Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)
Ponga los verbos entre paréntesis en la forma adecuada.
El presente perfecto simple se forma con have + participipio de pasado
. En la tercera persona del singular empleamos has
en vez de have
. Si el verbo es regular, el participio de pasado se hace añadiendo -ed
; pero si es irregular, hay que estudiarse la lista de la unidad 9
Veamos ahora la conjugación de un verbo regular y de otro irregular para ilustrar mejor esto:
I have worked
you have worked
he has worked
she has worked
it has worked
we have worked
you have worked
they have worked
I have sung
you have sung
he has sung
she has sung
it has sung
we have sung
you have sung
they have sung
La formas de arriba se contraen de la siguiente manera: quitamos ha
, y ponemos un apóstrofo en su lugar:
En la negativa, se pone not
detrás de have/has
. En la interrogativa, have/has
va delante del sujeto.
He has worked today.
(afirmativa » Ha trabajado hoy.)
He has not worked today./He hasn't worked today.
Has he worked today?
We have sung two songs.
(afirmativa » Hemos cantado dos canciones.)
We have not sung two songs./We haven't sung two songs.
Have we sung two songs?
She (be) here twice this year.
We (lose) our money.
They (live) here since 1990.
It (not stop) raining.
He (pass) his exams?
2. El pasado simple
se estudió en la unidad anterior. Veamos los siguientes ejemplos a modo de recordatorio:
They failed their examinations.
(afirmativa » Suspendieron los exámenes.)
They did not fail their examinations.
(negativa » No suspendieron los exámenes.)
Did they fail their examinations?
(interrogativa » ¿Suspendieron los exámenes?)
She went home late last night.
(afirmativa » Ella llegó a casa tarde anoche.)
She didn't go home late last night.
(negativa » No llegó a casa tarde anoche.)
Did she go home late last night?
(interrogativa » ¿Llegó a casa tarde anoche?)
You (see) an enormous horse?
He (come) here on foot?
"Where you (meet) her?"
"I (meet) her on a beach last summer."
I (not know) you were getting married next month!
He (give) up smoking last year, but he (find) it very hard.
3. El presente perfecto simple se usa para acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que se remontan hasta el presente. El presente perfecto simple está conectado con el presente, pero el pasado simple no tiene ninguna conexión con el presente. Ejemplos:
She studied Catalan last year. (Estudió catalán el año pasado. » Esta oración implica que ya no lo estudia. No tiene relación con el presente.)
She has studied Catalan since she was six. (Lleva estudiando/Estudia/Ha estudiado catalán desde que tenía seis años. » Aún lo estudia.)
a She (live) in London all her life, so if you go to London, don't forget to visit her.
b She (live) in London for a year, but (find) a job in Barcelona and (move) there.
c My father (use) to smoke like a chimney, but last year he (give) it up.
d My parents (smoke) since they were teenagers. I'd like them to stop smoking.
e "What do you do?"
"I'm a teacher. I (teach) maths for ten years."
4. La estructura have just + un participio de pasado significa "acabar de":
She has just gone out. (Acaba de salir.)
They have just been expelled from the committee. (Los acaban de expulsar del comité./Acaban de ser expulsados del comité.)
a We just (finish) supper, so we're not hungry.
b He just (phone) them. You don't have to ring them again.
c They just (tell) us that they won't come.
d It just (stop) snowing. Let's go out and make a snowman.
e I just (have) a puncture, but I don't have a spare wheel.
5. El presente perfecto se usa para indicar que algo nunca ha pasado, cuando no sabemos si sucedió o no, o no se especifica cuándo ocurrió.
I have never drunk tequila. (No he bebido nunca tequila.)
Haven't we seen each other before?/Have we not seen each other before? (¿No nos hemos visto antes?)
We have read this book. (Hemos leído este libro.)
a We never (be) overseas, but we're planning to go to Africa next summer.
b He (write) an essay on medieval history.
c There (be) another earthquake in Mexico.
d "You (invite) her to your wedding?"
"Of course I have!"
e "Where you (be)?"
"I (be) at home the whole afternoon!"
6. Con palabras o expresiones como already, ever, lately, since, so far, up to now and yet empleamos normalmente el presente perfecto. Es bastante común también con la preposición for.
