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Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIDAD 1


   Rellene los espacios en blanco con la forma adecuada del verbo to be.


1. El verbo to be significa "ser o estar", y se conjuga de la siguiente manera en presente en afirmativa:
    I am (yo soy o estoy)
    you are (tú eres o estás / usted es o está)
    he is (él es o está)
    she is (ella es o está)
    it is1 ("ello" es o está)
    we are (nosotros somos o estamos)
    you are (vosotros sois o estáis / ustedes son o están)
    they are (ellos son o están)

    Las formas que acabamos de ver se usan en un estilo formal. En lenguaje coloquial, se emplean las formas contractas. Para contraerlas, quitamos la vocal y ponemos un apóstrofo ('). Véanse las formas contractas en afirmativa a continuación:

a  He __________ a barman.
b  They __________ very polite people.
c  We __________ in Londow now.
d  My sister __________ taller than you.
e  You __________ my best friend.


2. En la negativa, añadimos not después del verbo:
    I am not
    you are not
    he is not
    she is not
    it is not
    we are not
    you are not
    they are not

    También existen formas contractas:
    I'm not
    you aren't/you're not
    he isn't/he's not
    she isn't/she's not
    it isn't/it's not
    we aren't/we're not
    you aren't/you're not
    they aren't/they're not

a  Mary __________ (not) a pretty girl, but she __________ very nice.
b  It __________ (not) big.
c  She __________ (not) from Barcelona.
d  They __________ (not) ill in bed.
e  I __________ (not) tired. I want to go on.


3. En la interrogativa, colocamos el verbo delante del sujeto:
    am I?
    are you?
    is he?
    is she
    is it?
    are we?
    are you?
    are they?

a  __________ you on holiday now?
b  __________ he at the bank?
c  __________ we financially ruined?
d  __________ she your girl-friend?
e  __________ I a good cook or not?


4. También cabe la posibilidad de encontrarnos con una interrogativa negativa:
    am I not?
    aren't you? (informal)/are you not? (formal)
    isn't he?/is he not?
    isn't she?/is she not?
    isn't it?/is it not?
    aren't we?/are we not?
    aren't you?/are you not?
    aren't they/are they not?

a  __________ (not) they coming to see you?
b  __________ (not) he your brother?
c  __________ (not) this book yours?
d  __________ (not) you going to2 tell me your secret?
e  __________ (not) I invited?


5. Ejercicio de revisión.
a  She __________ (not) in hospital. She __________ at home now.
b  "__________ you feeling unwell?"
    "No, I __________ (not)."
c  "__________ he homesick?"
    "Yes, he __________3."
d  "How __________ your soup?"
    "It __________ delicious, thanks!"
e  "__________ you busy now?"
    "No, I __________ (not)."
f  "__________ they in"
    "No, they went out a moment ago"
g  I __________ afraid she __________ out. Could you ring back later?
h  This __________ a non-smoking area. So put out your cigarette.
i  He __________ a very good dancer.
j  "__________ we really going to stay here till dawn?"
    "Yes, I __________ afraid so. We can't go now!"
k  "Tom and Margaret __________ getting married in May. Didn't you know?"
    "No, I didn't."
l  "Why __________ your mother so cross with you?"
    "Because I've left my room in a complete mess."
m  __________ (not) you going to buy that house? It __________ a real bargain!
n  Our new boss __________ a dear. He __________ always trying to help us.
o  The Catalan runner __________ in the lead now! Unbelievable!
p  I __________ (not) going to follow your advice any more. I've lost a fortune because of it.
q  They __________ (not) to blame for it. It __________ your own fault.
r  "__________ (not) you going to take me to the opera tonight?"
    "I can't, darling!"
    "But you promised."
    "I __________ very sorry. We can go tomorrow if you like."
s  "Where __________ the children?"
    "They __________ playing in the garden."
t  "Who __________ it?"
    "It __________ me, darling."
u  __________ (not) he at school? It __________ the second time he has played truant this week!
v  My father __________ an avid reader of Ernest Hemingway. He loves The Old Man and the Sea.
w  "__________ we in danger here?"
    "Yes, we __________."
x  They __________ always poking their noses into my affairs. I __________ sick and tired of it.
y  She __________ in prison for theft.
z  My little daughter __________ doing her homework now. She __________ very hard-working.


