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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Gramática inglesa de nivel medio:
• Índice
• Unidad 9:  Verbos irregulares


Gramática inglesa para principiantes:
• Índice
• Unidad 1:  A, an, some, any y the
• Unidad 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unidad 3:  Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos y pronombres posesivos
• Unidad 4:  Los pronombres reflexivos, el pronombre recíproco "each other" y los pronombres personales de complemento
• Unidad 5:  Lista de verbos irregulares


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Gramática inglesa de nivel avanzado paso a paso (English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIT 10
     PERSONAL PRONOUNS, POSSESSIVES AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS


   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

1  Examples: (personal subject pronouns)
   I can’t throw this cough off.
   You shouldn’t hold back your feelings.
   He has turned down my application.
   She is literate in Portuguese.
   It runs every four hours.
   We have just turned off the heater.
   You (two) have committed an offence.
   They were cut off from civilization.

   Personal subject pronouns are placed before the verb. Note
   that the auxiliary comes first in questions1: 
     Has he turned down my application? 
     Does it run every four hours?

a  ‘Have __________ read the report __________ handed over
   to you yesterday morning?’
   ‘No, __________ am afraid __________ haven’t had the time to
   do it yet.’
b  ‘Where are __________ three going?’
   ‘__________ are going to walk along the coast.’
   ‘Can I go with you?’
   ‘Of course __________ can.’
c  Betty fell off her horse. __________ is in hospital now.
d  Eve and Erica learnt about your marriage second-hand.
   __________ are very cross with you because of this.
e  ‘What’s this?’
   ‘__________ is a Castilian sword. __________ was made
   in the seventeenth century.’


2  Examples: (personal object pronouns)
   She told me her name.
   I sent you a postcard.
   She met him in Paris.
   He loves her.
   They made it themselves.
   They came with us.
   I gave you both what I owed you.
   It’s for them.

   Personal object pronouns are put after a verb or a
   preposition.

a  ‘Did Helen and Tony ring Oscar up?’
   ‘No, he rang __________ up.’
b  She often catches __________ on the hop. I have told
   __________ a hundred times to call __________ before she
   comes to visit __________, but she never does. The worst
   of all is that she generally finds my house in a complete
   mess.
c  ‘Where did you find this carrier pigeon?’
   ‘I found __________ in the garden.’
d  ‘I think governments should ban the selling of tobacco.’
   ‘Why do you think they should ban __________?’
   ‘In the first place, __________ can cause lung cancer.
   In the second, it is a silly habit.’
   ‘Well, I think they get a lot of money from __________
   through taxes, so it’s not very likely that they will
   ban __________.
e  ‘I’d like __________ to come with __________.’
   ‘I’m afraid I can’t come with you.’


3  Examples: (possessive adjectives)
   In my view, we shouldn’t play out of doors.
   I think you have learnt your lesson.
   He blotted his copybook when they found him drunk.
   She says that your remarks are an insult to her intelligence.
   A cat licks its paws in order to wash them.
   We did our share.
   You didn’t finish your housework.
   They shaved their beards off yesterday.

   A possessive adjective is always followed by a noun.

a  He’s lost __________ wallet.
b  We’re looking for __________ dog. Have you seen it anywhere?
c  I’ve finished __________ homework. Can I play with
   __________ friends, mummy?
d  ‘I saw a UFO last night’
   ‘What was it like?’
‘   Well, I only saw a bright light; and heard such a grating
   sound that I had to cover __________ ears.’
e  I’ve got a dog, and this is __________ lead.


4  Examples: (possessive pronouns)
   Can I borrow your typewriter? Mine is broken.
   This is my book, and that is yours.
   My generation was more responsible than his.
   Lisa forgot her swim-suit at home, but Dolly didn’t forget
   hers.
   You may have their forgiveness, but you won’t have ours.
   This tea strainer is not Paul’s, but yours.
   Here’s yours. Theirs is not yet available.

   A possessive pronoun is not followed by a noun.

a  ‘Is this __________?’ (= Does this belong to me?)
   ‘No, it isn’t. It’s __________. I bought it yesterday.’
b  This isn’t the Smiths’ squeezer. It’s __________. I bought
   one yesterday afternoon, darling.
c  ‘This isn’t your maths book!’
   ‘Where’s __________?’
   ‘I don’t know.’
d  ‘Whose car is that?’
   ‘I think it’s Peter and Barbara’s.’
   ‘No, I don’t think it’s __________. They detest cars.’
e  ‘Who does the house belong to?’
   ‘It belongs to Mr González.’
   ‘It can’t be __________. He’s too poor to have a house like
   that.’