I haven't ridden a horse since I was a kid. (No he montado a caballo desde [que era] niño.)
She hasn't talked to him lately. (No ha hablado con él últimamente.)
He hasn't had a romantic date for two years. (presente perfecto → for » Hace dos años que no tiene una cita romántica.)
We stayed in Valencia for a week, and then went to Barcelona. (pasado simple → for » Nos quedamos en Valencia una semana, y luego nos fuimos a Barcelona.)
a "You ever (meet) a famous person?"
"No, I haven't. And you?"
b We (sell) ten magazines so far."
c "You (do) your homework already?"
"Yes, I have."
"But ten minutes ago you had not even started!"
d Up to now he (not do) any mischief."
e "She (buy) that record yet?"
"No, not yet!"
7. Ejercicio de revisión.
a Her father (die) when she was at university. She (love) him a lot and (find) it very hard to get used to the idea of his death.
b The Beatles (make) many youngsters thrill.
c Mary (get) divorced and (marry) again in 1995. She (be) very unhappy with her former husband.
d I (not do) my homework yet, so I must go home now to do it.
e Amanda (be) connected to the Internet since early this morning. Please tell her to come downstairs and have lunch.
f "You (see) Mary today?"
"No, I (not see) her today. I (see) her yesterday."
g "You (not read) the newspaper yet?"
"No, I (not read) it. I (forget) to buy it this morning. When I went to the newsagent's this afternoon, there (be) none left."
h He (know) her for a long time. They're very close friends.
i Two of the murderers (be) caught so far.
j They (be) to the States many times. They love it.
k I'm afraid he's out. He just (leave).
l They never (fail) an exam. They're very intelligent and hard-working.
m We (have) that old car for twenty years now.
n "You (call) the fire brigade?"
"Not yet, but I'll do it now."
o Paul (play) truant last Wednesday morning.
p "You (not know) that he (be) abroad?"
"No, I didn't."
q Last night it (rain) cats and dogs.
r The play (begin) at seven o'clock and we (arrive) there at half past seven, so we (miss) the beginning.
s John (take) the kids to the zoo, but they'll come back soon.
t I (lose) my wallet. Can you help me to find it?
u We (spend) two days there a year ago.
v I (not pay) you last night because I (not have) any money on me.
w I (forget) to bring the onions, but I'll go to the shop round the corner and I'll buy some.
x They (not watch) their favourite soup opera yesterday because the electricity (go) off.
y "He (send) her a bunch of flowers on her birthday."
"When her birthday (be)?"
"Two weeks ago."
z We (not hold) last week's meeting because Mr Brown (have) an important appointment, and could not attend it.
El presente perfecto continuo se forma con have been + verbo-ing
She has been working in this factory for two years.
(afirmativa » Lleva trabajando/Trabaja en esta fábrica desde hace dos años.)
You haven't been studying. You've been reading comics.
(negativa, afirmativa » No has estado estudiando. Has estado leyendo tebeos.)
I know that we have not been doing the proper thing.
(negativa » Sé que no hemos estado haciendo lo correcto.)
Have you been smoking? It smells of tobacco.
(interrogativa » ¿Has estado fumando? Huele a tabaco.)
I (try) to solve the problem for the last twenty minutes, but I can't work it out.
You (cheat) me. This is intolerable.
He (smoke) that horrible cigar since he arrived. Can you tell him to put it out?
"They (sleep) for ten hours. Shall I wake them up?"
My mother (make) fairy cakes all morning. Would you like one?
A veces tanto el presente perfecto simple como el continuo se pueden usar indistintamente: She has been working/She has worked here for twenty years now
. Ahora bien, esto no es siempre posible. Veamos los siguientes ejemplos:
She has always lived in this house.
(Siempre ha vivido en esta casa. » En este caso, expresamos una situación permanente. El presente perfecto continuo no se puede emplear aquí.)
I have loved her since we were children.
(La quiero desde que eramos niños. » "Love" es un verbo que no va en tiempos continuos
; por tanto, aquí no se puede utilizar el presente perfecto continuo.)
He has been painting that wall.
(Ha estado pintando esa pared. » Aquí indicamos que la pared no está terminada de pintar o que la pintura aún está humeda.)
He has painted that wall.
