Opciones:
• Índice general
• Foro
• Tests
• English
• Català
• Ocultar


Secciones:
• Otros recursos


Vocabulario básico:
• Índice
• Los colores en inglés
• Meses y estaciones
• Los días de la semana
• Nacionalidades


English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Gramática inglesa de nivel medio:
• Índice
• Unidad 9:  Verbos irregulares


Gramática inglesa para principiantes:
• Índice
• Unidad 1:  A, an, some, any y the
• Unidad 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unidad 3:  Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos y pronombres posesivos
• Unidad 4:  Los pronombres reflexivos, el pronombre recíproco "each other" y los pronombres personales de complemento
• Unidad 5:  Lista de verbos irregulares


Otros servicios:
• Escríbanos aquí
• Frases populares y refranes
• El rincón del escritor
• Habitaciones de hotel
• Buscador
• Postales virtuales gratis
• Diccionarios electrónicos y traductores
• Anúnciese con nosotros
• Chat en castellano
Telefonear


Polseguera
Gramática inglesa de nivel avanzado paso a paso (English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIT 26
     REPORTED SPEECH1


   In direct speech we repeat the original words that were said
   word for word. In reported speech, they undergo some changes:

   ——Personal pronouns and possessives (adjectives and pronouns):
       He said, ‘I didn’t witness the traffic accident.’
       He said (that2) he hadn’t witnessed the traffic accident.
       ‘We need a holiday: we need to recharge our batteries,’
       they said.
       They said (that) they needed a holiday,
       as/since/because3 they needed to recharge their batteries.
       ‘It’s not ours,’they said.
       They said (that) it was not theirs.

   ——Verb tenses4:
       present→past
       past→past perfect
       past perfect→past perfect
       future→conditional
       conditional→conditional
   We shall see this in more detail in the next sections.
   These changes are only possible if the introductory
   verb is in a past tense:
       ‘I want to go to her birthday party.’ (original words)
       He says (that) he wants to go to her birthday party.
       He said (that) he wanted to go to her birthday party.

   ——Other changes:

Direct Reported
now then; at that moment
today that day
tonight that night
tomorrow the following day; the next day; the day after
tomorrow morning, afernoon... the following/next morning, afternoon...
the day after tomorrow two days later/after; in two days’ time; in two days
yesterday the day before; the previous day
yesterday morning, afternoon... the previous morning, afternoon...; the morning, afternoon... before
the day before yesterday two days before
the night before last two nights before
next week, month... the following/next week, month...; the week, month... after; in a week’s time; in a week
last week, month... The previous week, month...; the week, month... before
ago (a week ago) before (a week before); previous (the previous week)
here there5
this (singular) / these (plural) that6 (singular) / those (plural)
bring and come take7 and go