5  Complete the following table.

PERSONAL SUBJECT PRONOUNS PERSONAL OBJECT PRONOUNS POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
I
     
 
YOU
   
   
HIS
 
     
HERS
   
ITS
WE
     
 
YOU
   
THEY
     

6  Revison exercise. a  He loved Liza a lot, but she didn’t love __________. b  Mr Evan poked __________ nose into __________ affairs. I    detest curiosity. c  ‘My motto is not to leave for tomorrow what I can do today.’    ‘What’s __________?’    ‘I don’t have a motto.’ d  I know she doesn’t speak Finnish very well —it’s not    __________ mother-tongue! e  ‘Thank you very much.’    ‘_________ pleasure.’ (or ‘The pleasure is __________’) f  I think he’ll change __________ mind. g  This has nothing to do with __________. So, please don’t    interfere in __________ own affairs. Mind __________ own    business. h  Before I said anything, I cleared __________ throat. i  When I was twelve, I had a crush on __________ history    teacher. j  Most of Miss Thackeray’s pupils have a pash on    __________. __________ is really beautiful. k  ‘Where’s __________ blue blouse, mum?’    ‘_________ is in the top drawer.’ l  When they told me that __________ favourite rock ‘n’ roll    singer was coming to __________ hometown, __________ heart    missed a beat. m  ‘Who’s that girl?’    ‘A friend of __________. I met __________ in a carnival last    year.’    ‘Are __________ in love with __________?’    ‘Yes, __________ am.’ n  Mum, I’d like to introduce __________ to __________ friend    Jane and __________ mother. o  She says that she wants a sledge of __________ own. p  Don’t give any money to her, as __________ burns a    hole in __________ pocket. q  __________ was a wintry morning and the birds were singing. My    wife had already got up and had a glass of cold milk and some    buns for breakfast. She had also prepared __________ a hearty    breakfast, as usual. r  I said that because __________ wasn’t aware of my brother.    If __________ had known __________ was there, __________    wouldn’t have said __________. s  They knew everything about the matter from __________ sister.    After all, she’s __________ own flesh and blood. t  This employee is a very real problem for us. Why don’t    we give __________ the push? u  ‘If this report should come across __________ desk, please    make sure __________ is destroyed.’    ‘Don’t worry. __________ will destroy __________ if __________    see __________ on my desk.’ v  ‘Whose is this?’    ‘__________ is __________. __________ is a present    from her fiancé.’ w  ‘Is this Dora’s pram?’    ‘No, it isn’t __________.’ x  He says that __________ would love to live on __________ own. y  My niece is a lawyer. Why don’t we bring __________ in.    __________ might be a great help. z  I know she’s very surly. It’s a defect in __________    character. 7  Examples:    ‘Which of you went overseas last year?’    ‘He did.’ (formal)/‘Him2.’ (informal)    She is as gross as he is3 (formal)/as him. (informal)    She gained more prestige than he did (formal)/than him.    (informal)    As a general rule, we can say that personal subject pronouns    are followed by a verb. If there is no verb, we normally    use personal object pronouns, which is informal. a  You are taller than __________, but you should consider    the fact that you are four years older than __________.    In four or five years’ time, I would be as tall as    __________. b  ‘Who lives here?’    ‘__________. I bought this house two months ago. Didn’t you    know?’    ‘No, I didn’t.’ c  My son has been working harder than your sister. So he’s more    tired than __________. d  ‘Who has scattered these toys all over the room?’    ‘__________. I saw him playing here a moment ago.’ e  My mother-in-law is very unfriendly, but my father-in-law    isn’t. Consequently, she is less friendly than __________. 8  Examples:    ‘Who is it?’    ‘It is I/me.’    It was he/him who tackled everything.    Nobody but4 he/him declared5 the existence of a traitor    amongst the members of the assembly.    Personal object pronouns sound more natural in an informal    style. More formally, personal subject pronouns should be    used. a  —Who is it?    — It’s __________, your husband. b  Nobody but __________ adapts so easily to the circumstances.    He is a dear. c  Everybody except __________ complained about the food.    She is extremely polite. d  Peter’s children are very spoilt. I think it was __________    who walked on the grass. I have told them to keep off the    grass hundreds of times, but they seem to take no notice    to what people tell them not to do. e  ‘My girl-friend is coming home for lunch today.’    ‘The bell!’    ‘It must be __________. Go and open the door, will you, mum?    I must tidy myself up a bit. 9  Examples:    Everybody loves this couch, don’t they?6    Nobody should contradict her, or else they will be chucked    out.    A person should never be replaced with a machine. They feel    and think, but a machine doesn’t.    If anyone phones while I’m out, tell them I’ve gone away    and will be back tomorrow.    