Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)
Ponga los verbos entre paréntesis en la forma correcta.
La perífrasis verbal be + going to + infinitivo
I am going to dance.
(Voy a bailar.)
You are going to fall.
(Vas a caerte.)
He is not going to sing.
(No va a cantar.)
She is going to break it.
(Va a romperlo.)
Is it going to rain?
(¿Va a llover?)
We aren't going to lend you the car.
(No vamos a dejarte el coche.)
Are you going to arrange a party?
(¿Vas a organizar una fiesta?)
They're going to buy the house.
(Van a comprar la casa.)
We (not allow) that here.
They really (rent) the house?
It (take) us a long time.
You (study) this year?
2. El futuro simple se forma con will + infinitivo, o si contraemos con 'll + infinitivo. La forma contracta de will not es won't.
I will help them. (Los ayudaré.)
You'll be late. (Llegarás tarde.)
He will not pass. (No aprobará.)
She won't forgive you. (No te perdonará.)
Will it snow? (¿Nevará?)
We'll finish in time. (Terminaremos a tiempo.)
You will not fail. (No suspenderéis.)
They won't do it. (No lo harán.)
Will they arrive late? (¿Llegarán tarde?)
a I think she (not turn) up.
b I hope they (pay) us a visit.
c If it isn't foggy, I (take) you there.
d Help me and I (repay) you.
e It (do) us any good if we take next week off?
En cuanto al presente continuo, ya lo vimos en la unidad 5
. Se hace, como ya dijimos, con el verbo to be + verbo-ing
I'm taking my wife to the theatre this afternoon.
(He quedado con mi esposa en llevarla al teatro esta tarde.)
She isn't going out tonight. She has an exam tomorrow.
(No sale esta noche. Tiene un examen mañana.)
We are having a party tomorrow evening. Would you like to come?
(Mañana por la noche hacemos una fiesta. ¿Quieres venir?)
I (sit) for an exam tomorrow morning.
We (have) a child next month.
He (not go) there tonight. He has many things to do.
They (come) round this evening?
He (sell) the cottage in two days.
4. Be going to + infinitivo
, will + infinitivo
y el presente continuo
se emplean para expresar futuro, pero con matices diferentes. Veámoslos a continuación:
I'm playing tennis with Paul this afternoon.
(He quedado en jugar al tenis con Paul esta tarde. » Nótese aquí que la oración no se ha traducido literalmente, sino que se ha traducido la idea.)
I'm going to play tennis with Paul this afternoon.
(Voy a jugar al tenis con Paul esta tarde. » Aquí lo que decimos es que yo tengo la intención de jugar con Paul, pero él igual ni lo sabe.)
I'm staying/I'm going to stay at home tonight.
(En este caso, se neutralizan los dos significados.)
This machine is going to break down.
(Esta máquina va a romperse » Esto es, hay indicios que así lo afirman.)
This machine is breaking down.
(Esta máquina se está rompiendo. » O sea, ahora.)
"We need more garlic!"
(Necesitamos más ajos.)
"OK! I'll bring some."
(¡De acuerdo! Traeré unos pocos/unos cuantos » Es decir, lo acabo de decidir.)
He's bought a paintbrush. He's going to paint the sitting-room.
(Ha comprado una brocha. Va a pintar el cuarto de estar. » O sea, ya lo tiene decidido en el momento de hablar.)
I think they will help us.
(Creo que nos ayudarán » Esto es, estoy dando mi opinión.)
If the weather is good, we will go for a swim.
(Si hace buen tiempo, iremos a nadar. » Oración condicional del primer tipo
: if [presente], [will + infinitivo]).
I'm going (to go) there this evening.
(Voy a ir allí esta noche. » Obsérvese que con el verbo go
no es necesario decir going to go
. Lo mismo pasa con come
por analogía de significados, es decir, se puede emplear I'm coming
en vez de I'm going to come
Will you help me, please?
(¿Quieres ayudarme, por favor? » Will you?
suele significar "¿quieres/quiere?".)
I think he (tell) the truth, but I'm not sure about it.
Eliza's enrolled for a Catalan course. She (study) Catalan next month.
This evening, he (come) to the opera as well. He loves opera.
He is driving too fast. He has been drinking a lot and is zigzagging. He (crash).
"Didn't you know that the Evans have come back?"
"No, I didn't. I (pay) them a visit tomorrow."
5. Ejercicio de revisión.
a I've taken the car because I (go) to town tonight. If you like, you can come.
b "Daddy, I've failed my maths exam."
"Then you (not watch) the telly tonight."
c I've got a date this evening. I (meet) the girl of my dreams. She (wait) for me at the pub round the corner at seven.
d We are saving up because we (get) married in October.
e If we don't sell now, we (make) big money.
f I've run out of money. Can you lend me five pounds? I (pay) you back tomorrow.
g "You (read) this for me, please? I've left my glasses at home!"
h "Did you know that I (make) a party on Friday evening?"
"No, I didn't, but I (go), if you want me to go."
i My big sister (take) me to the circus at six, so I can't play with you then.
j I'm not sure, but I think it (snow) tomorrow. If I were you, I wouldn't go camping tomorrow.
k "What do you want that adjustable spanner for?"
"I (mend) my bike."
l "I've forgotten to water the plants!"
"Don't worry. I (water) them for you later."
m "I (invest) some money in this project. Tomorrow we (sign) the contract."
"Really! I didn't know you had the intention of investing there."
"Well, I'm almost sure that it (make) a handsome profit."
n "I've decided that Paul won't go."
"You (not invite) him? Why?"
"Well, I'd better keep it to myself."
o —Look at that woman over there! What she (do)?
—She has a stone in her hand, and (throw) it at that car.
—Hey, that's my car!
p They (climb) the Alps next summer. I hope nothing wrong (happen) to them.
q "You (prepare) another delicious green salad, please?"
"Yes, of course."
r "I haven't got a hairdryer."
"No, problem" I (lend) you mine."
s "I have a crick in my neck!"
"Okay! I (massage) it for you."
t "I can't go to your party!"
"But Sylvia (go) too."
"Then, I (go)."
u "What are your plans?"
"We (play) a joke on them."
v I (buy) a bunch of red roses for my wife this afternoon, as it is our silver wedding anniversary, but please don't tell her anything, because it must be a surprise.
w She (open) another shop near here in two weeks. Would you like to have a look at it?
x They (have) to arrest him, I think.
y "He needs a teacher of English. His English is poor."
"I (tell) my boyfriend to teach him English."
z Remember this: "If you don't respect yourself, nobody (do) it for you."
Al presente continuo se le llama también "presente progresivo".
Para más información sobre estas oraciones, véase la unidad 10