   Rewrite the following in reported speech. 1  Example: (simple present→simple past)    ‘I hate spaghetti,’ she said8.    SHE said (that) SHE hated spaghetti. a  ‘The train leaves in ten minutes,’ said the man9. b  ‘This evening they play at home.,’ he said. ‘Next week they    play away.’ c  ‘It’s no use investing more money in the company,’ they said. d  ‘I’m astounded to hear such remarks,’ she said. e  ‘Stress underlies many diseases of modern times,’ she said. 2  Example: (present continuous→past continuous)    ‘She’s listening to some CDs,’ said his father.    His father said (that) she was listening to some CDs. a  ‘They’re going from bad to worse,’ he said to me. b  ‘Things are looking up,’ she said. c  ‘You’re always moaning and groaning,’ he said to them. d  ‘She’s wearing a pair of blue jeans and a black blouse,’ he    said. e  ‘I’m having an important appointment in fifteen minutes,’ she    said. 3  Example: (present perfect→past perfect)    ‘I’ve finished MY homework, mummy,’ he said.    HE told his mother/HE said to his mother (that) HE had    finished HIS homework. a  ‘I have purchased a mansion,’ she told me. b  ‘We have run ten kilometres so far,’ they answered. c  ‘I haven’t finished reading the book yet,’ she said. d  ‘Your daughter has not come to class today, Mrs Smith,’ he    said. e  ‘It’s the second time she hasn’t come to class this week,’    he added. 4  Example: (present perfect continuous→past perfect continuous)    ‘WE’ve been living in this house for twenty years,’ he    replied.    HE replied that THEY had been living in the/that house for    twenty years. a  ‘They have been trafficking in stolen goods for over ten    years,’ he remarked. b  ‘We have been walking for two hours without stopping,’ they    said. c  ‘He’s been learning Arabic for two years,’ said his mother. d  ‘It’s been snowing for the last two hours,’ he said. e  ‘They’ve been pulling my leg since I arrived here,’ she    said angrily. 5  Example: (simple past→past perfect)    ‘I had a car last year,’ she said.    SHE said that SHE had had a car the previous year. a  ‘This morning I was late because I got stuck in heavy    traffic,’ she said. b  ‘We suffered a defeat against Germany,’ he said. ‘They won by    two goals to one.’ c  ‘He set his vicious dog on us,’ they said. d  ‘We learnt a sharp lesson from this experience,’ they    admitted. e  ‘I didn’t commit the crime,’ he declared. 6  Examples: (past continuous→past continuous or past    perfect continuous; simple past→simple past or past perfect)    (1)‘MY parents were watching TV when I got home last night,’    he said.    He said (that) HIS parents were watching TV when HE got home    the night before.    (2) ‘I was not looking where I was going when I crashed MY    car into the wall,’ he said.    HE said (that) HE was not looking where HE was going when HE    crashed HIS car into a wall.    (3) ‘They told ME the truth when I asked them about it,’ he    said.    He said (that) they (had) told HIM the truth when HE asked    them about it.    (4) Don’t take10 her words seriously: she was only teasing    you,’ they said to me.    They told me not to take her words seriously, as she had only    been teasing me.    (5) ‘I was considering the idea of resigning, but I didn’t    (resign) because I got a pay increase,’ she said.    SHE said (that) SHE had been considering the idea of    resigning, but (that) SHE didn’t (resign) because SHE got    a pay increase/SHE said (that) SHE had been considering    the idea of resigning, but (that) SHE hadn’t (resigned)    because SHE had got a pay increase.    (6) ‘I didn’t buy the car because it was too old,’ she said.    SHE said that SHE hadn’t bought the car because it was too    old.    In the first example, the past continuous tense is not put    into the past perfect continuous because it would imply that    ‘they were no longer watching TV when he got home’. Note    that after ‘when’ (time clause), the verb (‘got’, ‘crashed’    and ‘asked’) is left unchanged. As for the main clause,    it is very often left unchanged, too.    Compare this with the following:      ‘I felt drowsy after I took the medicine,’ he said.      HE said (that) he (had) felt drowsy after HE had taken/      he took the medicine.    In this case, he could also have said: ‘I felt drowsy after I    had taken the medicine.See unit 9, section 27.    As for the fourth example, the past continuous form refers to    an earlier action, since she was no longer teasing me when    they told me not to take her words seriously. The same    applies to the fifth instance. In the sixth example, ‘the    car was still old’ when this was reported, so it is not    possible to use the past perfect here.    More examples:      ‘Chistopher Columbus discovered America in 1492,’ she said.      She said (that) Chistopher Columbus discovered America      in 1492      ‘I was studying at the high school in 1980,’ she said.      SHE said (that) SHE was studying at the high school in      1980. (She spent all the year studying there.)      SHE said (that) SHE had been studying at the high school      in 1980. (She did not spend all the year studying there.      She probably did not even finish the year.)      ‘I got top marks that year,’ she added.      SHE added that SHE (had) got top marks that year.      ‘I was doing the cooking while they were reading      the newspaper,’ he said.      HE said (that) HE had been doing/was doing the cooking      while they were reading the newspaper. a  ‘She was sitting on a bench when I saw her,’ he said. b  ‘I was sunbathing when it started to cloud over,’ he said. c  ‘I went out of the cinema before the film was over,’ he    said. ‘I didn’t like the film at all.’ d  ‘The reason why we didn’t buy the house was because it was    in ruins,’ they said. e  ‘It was also too far from the city centre,’ they added. 7  Examples: (past perfect→past perfect)    ‘WE had never met before,’ she said.    SHE said (that) THEY had never met before. a  ‘I had never done such a thing in my life,’ he said. b  ‘We’d always known that,’ they said. c  ‘I had just left them at home,’ I said. d  ‘I had always wanted a car like that,’ he said. e  ‘We had always longed for a house of our own,’ she said. 8  Examples: (past perfect continuous→past perfect continuous)    ‘I had been studying Swahili for nearly five years,’ he said.    