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Gramática inglesa de nivel medio paso a paso (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)

 

     UNIDAD 9
     VERBOS IRREGULARES

 

Versión compacta

 

infinitivo pasado simple participio de pasado traducción1
arise arose arisen surgir, presentarse
awake awoke awoken despertar(se)
be was, were been ser, estar
beat beat beaten pegar, golpear
become became become convertir(se), hacerse
begin began begun empezar
bend bent bent doblar(se)
bet bet bet apostar
bind bound bound atar, encuadernar
bite bit bitten morder, picar
bleed bled bled sangrar
blow blew blown soplar
break broke broken romper
breed bred bred criar, reproducirse
bring brought brought traer
broadcast broadcast broadcast emitir, transmitir
build built built construir
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned quemar(se)2
burst burst burst estallar, reventar(se)
buy bought bought comprar
cast cast cast arrojar, asignar
catch caught caught coger
choose chose chosen elegir
cling clung clung agarrarse, aferrarse
come came come venir
cost cost cost costar
creep crept crept arrastrarse
cut cut cut cortar
deal dealt dealt tratar, comerciar
dig dug dug cavar
do did done hacer
draw drew drawn dibujar
dream dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed soñar
drink drank drunk beber
drive drove driven conducir
dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled vivir, morar
eat ate eaten comer
fall fell fallen caer(se)
feed fed fed alimentar, dar de comer
feel felt felt sentir(se)
fight fought fought luchar, pelearse
find found found encontrar
flee fled fled huir
fling flung flung arrojar, lanzar, hacer algo ràpidamente
fly flew flown volar
forbid forbad(e) forbidden prohibir
forget forgot forgotten olvidar(se)
forgive forgave forgiven perdonar
freeze froze frozen helar(se), congelar(se)
get got got obtener, hacerse
give gave given dar
go went gone ir(se)
grind ground ground moler
grow grew grown crecer, cultivar, hacerse
hang hung hung colgar3
have had had tener, haber
hear heard heard escuchar
hide hid hidden ocultar(se), esconder(se)
hit hit hit pegar, golpear
hold held held agarrar(se), celebrar
hurt hurt hurt hacer daño
keep kept kept mantener, guardar
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled arrodillarse
know knew known saber, conocer
lay laid laid poner, tender, apostar
lead led led conducir, llevar
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned inclinar(se)
leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped saltar
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned aprender, enterarse
leave left left dejar, abandonar, irse
lend lent lent dejar, prestar
let let let dejar, permitir
lie lay lain echarse, tenderse, estar4
light lit, lighted lit, lighted encender(se), iluminar5
lose lost lost perder
make made made hacer, fabricar
mean meant meant significar, querer decir
meet met met encontrar(se), conocer(se)
mistake mistook mistaken equivocar(se), confundir(se)
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood entender mal, malinterpretar
oversleep overslept overslept dormirse, quedarse dormido
overtake overtook overtaken adelantar, sorprender
pay paid paid pagar
put put put poner
quit quit, quitted quit, quitted dejar (de), dimitir, irse6
read read read leer
ride rode ridden montar, ir (en)
ring rang rung sonar, llamar
rise rose risen salir, aumentar, levantarse
run ran run correr
saw sawed sawn serrar
say said said decir
see saw seen ver
seek sought sought buscar
sell sold sold vender(se)
send sent sent enviar
set set set poner, situar, fijar
sew sewed sewn coser
shake shook shaken agitar, temblar
shed shed shed mudar, verter, despojarse
shine shone shone brillar
shoe shod shod herrar
shoot shot shot disparar
show showed shown mostrar, enseñar
shrink shrank shrunk encoger(se)
shut shut shut cerrar(se)
sing sang sung cantar
sink sank sunk hundir(se), sumir(se)
sit sat sat sentar(se)
slay slew slain matar, asesinar
sleep slept slept dormir
slide slid slid resbalar(se), deslizar(se)
sling slung slung lanzar
slink slunk slunk escabullirse
slit slit slit cortar
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled oler
smite smote smitten remorder, aflijir
speak spoke spoken hablar
spell spelt, spelled spelt, spelled deletrear
spend spent spent pasar, gastar
spill spilt, spilled spilt, spilled derramar(se)
spin spun spun (hacer) girar, dar vueltas
spit spat spat escupir
split split split dividir(se), partir(se)
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled estropear(se), malcriar
spread spread spread extender(se), propagar(se), untar(se)
spring sprang sprung saltar, brotar
stand stood stood estar de pie, poner, tolerar
steal stole stolen robar
stick stuck stuck pegar(se), poner, clavar
sting stung stung picar, escocer
stink stank, stunk (US) stunk oler mal, apestar
strew strewed strewn, strewed esparcir, desparramar, cubrir
stride strode stridden dar zancadas
strike struck struck golpear, pegar, dar (hora)
string strung strung ensartar, poner cuerdas
strive strove striven esforzarse
swear swore sworn jurar, decir palabrotas
sweep swept swept barrer
swell swelled swollen hinchar(se)
swim swam swum nadar
swing swung swung balancear(se), columpiar(se)
take took taken tomar(se), coger(se), llevar(se)
teach taught taught enseñar
tear tore torn romper(se), rasgar(se)
tell told told contar, decir
think thought thought pensar, creer
throw threw thrown tirar, lanzar
thrust thrust thrust clavar, meter, empujar
tread trod trodden pisar
undergo underwent undergone sufrir, pasar por
understand understood understood entender
undertake undertook undertaken emprender
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen descongelar(se)
unwind unwound unwound relajarse, desenrollar(se)
upset upset upset afligir, disgustar, sentar mal
wake woke woken despertar(se)
wear wore worn llevar (puesto), desgastar(se)
weave wove woven tejer, entretejer
wed wed, wedded wed, wedded casar(se) (con)
weep wept wept llorar
win won won ganar, tocar
wind wound wound enrollar, serpentear, dar cuerda a
withdraw withdrew withdrawn retirar(se), sacar
wring wrung wrung retorcer, escurrir
write wrote written escribir

 

____________________

1  Téngase en cuenta que aquí sólo se han puesto algunos de los significados. Si quiere información más detallada, consulte un buen diccionario.

2  Algunos verbos (como por ejemplo burn, dream, dwell, etc.) tienen formas regulares e irregulares indistintamente. No obstante, en inglés británico se suelen emplear las irregulares y en americano, las regulares.

3  Hang es regular cuando significa "ahorcar", es decir, tanto el pasado como el participio de pasado se forman con -ed: hanged.

4  Lie cuando significa "mentir" es regular: lied (pasado y participio de pasado).

5  En inglés británico, el pasado simple y el participio de pasado es normalmente lit. Lighted se usa delante de un nombre: a lighted cigarette (un cigarrillo encendido).

6  Quitted se utiliza principalmente en inglés británico.

Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez


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