(Ha pintado esa pared » Pero no nos dicen cuándo. Puede incluso que la pintara la semana pasada.)
He has painted two walls so far.
(Ha pintado dos paredes hasta ahora » Nos mencionan la cantidad.)
They (lie) on the beach all morning. Tell them to come and have a snack. They can get sunburnt if they spend so much time in the sun.
She (do) aerobics, and now wants to have a shower.
She always (believe) in you. Please don't let her down.
I (draw) a beautiful landscape. I'm going to give it to my girlfriend this evening. Do you like it?
We (study) English for two years now. Time flies.
10. Ejercicio de revisión.
a " How long you (learn) Esperanto?"
"I (learn) Esperanto since last year."
b Belinda (not shut) the door. She always leaves the door open.
c They (arrest) him two weeks ago.
d She (be) sent to prison. We must appeal against the sentence.
e My sister (type) all the afternoon. She (type) ten pages so far.
f I (fail) this exam many times. I think I'll never be able to pass it.
g It's the second time you (make) this mistake. You should pay more attention to what I say.
h You (pull) my leg since I arrived. Please stop pulling my leg once and for all.
i They (have) a car accident in June and are still in hospital.
j We never (reveal) a secret, so don't worry: your secret is save with us.
k "What you (do) since you (arrive)?"
"I (look) for you. Where you (be)?"
"We (walk) in the country."
l There (be) a slight increase in road accidents over the last two months. I suppose it is due to the holiday season.
m When I (visit) Africa, my life (change) completely. I (meet) my Mr Right and (get) married. Now I've got two children and am very happy.
n I (take) Arabic lessons for two years, but I find Arabic very difficult to learn.
o You (not say) anything in the last half hour. Are you cross with me?
p It (sleet) since early this morning. I wonder when it will stop.
q When Mary (come), he was writing a letter. He (stand) up and (give) her a kiss. Then he (continue) writing his letter.
r "You ever (write) a poem?"
"Well, I just (write) one. Would you like me to read it for you?"
s That night he (put) on his hat and (go) for a walk, but he never (return).
t You (not phone) me to say you weren't coming. You (have) me worried, as I (think) something bad had happened to you.
u The spaghetti that you (cook) on Monday (taste) delicious. It's the best spaghetti that I ever (have).
v She (dig) in the garden, which is why she is so dirty now.
w "Peter (come) home yet?"
"Yes, I think so. Why?"
"There's somebody at the door asking for him."
x I (fall) asleep during the film, so I (not see) the end, but I (be) so exhausted that my eyes wouldn't stay open.
y They (want) to engage me as a translator, but they (pay) so little that I (not accept) their offer.
z We (not earn) much money this month, and (spend) a lot. We should try to cut down our expenses if we don't want to go bankrupt.
11. El pasado perfecto simple se hace con had + participio de pasado:
He had done it/He'd done it. (afirmativa » Lo había hecho.)
We had not repaired the roof/We hadn't repaired the roof. (negativa » No habíamos arreglado el tejado.)
Hadn't they met before?/Had they not met before? (interrogativa negativa » ¿No se habían conocido antes?)
a When I got home, my mother (bake) some bread, so I had some.
b He said that she (perform) serveral miracles up to then, which is why she had so many followers.
c I never (come) across so big a snake in my whole life, so I was frightened to death.
d He told me that his mother (not be) able to come the day before because she was ill in bed.
e He wondered if they (go) to the party the previous night.
12. El pasado perfecto continuo se construye con had + been + verbo-ing:
It had been raining. (afirmativa » Había estado lloviendo.)
We had not been watching TV./We hadn't been watching TV. (negativa » No habíamos estado viendo la tele.)
Had they been running? (interrogativa » ¿Habían estado corriendo?)
a She (drive) all day, so she felt very tired, and decided to stop and spend the night on a motel.
b Paul (swim) quite a while because the water was warm and didn't want to get out of the swiming-pool.
c He said that she (play) the violin for hours on end and that it was about time for her to stop.
d He (talk) ill about Margaret since the beginning of the party, but when I told him that he shouldn't criticise her, as she was not present, he got angry and left.
e I said that he (speak) all the time and that he should let the others speak, but he took no notice and went on speaking.
