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Gramática inglesa de nivel avanzado paso a paso (English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIT 20 - The key

1 a The hooligans who1 were arrested last night are dangerous criminals b The boy who lives next door wets the bed c The boy whose overcoat is filthy had a crush on her d The woman whose hair is wavy is a diver e The spinster (whom/that) you met three days ago wants to marry eagerly

2 a The spaghetti (which/that) we ate yesterday tasted delicious b The salad (which/that) you dressed with homemade vinegar and olive oil tasted great c He wants to catch the rabbit which/that eats the vegetables in his garden d This is the most interesting story (that) you have ever told me e The car the bonnet of which/whose bonnet has a few dents belongs to Mr Jones

3 a The table (which/that) we were sitting at/at which we were sitting/where we were sitting was very antique b The criminal (whom/that) she was robbed by/by whom she was robbed was taken to gaol c The woman (whom/that) he had an affair with/with whom he had an affair was the wife of a very important politician d The TV programme (which/that) I talked you about yesterday/about which I talked you yesterday is off e This is the spade (which/that) I was looking for/for which I was looking

4 a The lady who has just turned round is our sales director b These pills are for drug addicts who want to come off drugs c The car the bodywork of which/whose bodywork is in a bad state is mine d She showed me something (that) she got from an antique shop e The secretary who ushered me into Mr Goldsmith's office is a stunner f The stain (which/that) you have on your jacket won't come out g She was swept off her feet by a boy who save her life h The uncle who came home last night is very old-fashioned i The ship (which/that) they were on/on which they were was travelling north j The buttons (which/that) you bought yesterday are too small k The pullover (which/that) he has on is the very latest l The old dog whose owner/the owner of which painted a portrait of your mother the day before yesterday has just pegged out m I cut the branch (which/that) I stumbled on/on which I stumbled n The children whose mother teaches history at the local school are very naughty o The old man who came into the inn wet to the skin has a terrible cold p The mussels that you cooked last week were delicious q The jersey (which/that) her mother had knitted for her was naff r They are going to pull down the house the roof of which/whose roof is black s I saw an indigent whose hand was badly burnt t Everyone (who is) at the première says it is excellent u The last person (whom/that) he saw was a fifty-year-old woman v The old lady who has a lot of pets has been across the world w The inn (which/that) we stayed at/at which we stayed/where we stayed had central heating x She is the most charming girl (that) I know y This is the horse (which/ that) Mary rides z The boy (whom/that) she is going out with tonight/with whom she is going out tonight is very polite

5 a Don Quixote, which is a send-up of chivalry novels, was written by Cervantes b The police, who suspected us of being spies, were harassing us constantly c The examination (which/that) we did yesterday was as easy as ABC d The main character in this novel, who is very evil, is a tax-collector e The policewoman who was murdered by a gang of terrorists had four children

6 a She told him that she loved him, which made him felt very nervous b Everything went according to plan, which pleased them a lot c I told the whole matter to the police, who said it wasn't their business d I offered them my help, which they rejected e The new album outsells all their other works, which will make them one of the most popular bands in the world