If we want to replace a singular word referring to people    with a pronoun, they (or them, their, theirs) is usually    preferred to he (or him, his), at least informally. This    is due to the fact that many people consider the usage    of he sexist. He or she7 is another alternative to this.    It is even possible to write (s)he, s/he, or he/she. a  If anybody asks you where I am, tell __________ that you    haven’t seen me for the last six months. b  Any human being should be treated equally. If __________    (be)8 not treated equally, __________ should go to court    to defend __________ rights. c  If anybody should change lanes without looking in the    rear-view mirror and in the wing mirror, __________    may be involved in a collision with another car. d  Somebody locked the door, didn’t __________? e  A person who turns to crime should be given another    chance to rebuild __________ life (or __________    lives), but if __________    transgresses (or __________ transgress) the law    again, __________ should be put behind bars for    a long time. 10 Revision exercise. a  Nobody but __________ has told you the whole truth.    __________ shouldn’t be so annoyed with him. He’s    the only one who has been true to you. b  ‘Who has read King Lear?’    ‘__________. I read __________ last year.’    ‘Did you like __________?’    ‘Not, not much.’ c  ‘Who has brought these homemade pastries?’    ‘__________. I made __________ this morning. By the way, how    do you know __________ are homemade?’    ‘Well, by __________ flavour. __________ taste delicious.’ d  ‘I need another track suit. The one I have now is completely    worn out.    ‘__________ too, but I have no money to buy another one.’ e  I wish you wouldn’t burst into __________ bedroom without    knocking at the door. I need to have some privacy. f  ‘He always says that __________ is much better the devil you    know than the one __________ don’t know.’    ‘I think __________ is right.’ g  I don’t like your aunt at all. __________ is always toadying    to the boss. h  My son love birds. He says __________ are beautiful. We    have a couple of owls in __________ garden, and    __________ whiles away the hours watching them through    __________ binoculars. i  ‘What do you want these nappies for?’    ‘__________ are for my niece. Didn’t you know that my daughter    has just had a baby?’    ‘No, __________ didn’t. Congratulations!’    ‘Thank you!’ j  All the candidates must take out __________ pencils and a    piece of paper. If anyone tries to cheat, __________ will    fail automatically. __________ exam/__________ exams will,    therefore, not even be corrected. k  Admission tickets should be prepaid. If you buy __________    at the door, they will charge __________ twice as much. l  If you do this for __________ own benefit, __________ are a    selfish cretin. __________ won’t get __________ own way. m  ‘I’m not in a hurry!’    ‘__________ neither. If __________ want, we can have a snack    in the sandwich bar round the corner.’    ‘__________ would love to.’ n  Will you take down your jeans a bit, please? We have to take    an x-ray of __________ lower spine. o  These bodyguards were thought to have murdered an old    lady. __________ exclaimed, ‘Whew!’ when the judge said    that __________ were not guilty. p  They’re not weaker than __________. He’s the least strong    person I have ever met. q  Now you said that __________ don’t want to see me again,    but one day __________ will fall on __________ knees,    and ask __________ to forgive you. r  Laura is the most unscrupulous person in the whole    world. __________ will always put the blame on    somebody else. __________ will not even care if    __________ destroys __________ life (or __________ lives). s  My father can’t come today, so __________ have come on    __________ behalf. t  She felt very excited when they put the crown on __________    head. u  ‘This present is for __________, mummy’    ‘A pair of goggles! Thank __________ so much, sweetheart.’ v  She said that Philip was as ugly as sin in front of    __________ nose, which was very rude of __________. w  I could be __________ father, Diana. __________ have got a    daughter about __________ age. x  Alexander was released on bail of a thousand pounds    yesterday. __________ was very lucky , because nobody    but __________ has been granted on bail from this    prison for the last three years. y  This guy is very shy and diffident, but __________ sister    isn’t. __________ is more confident in herself than    __________. z  If anybody sucks up to the boss, we’ll knock the living    daylights out of __________. ____________________ 1  See units 1, 4 and 7. 2  See also unit 2, section 18. 3  It is possible to drop the verb in comparative sentences, but    it is not advisable:      She is as gross as he.      She gained more prestige than he.    See units 2 (section 19) and 18 (section 12). 4  Except can be used instead of but. 5  Note also: ‘Who(m) do you trust?’ ‘(I trust) everybody    but/except him.’ The subject pronoun must be followed by a    verb. 6  See unit 3, section l2. 7  Him or her, his or her, his or hers. 8  Put this verb into the correct form.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)


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