HE said that HE had been studying Swahili for nearly five    years. a  ‘We had been picking apples for over a month,’ they said. b  ‘Somebody had been eating my homemade pastries,’ he said. c  ‘They had been taking driving lessons recently,’ said their    mother. d  ‘Somebody had been giving secret information to the enemy,’    the colonel said. e  ‘I had been teaching French for a long time,’ she said. 9  Examples: (can→could; may→might; will→would)    ‘I can play the drums,’ she said.    SHE said (that) SHE could play the drums.    ‘I may be late tomorrow,’ she said.    SHE said (that) SHE might be late the next day.    ‘YOU’ll get a payout of £1,000,000 if the building is burnt    down,’ they assured us.    THEY assured us (that) WE would/should get a payout of    £1,000,000 if the building was burnt down. a  ‘You can take the day off,’ said my employer. b  ‘You may be right,’ he admitted. c  ‘We won’t do it again,’ they promised. d  ‘They’ll pay for it,’ the old man said angrily. e  ‘I can’t live without you, darling,’ he told his wife. 10 Examples: (could→could; had better→had better; might→might;    ought to→ought to; should→should; used to→used to;    would→would)    ‘I could lend YOU the money,’ she said.    SHE said (that) SHE could lend ME the money.    ‘WE had better11 cancel OUR appointment,’ they said.    THEY said that THEY had better cancel their appointment.    ‘YOU might be wrong,’ he said.    He said (that) I might be wrong.    ‘They ought to help the poor,’ he said.    He said (that) they ought to help the poor.    ‘They should not take long,’ she said.    She said that they should not take long.    ‘I used to smoke a lot,’ he said.    HE said that HE used to smoke a lot.    ‘I would have done it,’ she said.    SHE said (that) SHE would have done it. a  ‘I wouldn’t have left my car unlocked,’ she said. b  ‘You might have been hurt,’ she said. c  ‘They ought to have phone us up,’ said his mother. d  ‘They could have got lost,’ he said. e  ‘We used to play truant,’ they said. ____________________
1  It is also called ‘indirect speech’. 2  That can be left out after say and tell, and a few other    verbs; but it cannot, after some others:      ‘We can’t live together, son,’ they explained.      They explain to their son that they could not live      together.    Therefore, you had better not remove ‘that’ if you are in    doubt. 3  We often use a connector to link two sentences. The most    common ones are and, as (since or because) and but. 4  This is called ‘back-shift’. 5  Compare the following:      ‘We’ll meet here tomorrow,’ she said.      She said (that) that we’d meet here today, but she      still hasn’t come. (I am in the same place that she      said we would meet; she may have forgotten to come.)      She said that we’d meet there today. (I am in another      place, but I have a date with her today.)      ‘The sun sets in the west,’ she said.      She said that the sun sets in the west. (This is still      true at the moment of reporting it.)    Note also that in the first two examples above, we could    have also said the following:      She said (that) we will meet here today. (So we had      better wait until she comes.)      She said (that) we will meet there today. (So we must      go there and wait until she comes.) 6  That and those are chiefly used in time expressions,    otherwise the + a noun, it (that) or they/them (those),    or another alternative often replaces that and those:      ‘I’ll do it this week,’ he said.      He said (that) he would do it that week.      ‘Where did you find these photographs,’ she said.      She asked (me) where I had found the/those photographs.      ‘This car is mine,’ he said.      He said (that) the/that car was his/He said (that) the      car (which was) in front of us was his.      ‘I like these (ones),’ he said.      He said (that) he liked those ones/He showed me the ones      he liked.      ‘We’ll give this to you tonight,’ they said.      They said that they would give it/that to me that night. 7  This can also be applied to verbs like bring and come. Note    that ‘bring it with me/us/you’ and ‘come with me/us/you’    remain unchanged:      Bring her with you, he said.      He told me to bring her with me.      ‘Bring her here by midnight,’ they said.      They told me to take her there by midnight.      ‘He brought me a bunch of flowers to hospital,’ she said.      She said (that) he had brought her a bunch of flowers      to hospital. (We take the place as a reference.)      Come here tomorrow,’ he said.      He told me to go there the next day. (A different      place where the speaker or listener is when this      is reported.)      Come to the cinema with us tomorrow,’ we said to them.      We told them to come to the cinema with us the      following day. (But Go to the cinema with them,’      they said to us→They told us to go to the cinema      with them the following day.)      Come into the house,’ she said.      She asked me to come into the house. (She was in the      house and said, ‘Come into the house.’ She asked me      to go into the house would imply that she was outside      the house and said, ‘Go into the house.’)      ‘She came into the bathroom,’ he said.      He said (that) she had come into the bathroom. (Obviously,      he was not inside the bathroom when she came in. We take      the place as a reference.)      ‘Will you come and see us when you move to the States?’      we said.      We invited/asked him/her/them to come and see us when      we move to the States. (We will be soon in the United      States of America.) 8  If we mention the person addressed, both tell and say to    are possible:      She told me/said to me (that) she didn’t like spaghetti. 9  Compare the following:      ‘The train leaves in ten minutes,’ the man said/said      the man.      ‘The plane is due to land in a few minutes,’ he said.      ‘Do you use ear-plugs at night?’ Mary asked/asked Mary.      ‘I failed,’ Kim said sadly. (not said Kim sadly)      ‘It is not worth twopence,’ Lesly told me. (not told      Lesly me)    If the subject of said, asked..., is a pronoun, we do not    normally put the subject after the verb. If we have an    object or an adverb after the verb, we cannot place the    verb before the subject. 10  For imperatives, see section 14. 11  For had better, see unit 6, part 4, section 10.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
© Todos los derechos reservados    www.polseguera.org  (Polseguera)    info@polseguera.org