6. Ahora véamos el verbo to be en pasado en afirmativa:
    I was (yo era o estaba)
    you were (tú eras o estabas)
    he was
    she was
    it was
    we were
    you were
    they were

a  They __________ very friendly people.
b  She __________ on cloud nine when he asked her to marry him.
c  I __________ frustrated when they rejected my book.
d  We __________ very happy there.
e  You __________ an idiot to let them in, as you knew they would cause us a lot of trouble.


7. En la negativa, ponemos not detrás del verbo:
    I was not
    you were not
    he was not
    she was not
    it was not
    we were not
    you were not
    they were not

    Podemos hacer asimismo una negativa contracta:
    I wasn't
    you weren't
    he wasn't
    she wasn't
    it wasn't
    we weren't
    you weren't
    they weren't

a  Don't blame me for it. It __________ (not) my fault.
b  He __________ (not) at the party.
c  We __________ (not) very glad to see them there.
d  I __________ (not) very well yesterday. I had a headache.
e  She __________ (not) very polite to the Adams last night.


8. En la interrogativa, ponemos el verbo delante del sujeto:
    was I?
    were you?
    was he?
    was she?
    was it?
    were we?
    were you?
    were they?

a  __________ they having dinner when you got there?
b  __________ you really going to tell them?
c  __________ he angry?
d  __________ she up when you went to visit her?
e  __________ I to be trusted?


9. Existe asimismo una interrogativa negativa:
    wasn't I? (coloquial)/was I not? (formal)
    weren't you?/were you not?
    wasn't he?/was he not?
    wasn't she?/was she not?
    wasn't it?/was it not?
    weren't we?/were we not?
    weren't you?/were you not?
    weren't they?/were they not?

a  __________ (not) he elected chairman?
b  __________ (not) she the person in charge of the whole affair?
c  __________ (not) they siblings?
d  __________ (not) we going to your mother's house this afternoon?
e  __________ (not) you at the cinema yesterday evening?


10. Obsérvese la siguiente estructura:4
     there is + un nombre en singular o incontable (presente)
     there are + un sustantivo plural (presente)
     there was + singular o incontable (pasado)
     there were + plural (pasado)

     There is a cat. (Hay un gato.)
     There are two cats. (Hay dos gatos.)
     There was a cat. (Había un gato.)
     There were two cats. (Había dos gatos.)

     La negativa se hace insertando not detrás del verbo, y la interrogativa, poniendo el verbo antes de there:
     There is not a cat/There isn't a cat/There's not a cat.
     Is there a cat?
     There are not two cats/There aren't two cats.
     Are there two cats?
     There was not a cat/There wasn't a cat.
     Was there a cat?
     There were not two cats/There weren't two cats.
     Were there two cats?

a   There __________ a lot of milk in the fridge yesterday, but today there __________ (not) any.
b   There __________ lots of people at the funeral yesterday evening.
c   There __________ an old woman sitting in a rocking chair on the veranda. She was knitting a pullover.
d   __________ there a lof of traffic last night?
e   There __________ hundreds of mosquitoes last summer.


11. Ejercicio de revisión.
a   "My mother __________ a housewife. My father __________ a farmer. What do your parents do?"
     "They don't work at the moment. They __________ on the dole."
b   They __________ exhausted when they reached the peak.
c   They __________ (not) watching TV when we arrived home. They __________ already in bed.
d   There __________ somebody at the door. Go and see who it __________.
e   After the fire, there __________ nothing left. We had to start again.
f   __________ you really going to give them a hand with their work? They don't deserve it.
g   __________ (not) they going to come to the party tomorrow? They told me they would.
h   He __________ (not) studying now. He __________ playing a football match with some friends.
i   "__________ they teachers?"
     "Yes, they __________. They teach history."
j   "How many apples __________ there?"
     "There __________ a lot. We don't have to buy any."
k   "Where __________ your aunt going?"
     "She __________ going to see the doctor."
     "What __________ the matter with her?"
     "It __________ her back. She's got a terrible pain in her back."
l   "There __________ some tomato sauce in the refrigerator. Would you like some?"
     "No, thanks. I don't like tomato sauce."
m   My sister and I __________ in the middle of nowhere when we ran out of petrol.
n   "When __________ you born?"
     "I __________ born a hundred years ago."
o   "__________ she a good student when she __________at school?"
     "To tell you the truth, I rarely saw her studying."
p   "__________ (not) he your father?"
     "No, he __________ my uncle."
q   "Why __________ you so annoyed?"
     "Because my boy-friend has forgotten to phone me once again."
r   __________ (not) you upset when you realised what __________ going on?
s   He __________ away on holiday for a fortnight. Can I take a message?
t   I couldn't speak to her, as she __________ in a meeting with Mr Green.
u   "__________ there anything I can do for you?"
     "No, I __________ afraid there __________ (not)."
v   "There __________ no way out. We __________ trapped."
     "Oh, dear! What __________ we going to do now?"
w   He __________ in love with the girl next door. They want to live together in the near future.
x   "We __________ taken prisoners!"
     "What did you do then? __________ you frightened?"
y   She __________ (not) there when the building went up in flames.
z   Once upon a time, there __________ a princess who __________ looking for a prince to marry, but couldn't find one, since she__________ very evil.


