Are there two cats?
     There was not a cat/There wasn't a cat.
     Was there a cat?
     There were not two cats/There weren't two cats.
     Were there two cats?

a   There __________ a lot of milk in the fridge yesterday, but today there __________ (not) any.
b   There __________ lots of people at the funeral yesterday evening.
c   There __________ an old woman sitting in a rocking chair on the veranda. She was knitting a pullover.
d   __________ there a lof of traffic last night?
e   There __________ hundreds of mosquitoes last summer.


11. Ejercicio de revisión.
a   "My mother __________ a housewife. My father __________ a farmer. What do your parents do?"
     "They don't work at the moment. They __________ on the dole."
b   They __________ exhausted when they reached the peak.
c   They __________ (not) watching TV when we arrived home. They __________ already in bed.
d   There __________ somebody at the door. Go and see who it __________.
e   After the fire, there __________ nothing left. We had to start again.
f   __________ you really going to give them a hand with their work? They don't deserve it.
g   __________ (not) they going to come to the party tomorrow? They told me they would.
h   He __________ (not) studying now. He __________ playing a football match with some friends.
i   "__________ they teachers?"
     "Yes, they __________. They teach history."
j   "How many apples __________ there?"
     "There __________ a lot. We don't have to buy any."
k   "Where __________ your aunt going?"
     "She __________ going to see the doctor."
     "What __________ the matter with her?"
     "It __________ her back. She's got a terrible pain in her back."
l   "There __________ some tomato sauce in the refrigerator. Would you like some?"
     "No, thanks. I don't like tomato sauce."
m   My sister and I __________ in the middle of nowhere when we ran out of petrol.
n   "When __________ you born?"
     "I __________ born a hundred years ago."
o   "__________ she a good student when she __________at school?"
     "To tell you the truth, I rarely saw her studying."
p   "__________ (not) he your father?"
     "No, he __________ my uncle."
q   "Why __________ you so annoyed?"
     "Because my boy-friend has forgotten to phone me once again."
r   __________ (not) you upset when you realised what __________ going on?
s   He __________ away on holiday for a fortnight. Can I take a message?
t   I couldn't speak to her, as she __________ in a meeting with Mr Green.
u   "__________ there anything I can do for you?"
     "No, I __________ afraid there __________ (not)."
v   "There __________ no way out. We __________ trapped."
     "Oh, dear! What __________ we going to do now?"
w   He __________ in love with the girl next door. They want to live together in the near future.
x   "We __________ taken prisoners!"
     "What did you do then? __________ you frightened?"
y   She __________ (not) there when the building went up in flames.
z   Once upon a time, there __________ a princess who __________ looking for a prince to marry, but couldn't find one, since she__________ very evil.


12. Ejercicio de revisión. (Pase las siguientes oraciones a negativa y a interrogativa.)
a   There are a lot of trees.
b   There's a spider on the table.
c   There were many soldiers.
d   There was a dictionary on the bedside table.
e   He's listening to music.
f   They're writing to their parents.
g   She's a publican.
h   They were overseas last week.
i   You're very clever.
j   They are very intelligent.
k   He's resting now.
l   You're a lawyer.
m   We are free.
n   It's a glow-warm.
o   They're brave.
p   He is a fool.
q   The birds were singing.
r   The house was empty.
s   The concert was a roaring success.
t   There was a fly on the cake.
u   He was a good suitor.
v   My car is in its last legs.
w   His leg was in plaster.
x   John and his sister are over there.
y   Tim was content with his pay.
z   The house was on fire.


13. El gerundio y el participio de presente se forman añadiendo -ing:
     I love being at home. (Me encanta estar en casa.)
     She enjoys being with her plants. (Le gusta estar con sus plantas.)
     Being a beggar is very hard. (Ser mendigo es muy duro.)
     Those sheep are being shorn. (Traducción literal: Esas ovejas están siendo esquiladas. Traducción aconsejable: (Se) están esquilando esas ovejas.)

     En las tres primeras frases, being es gerundio en inglés, y en la última, participio de presente. La distinción aquí no es importante. Solamente debe recordar que ambas se forman con el infinitivo sin "to" más ing.

a   You're __________ stupid today. What's wrong with you? You're always so nice.
b   The grass is __________ cut.
c   I'm looking forward to __________ with you. I miss you so much.
d   __________ so rich must be great. You can buy anything you want, and you don't have to work.
e   I hate __________ here.


14. El infinitivo es (to) be. Unas veces se pone to, y otras, no.
     I want to be an actress. (Quiero ser actriz. Want + infinitivo con "to")
     You could be promoted. (Podrías ser ascendido. Could + infinitivo sin "to")
     Be there tonight, and don't be late. (Vaya allí esta noche, y no llegue tarde. Imperativos, es decir, el sujeto no se menciona.)

a   I may __________ old, but I'm not stupid.
b   He needs __________ with her.
c   She wishes __________ given a rise.
d   Will you __________ so nice as to wait here?
e   Please __________ a good boy. Don't __________ naughty.