13. El pasado perfecto simple y el continuo son los pasados del presente perfecto simple y el continuo. Por lo tanto, las reglas que acabamos de mencionar para los tiempos presentes se aplican a sus respectivos pasados.
They have never been to London. (presente perfecto simple » Nunca han estado en Londres.)
He has been singing. (presente perfecto continuo » Ha estado cantando/Lleva cantando.)
They had never been to London. (pasado perfecto simple » No habían estado nunca en Londres.)
He had been singing. (pasado perfecto continuo » Había estado cantando/Llevaba cantando.)
Además de esto, hay que tener en cuenta que el pasado perfecto (ya sea simple o continuo) es más pasado que el pasado simple o el continuo. Esto lo podemos representar de la siguiente manera:
— — — ↓ — — — — — ↓ — — — — ↓ — —
(pasado perfecto) ← (pasado) ← (presente)
Veamos los ejemplos de abajo para ilustrar mejor este punto:
When Mary got to the bus station, her bus had already left. (Cuando Mary llegó a la estación de autobús, su autobús ya se había marchado » Es decir, el autobús salió antes de que ella llegara.)
When I dropped in on them, they had finished dinner and were having a cosy chat and some brandy. (Cuando los visité, habían terminado de cenar y estaban teniendo una agradable conversación y tomando un poco de coñac.)
When I went home, I could perceive a delicious smell: my mother had been making apple jam. (Cuando fui a casa, percibí un olor delicioso: mi madre había estado haciendo mermelada de manzana.)
a The course (start) that day, and none of us ever (fly) a plane.
b I got my hands dirty because I (repair) the car.
c He shouted at me because I (forget) my book at home.
d Thomas (cheat) at cards, but they discovered it and forced him to give them back their money.
e When he entered the garage, his dad (mend) his bike, so they went for a ride on their bikes immediately.
14. Ejercicio de revisión.
a Margaret (stay) up that night because his little son (fall) ill.
b They dismissed us from our jobs because he (let) the cat out of the bag and (say) that we (rob) the company.
c They (play) cards all night. For this reason, James (want) to stop, but John didn't, as he (lose) a fortune.
d I wanted to take my car, but then I remember that I (leave) the car keys at home, so I (have) to take a bus.
e Constance (come) twice this morning. She said that she will come back at half past eleven.
f It (snow) since ten o'clock. I hope it will stop soon because it will ruin my crops if it doesn't.
g I (not have) to wake her up yesterday because she already (get) up.
h She (escape) from jail last night, and nobody (see) her yet. She must be hidden somewhere.
i Somebody (steal) her purse while she was walking across this park.
j The priest (paint) the pew, so I got my clothes dirty. He should have written a notice warning that the paint was still wet.
k When the police (get) there, the robbers already (rob) the bank and (leave). The police (look) for them everywhere, but they (be) nowhere to be found, so they (run) away with the money. This (occur) ten years ago, and they still (not be) caught. I do not think the police will ever catch them after such a long time.
l I (see) her many times, but we never (be) introduced. I suppose she lives near by.
m "What a bad odour!"
"I (make) pickled sardines. Don't you like them?"
n It is thought that Noah (build) an ark to save his family and a pair of every sort of animal from perishing in the Flood.
o My son (not sleep) at home last night, and still (not show) up. Maybe he (have) an accident with his motorbike.
p You (not follow) my advice last week, and they (fire) you. I (tell) you this would happen.
q "I (not put) on this suit yesterday evening because it (be) creased, since my mother (not iron) it."
"You could have ironed it yourself! That's not a good excuse."
r I (read) this passage at least ten times, but I still don't understand it. Could you explain it to me?
s "I'd like to watch TV, but the television set is broken."
"He (mend) it, so you can watch it."
t "I'm going to take the car."
"You aren't going to take it: you (drink) a lot and are very drunk."
u When he (tell) his parents that he (fail) his driving test, they got very angry with him.
v He (smoke) again lately because of his wife's sudden death. He can't get used to the idea of her death. He (adore) her.
w We (not realise) what was going on until Ann (burst) into laughter.
x She (divorce) him because she (think) that he was seeing another woman.
y My doctor said that I (have) the attack of indigestion because I (overeat), and that I should stop eating so much.
z We (go) out together since I (come) to this city. We want to marry next autumn.