12. Ejercicio de revisión. (Pase las siguientes oraciones a negativa y a interrogativa.)
a   There are a lot of trees.
b   There's a spider on the table.
c   There were many soldiers.
d   There was a dictionary on the bedside table.
e   He's listening to music.
f   They're writing to their parents.
g   She's a publican.
h   They were overseas last week.
i   You're very clever.
j   They are very intelligent.
k   He's resting now.
l   You're a lawyer.
m   We are free.
n   It's a glow-warm.
o   They're brave.
p   He is a fool.
q   The birds were singing.
r   The house was empty.
s   The concert was a roaring success.
t   There was a fly on the cake.
u   He was a good suitor.
v   My car is in its last legs.
w   His leg was in plaster.
x   John and his sister are over there.
y   Tim was content with his pay.
z   The house was on fire.


13. El gerundio y el participio de presente se forman añadiendo -ing:
     I love being at home. (Me encanta estar en casa.)
     She enjoys being with her plants. (Le gusta estar con sus plantas.)
     Being a beggar is very hard. (Ser mendigo es muy duro.)
     Those sheep are being shorn. (Traducción literal: Esas ovejas están siendo esquiladas. Traducción aconsejable: (Se) están esquilando esas ovejas.)

     En las tres primeras frases, being es gerundio en inglés, y en la última, participio de presente. Sin embargo, la distinción aquí no es importante. Solamente debe recordar que ambas se forman con el infinitivo sin "to" más -ing.

a   You're __________ stupid today. What's wrong with you? You're always so nice.
b   The grass is __________ cut.
c   I'm looking forward to __________ with you. I miss you so much.
d   __________ so rich must be great. You can buy anything you want, and you don't have to work.
e   I hate __________ here.


14. El infinitivo es (to) be. Unas veces se pone to, y otras, no.
     I want to be an actress. (Quiero ser actriz. Want + infinitivo con "to")
     You could be promoted. (Podrías ser ascendido. Could + infinitivo sin "to")
     Be there tonight, and don't be late. (Vaya allí esta noche, y no llegue tarde. Imperativos, es decir, el sujeto no se menciona.)

a   I may __________ old, but I'm not stupid.
b   He needs __________ with her.
c   She wishes __________ given a rise.
d   Will you __________ so nice as to wait here?
e   Please __________ a good boy. Don't __________ naughty.


15. El participio de pasado es been, y va precedido de have, has o had.
     We have never been to the USA. (Nunca hemos estado en los Estados Unidos de América.)
     There must have been a mistake. (Debe haber habido un error.)
     She has been expelled from school. (La han expulsado del colegio. Traducción literal: Ha sido expulsada del colegio.)
     He had been ill. (Había estado enfermo.)
     It was the first time that they had been there. (Era la primera vez que estaban allí.)

a   It has __________ raining all day.
b   He had never __________ so happy.
c   There has __________ an accident.
d   She hasn't __________ at home for two days.
e   They may have __________ very busy.