15. El participio de pasado es been, y va precedido de have, has o had.
     We have never been to the USA. (Nunca hemos estado en los Estados Unidos de América.)
     There must have been a mistake. (Debe haber habido un error.)
     She has been expelled from school. (La han expulsado del colegio.)
     He had been ill. (Había estado enfermo.)
     It was the first time that they had been there. (Era la primera vez que estaban allí.)

a   It has __________ raining all day.
b   He had never __________ so happy.
c   There has __________ an accident.
d   She hasn't __________ at home for two days.
e   They may have __________ very busy.


16. Ejercicio de revisión.
a   He had __________ in love with her all his life, but he __________ too shy to tell her. They could have __________ happy together.
b   She used __________ very rich, but now she __________ very poor.
c   There __________ (not) any garlic. Please go and buy some.
d   The car __________ __________ towed to the garage. It needs __________ fixed.
e   We avoided __________ told what to do.
f   There __________ some flowers on the table. I have just bought them.
g   "__________ (not) you aware of the situation?"
     "No, I __________. Nobody told me."
h   I think she __________ going __________ a very good doctor. Beside, she __________ so charming.
i   " How __________ they going there?"
     "I don't know. Their car __________ __________ serviced."
j   " __________ (not) it lovely?"
     "No, it __________ (not). It __________ awful. I don't like it at all."
k   He __________ so tired that he fell asleep.
l   Do you think I __________ born yesterday? You __________ (not) going to fool me.
m   "Have you seen my glasses anywhere?"
     "Yes, I have. They __________ on the table."
n   Always __________ ready.
o   "Waiter! There __________ some flies in my soup?"
     "Sorry, sir. They should __________ in the salad."
     "I beg your pardon!"
     "It __________ a joke, sir."
p   You may __________ right, but I __________ (not) going to invite them.
q   Stop __________ a nuisance, will you? I __________ trying to concentrate.
r   "__________ (not) you at home now?"
     "No, I __________ . I __________ shopping for a new computer. The old one __________ broken."
s   When we arrived there, the house seemed __________ empty. There __________ (not) any lights on, and everything looked deserted.
t   Don't do that again! You could have __________ killed!
u   I __________ advised __________ here before dark, and here I __________.
v   "What __________ you doing here? You ought not __________ here. This place __________ very dangerous."
     "I __________ looking for you. There has __________ a military coup, and we must leave the country immediately. There __________ no time to lose."
w   If this becomes known, you will __________ in a very awkward situation, and __________ forced to resign.
x   I __________ afraid she __________ out, but will __________ here any minute now. She must have forgotten that you __________ coming. She __________ so forgetful.
y   There __________ people who __________ suffering a lot because food __________ scarce.
z   Please __________ quiet. This __________ a library.


17. Ejercicio de revisión. (Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés.)
a   Tengo veinte años, y soy alto.
b   No había agua, pero había unos racimos de uva.
c   Me encanta estar aquí. La vista es preciosa.
d   Nunca tengas miedo.
e   Deber haber sido el viento.
f   La valla está siendo pintada.
g   Llevan aquí toda su vida. / Han estado aquí toda su vida.
h   Ha habido una fuga de agua.
i   Estaba regando las plantas cuando llegaste a casa.
j   "¿No me vas a dar un beso en la mejilla?"
    "No, no te lo voy a dar. Estoy muy enfadada."
k   Estaban enfermos ayer, pero no hoy.
l   Había habido un terremoto.
m   Puede que esté preñada.
n   Creo que fue ayer, pero no estoy seguro. Pudo haber sido anteayer.
o   ¿No estás cansado de hacer lo mismo todo los días?
p   "¿Hay cerveza?"
    "No, no hay, pero hay un poco de vino."
q   No estaban bailando. Estaban cantando.
r   Tuvimos mucha suerte de encontrar agua potable.
s   ¿Me estoy perdiendo algo?
t   No puede ser cierto. Tiene que ser mentira.
u   No teníamos frío. Teníamos calor, y mucha sed.
v   ¡Ten cuidado! Es muy frágil.
w   Hoy es miércoles.
x   Tienes razón. Tenemos prisa.
y   "¿Qué tiempo hace hoy?"
    "Está nevando y hace mucho frío."
z   Eres escocés, ¿verdad?


1  Nótese que be going to significa en castellano "ir a": They are going to resign. (Van a dimitir.) Para más información sobre be going to, vaya a la unidad 8.
2  En las respuestas breves, no se contrae en afirmativa. Véanse los siguientes ejemplos:
    Are they your cousins?
    Yes, they are. (No se puede decir "Yes, they're", dado que es una respuesta breve.)
    No, they are not/No, they aren't. (Es una repuesta breve, pero está en negativa.)
    Yes, they're my cousins. (Es una respuesta larga.)
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
Pulse aquí para ver las soluciones


1.  El verbo "to be" (la clave)

2.  Los verbos "can" y "may"

3.  El verbo "have"

4.  Have to, must, need not, cannot y should

5.  El presente simple y el presente continuo (o progresivo)

5.  El pasado simple y el pasado continuo (o progresivo)

7.  El presente perfecto simple, el pasado simple, el presente perfecto continuo, el pasado perfecto simple y el pasado perfecto continuo

8.  La perífrasis "be going to", el presente continuo y el futuro simple

9.  Verbos irregulares

10.  Subordinadas condicionales

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