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Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIDAD 6


   Ponga los verbos entre paréntesis en la forma correcta.


1. En inglés hay dos tipos de verbos en pasado simple: regulares e irregulares. Los irregulares tienen una forma predeterminada: sing (infinitivo)→sang (pasado simple). En la unidad 9 hay una lista de verbos irregulares.

   En cuanto a los regulares, se hace añadiendo -ed al infinitivo: work (infinitivo)→worked (pasado simple). Hay que tener en cuenta lo siguiente al ponerle -ed al verbo:
   live→lived (El verbo termina en -e.)
   rob→robbed ("Rob" tiene una sílaba2 y la siguiente estructura: "consonante + una vocal + una consonante".)
   marry→married (consonante + y + ed→consonante + i + ed)
   enjoy→enjoyed (La y no cambia, dado que va precedida de una vocal.)

   Veamos ahora la conjugación entera de un verbo regular y otro irregular:
   work (trabajar » verbo regular)
   I worked (yo trabajé)
   you worked
   he worked
   she worked
   it worked
   we worked
   you worked
   they worked

   sing (cantar » verbo irregular)
   I sang (yo canté)
   you sang
   he sang
   she sang
   it sang
   we sang
   you sang
   they sang

a  He (live) in London until he (die)
b  We (play) football last Sunday.
c  She (come) in second because she (have) a fall. (come→came, have→had)
d  He (marry) last winter.
e  Then, the car (stop) at the traffic lights and a woman (get) out of the car. (get→got)


2. En la negativa ponemos did not (o la forma contracta didn't) entre el sujeto y el verbo. El verbo va siempre en infinitivo.
   I enjoyed the party. (afirmativa » Me lo pasé bien en la fiesta.)
   I did not enjoy the party/I didn't enjoy the party. (negativa » No me lo pasé bien en la fiesta.)

a  She (not want) to meet him.
b  We (not believe) them.
c  You (not do) your homework yesterday.
d  We (not go) to the cinema last week.
e  They (not impress) her.


3. En la interrogativa, colocamos did delante del sujeto. El verbo siempre va en infinitivo.
   He robbed the bank. (afirmativa » Él robó el banco.)
   Did he rob the bank? (negativa » ¿Robó él el banco?)

a  You (see) the accident?
b  He (love) her?
c  We (invite) the Adams?
d  They (tell) her the truth?
e  Sir Alexander Fleming (discover) penicillin?


4. El pasado continuo o progresivo se forma con el pasado del verbo to be (was o were3) + un verbo en -ing4:
   I was cooking dinner when the light went out. (afirmativa » Yo estaba haciendo la comida cuando se fue la luz.)
   She was not doing her homework when I arrived home. (negativa » Ella no estaba haciendo los deberes cuando llegué a casa.)
   Were they watching TV when she came in? (interrogativa » ¿Estaban viendo la tele cuando ella entró?)

a  My mother (prepare) a special meal that day, as it was my birthday.
b  I (go) to say that, too!
c  They (talk) to her when you saw them?
d  They (not do) the proper thing when I entered the house.
e  We (go) to have a party that night, but my father fell ill and we had to postpone it.


5. Las diferencias entre el presente simple y el continuo5 son las mismas que entre el pasado simple y el continuo, pero en el primer caso se refiere al presente, y en el otro, al pasado. Por ejemplo, si el presente simple se usa para hábitos en el presente, el pasado simple se usa para hábitos en el pasado. Ya por último, es importante tener en cuenta que si la acción está incompleta, empleamos el pasado continuo, y si está completa, el simple:
   My father was fixing the washing machine (acción incompleta) when I arrived home. (acción completa) (Mi padre arreglaba/estaba arreglando la lavadora cuando llegué a casa.)
   When the teacher came in, (acción completa) the pupils stood up. (acción completa) (Cuando entró el maestro, los alumnos se levantaron / se pusieron de pie.)
   While I was studying, (acción incompleta) they were playing cards. (acción incompleta) (Mientras yo estudiaba, ellos jugaban a las cartas.)

a  Last year I usually (go) for a walk every afternoon, but now I can't, as I'm very busy.
b  She (put) on her best clothes because she (meet) the boy of her dreams that very same evening. She (want) to be very attractive.
c  When the fire (begin), we (be) in the dining room.
d  When I (meet) her, she (wear) a mini skirt. She (look) beautiful!
e  While my mum (watch) a soap opera on television, my dad (read) a comic.


6. Ejercicio de revisión.
a  She (sleep) when I (enter) her room.
b  As a child, I (use) to play tennis every Sunday morning.
c  She (win) the lottery last year and (buy) a big house.
d  I couldn't believe my eyes when I (see) my best friend dressed up as Cinderella.
e  While he (have) breakfast, she (have) a bath. When she (finish) her bath, they (go) out together, as they (have) a very important appointment.
f  When I (run) into Peter, he (wear) very strange clothes and green hair. I (not recognise) him at first because of his look, but when he (say) hello to me, I (tell) him, "You are beyond recognition with such clothes and hair."
g  It was a very special evening, since the girl of his dreams (take) him to a luxurious restaurant in half an hour.
h  "You (go) to the zoo yesterday?"
   "No, I didn't: the weather (be) awful."
i  What lousy weather we (have) last week! It never (stop) raining and (be) very cold.
j  When they (get) home, they (sit) down and (have) a hearty lunch.
k  If I had known that you (come), I would have made a chocolate cake.
l  When we (be) children, we never (do) such things. Everything (be) stricter than now.
m  While she (wait) for him, it (start) to snow and she (have) to go home.
n  Once upon a time, there (be) a princess who (feel) very lonely because her father had departed this life and her stepmother (be) a sort of an ogre and never (let) her go out or do anything she (like).
o  One day she (run) away from home and (meet) an attractive peasant. She (fall) in love with him and they (get) married. They (live) happily ever after.
p  He never (tell) the truth, so nobody (believe) him, but one day he (need) help urgently and nobody (help) him because nobody (believe) him, as he always (lie6).
q  This time last week, we (sunbathe) on a beach, and today we are working in this horrible factory.
r  When the earthquake (destroy) most of the city, I (spend) some days abroad.
s  John Lennon (write) some of the best songs in the twentieth century.
t  In former times, people (think) that the sun (revolve) around the earth.
u  We (stay) at home that night, since it (be) very windy and chilly outside. We (light) a fire, (open) a bottle of champagne and (have) a cosy chat.
v  When he (enter) the place, he (hear) the sound of heavy breathing, but (not see) anybody there. He (get) frightened to death, but very soon he (notice) that a homeless man (sleep) under a table.
w  She couldn't attend our weekly meeting last night because some friends of hers (come) to town and she (have) to be with them.
x  They usually (play) cards on Friday evenings, but when Mr Blake (die), they (cease) playing cards."
y  "What you (do) when I (phone) you yesterday?"
   "I (do) aerobics."
z  "You (inform) the boss of the accident you (have) on Monday morning?"
   "No, I didn't, because she would have got very angry with me."


1  Al pasado continuo se le llama también "pasado progresivo".
2  Véase la nota a pie de página de la unidad 5, sección 4.
3  Véase la unidad 1.
4  Véase la unidad 5, sección 4 para más información en cuanto a verbos terminados en -ing.
5  Véase la unidad 5.
6  Aquí hemos de usar el pasado continuo para indicar que desaprovamos el hecho de que siempre mintiera.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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