16. Ejercicio de revisión.
a   He had __________ in love with her all his life, but he __________ too shy to tell her. They could have __________ happy together.
b   She used __________ very rich, but now she __________ very poor.
c   There __________ (not) any garlic. Please go and buy some.
d   The car __________ __________ towed to the garage. It needs __________ fixed.
e   We avoided __________ told what to do.
f   There __________ some flowers on the table. I have just bought them.
g   "__________ (not) you aware of the situation?"
     "No, I __________. Nobody told me."
h   I think she __________ going __________ a very good doctor. Beside, she __________ so charming.
i   " How __________ they going there?"
     "I don't know. Their car __________ __________ serviced."
j   " __________ (not) it lovely?"
     "No, it __________ (not). It __________ awful. I don't like it at all."
k   He __________ so tired that he fell asleep.
l   Do you think I __________ born yesterday? You __________ (not) going to fool me.
m   "Have you seen my glasses anywhere?"
     "Yes, I have. They __________ on the table."
n   Always __________ ready.
o   "Waiter! There __________ some flies in my soup?"
     "Sorry, sir. They should __________ in the salad."
     "I beg your pardon!"
     "It __________ a joke, sir."
p   You may __________ right, but I __________ (not) going to invite them.
q   Stop __________ a nuisance, will you? I __________ trying to concentrate.
r   "__________ (not) you at home now?"
     "No, I __________ . I __________ shopping for a new computer. The old one __________ broken."
s   When we arrived there, the house seemed __________ empty. There __________ (not) any lights on, and everything looked deserted.
t   Don't do that again! You could have __________ killed!
u   I __________ advised __________ here before dark, and here I __________.
v   "What __________ you doing here? You ought not __________ here. This place __________ very dangerous."
     "I __________ looking for you. There has __________ a military coup, and we must leave the country immediately. There __________ no time to lose."
w   If this becomes known, you will __________ in a very awkward situation, and __________ forced to resign.
x   I __________ afraid she __________ out, but will __________ here any minute now. She must have forgotten that you __________ coming. She __________ so forgetful.
y   There __________ people who __________ suffering a lot because food __________ scarce.
z   Please __________ quiet. This __________ a library.


17. Ejercicio de revisión. (Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés.)
a   Tengo veinte años, y soy alto.
b   No había agua, pero había unos racimos de uva.
c   Me encanta estar aquí. La vista es preciosa.
d   Nunca tengas miedo.
e   Debe haber sido el viento.
f   Están pintando la valla. (= La valla está siendo pintada.)
g   Llevan aquí toda la vida. (= Han estado aquí toda la vida.)
h   Ha habido una fuga de agua.
i   Estaba regando las plantas cuando llegaste a casa.
j   "¿No me vas a dar un beso en la mejilla?"
    "No, no te lo voy a dar. Estoy muy enfadada."
k   Estaban enfermos ayer, pero no hoy.
l   Había habido un terremoto.
m   Puede que esté preñada.
n   Creo que fue ayer, pero no estoy seguro. Pudo haber sido anteayer.
o   ¿No estás cansado de hacer lo mismo todo los días?
p   "¿Hay cerveza?"
    "No, no hay, pero hay un poco de vino."
q   No estaban bailando. Estaban cantando.
r   Tuvimos mucha suerte de encontrar agua potable.
s   ¿Me estoy perdiendo algo?
t   No puede ser cierto. Tiene que ser mentira.
u   No teníamos frío. Teníamos calor, y mucha sed.
v   ¡Ten cuidado! Es muy frágil.
w   Hoy es miércoles.
x   Tienes razón. Tenemos prisa.
y   "¿Qué tiempo hace hoy?"
    "Está nevando y hace mucho frío."
z   Eres escocés, ¿verdad?


1  Para más información, vea Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos y pronombres posesivos.
2  Nótese que be going to significa en castellano "ir a": They are going to resign. (Van a dimitir.) Para más información sobre be going to, vaya a la unidad 8.
3  En las respuestas breves, no se contrae en afirmativa. Véase el siguiente ejemplo:
    Are they your cousins?
    Yes, they are. (No se puede decir "Yes, they're", dado que es una respuesta breve.)
    No, they are not/No, they aren't/No, they're not. (Es una repuesta breve, pero está en negativa.)
    Yes, they're my cousins/Yes, they are my cousins. (Es una respuesta larga.)
4  Para ejercicios adicionales pulse aquí.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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