Definig relative clauses: people

subject object possessive
who / that (whom / that) whose

Defining relative clauses: things

subject object possessive
which / that (which / that) of which / whose

Non-defining and co-ordinating relative clauses: people

subject object possessive
who whom whose

Non-defining and co-ordinating relative clauses: things

subject object possessive
which which of which / whose

8 a The runner who is in the lead now is my workmate b The lawyer who worked for my father twenty years ago has one foot in the grave c We are going through a crisis in which many employers will have to close down d They married her daughter to a man who was twice her age and (who was) very wealthy (or The man (whom/that) they married her daughter to/to whom they married her daughter was twice her age and very wealthy) e The man (whom/that) they married her daughter to/to whom they married her daughter was an old crock f He told her that she got what she deserved, which annoyed her very much g The woman whose husband is a member of the golf club is an ardent feminist h Sir Thomas, whose cavalry save their lives, did not die in vain. But for him, our siblings would not be alive now, which is why we will never forget him i They set fire to the barracks, which angered the captain j My grandmother, who is very old, suffers from senile dementia k Her sister, of whom he is very fond/whom he is very fond of, always gets out of bed on the wrong side l The children who are neighbours of ours were very afraid of lightning m Someone that knew the house very well nicked the silver cutlery set n That old man, who has outworn ideas, thinks women should stay at home and take care of their children o We put our trust in them, which was the silliest thing to do p Margaret, who was madly in love with him, did not want to tell the truth q Susie, who is swinging on the old rope, is a friend of my daughter's r The people next door, who come from well-to-do families, very often go to posh restaurants s Her father, who didn't want her daughter to arrive home late, gave her a lecture about the importance of getting home early t The little girls who are riding on the swings are my nieces u The man who runs this company is forty years of age v Mrs Brown, who has a crick in the neck, hasn't come to work today w The print cartride (which/that) we bought yesterday is faulty x Big cities' smog, which is very bad for peoples health, should be reduced y Miss Perkins, whom you teach biology, is very pessimistic about her future z New York, in which city/where she would like to live, is very cosmopolitan

9 a I saw several painting and sculptures by Michelangelo Buanarroti, all of which were superb b There were nearly fifty people at the party, the majority of whom were wearing informal clothes c He collects cuckoo clocks, some of which cost him a fortune d He borrowed a lot of books from the library, a few of which were on medieval history e This library loans art books, most of which are about the Middle Ages

10 a Aldrin, Collins and Amstrong were the first people to land on the moon/...were the first people that landed on the moon b Mary was the only person to ring me up/Mary was the only person that rang me up c There are a lof of things for us to eat at home/There are a lot of things that we can eat at home d He has nobody to go out with/He has nobody with whom to go out/He has nobody that wants to go out with him e He has a lot of homework to do for tomorrow/He has a lot of homework that must be done for tomorrow (less usual)/He has a lot of homework that he must do for tomorrow (less usual)

11 a Any application form arriving/that arrives after 12th March will not be considered b Sandy, hoping/who hoped to be given the post, was too familiar with the interviewer c Everybody wishing/that wishes to have a drink can raise their hands d Women (who are) ill-treated by their husbands should report this to the police e He sent us a fax saying/that said that the books were out of stock

12 a This factory, the waste of which/whose waste is contamining the river, must be closed down b I wanted to buy an anorak the sleeves of which/whose sleeves were royal blue c His dreams, which gave him the strength and morale to carry on with his miserable life, had vanished d The chest of drawers (which/that) I showed (to) you belongs to my grandmother e This video cassette recorder, which is a gift from my mother, is the last word in sound and picture reproduction f We have some wine in the cellar, most of which is mellow g She has thirty pupils, half of whom are from abroad h He coached a second division football team, which made him very happy i The banker (whom/that) I'm on familiar terms with/with whom I am on familiar terms told me my account was in the red j The refugees fainted, which was caused by malnutrition k His little daughter, who came home soaked through, caught a cold yesterday l She always plays down everything (that) I do, but she plays up everything (that) she does m The girl (whom/that) he has a date with/with whom she has a date was fined for reckless driving n They need a house to live in/They need a house in which to live/They need a house where to live o This is the largest passenger ship (which/that) has ever plied across the Pacific Ocean p He sent out a circular which/ that informed his clients about this issue/He sent out a circular informing his clients about this issue q Mr Jones, who says it is not worth getting married, is a confirmed bachelor r Mr White, who was the last person in the family to learn/that learnt about his wife's illness, cannot get used to the idea of her death s Donald, to whom you want to speak/whom you want to speak to is getting into a taxi t Your irresponsible behaviour has undone many years of negotiations, which will annoy the president u Mrs Carter, whose husband has a viperish tongue, was astonished by the news of their neighbours' divorce v Tom, who is very tight-fisted, will not invite you for a snack lunch w My neighbour's van, the doors of which/whose doors are pink, has got a diesel engine x Miss Scott, whose father is a colleague of mine, left me speechless y This settee, which belonged to my grandmother, is very uncomfortable, but beautiful z He introduced me to his fiancée, who told me she lost her parents in an accident at the age of six

13 a She was complaining all the time (that/when) we were there b The reason (why/that) I have changed down to second gear is that I want to park the car there/The reason for me/my changing down to second gear is that I want to park the car there c The city where/in which I was born is two hundred miles from here/The city (that/which) I was born in is two hundred miles from here d Germany, where her mother was born, is her favourite country e They could have crossed the border, in which case we would never be able to catch them

14 a The people (who were) at the wedding said that she looked terrific on that dress b We can post the postcard in the postbox (which is just) round the corner c The woman with curly hair/who has curly hair/whose hair is curly is my German teacher d I bought a cardigan that/which has/with orange and white stripes e Go and bring me the screwdriver with a (or "the") black handle/whose handle is black/which (or "that") has a black handle

15 a The children, who had been getting into mischief, were severly punished b The children who had been getting into mischief were severely punished c The garments, which were in this wardrobe, got moth-eaten d The furniture (which/that is) in this room is riddle with worms e The dogs which/that carried rabbies were put down

16 a It is tell-tales that/who get on my nerves b It is you who/that judge by appearances c It is the manor house that is surrounded with tall trees/What is surrounded with tall trees is the manor house/The manor house is what is surrounded with tall trees d It is two walkmans that we want/What we want is two walkmans/Two walkmans is what we want e It was last night that she had the accident

17 a I told her a pack of lies, which she believed b Luke, whose daughter is a friend of my son's, is very talkative c The reason (why/that) I didn't changed up to fifth gear was that I wasn't driving fast enough d The restaurant where/in (or "at') which we ate yesterday was very good/The restaurant (that/which) we ate in/at yesterday was very good e The lilies (which/that are) in my garden are flowering now f The bear whose fur/the fur of which is brown is going to have cubs/The bear with brown fur is going to have cubs g It was a sudden change, which we did not expect h The cheese, which we left in the cellar to mature, tastes delicious i It is the dog that is whimpering under the table j The man (who is) carrying a walking stick has travelled the world k She experience an unpleasant situation in which she suffered a lot l The place (that/which) we were in/in which we were/where we were last night was infected with rats m The reason (why/that) I kept it secret was that I did not want to worry you/The reason for me/my keeping it secret was that I did not want to worry you n He always picks me up at half past six, when/at which time I am usually studying o The child (whom/that) is wearing a red skirt/in a red skirt is gifted at dancing/The child whose skirt is red is gifted at dancing p The lady who is waiting for the bus won the lottery last month q Teddy's missis, who is waiting for the bus, won the lottery last month r They have told me a lot of falsehoods since we first met, most of which were unbelievable s There were a lot of children, the oldest of whom did not like her t He needs a woman to share his life with/with whom to share his life u There are many things for him to do2 v You are always the last person to finish/that finishes your work w Your are ill-manered, which is irritating x The manor house3 the roof of which/whose roof is falling into decay was built in the eighteen century y Mr Green, whose wife has just passed away, forgot his belongings on the bus z The people who said something wrong about the boss were fired

1  That can replace who in defining relative clauses.
2  There are many things (that) he has to do is possible, but far less usual.
3  If there is only one manor house in the area, commas are necessary: The manor house, the roof of which/whose roof is falling into decay, was built in the eighteen century.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez
Pages: 1, 2 and the key

Tal vez le interese recibir un archivo pdf con las unidades de esta sección para que pueda estudiar siempre que quiera. En este caso, se lo podemos mandar por correo electrónico a cambio de una contribución de 25 euros.





1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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