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Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step

 

     UNIT 9
     IRREGULAR VERBS

 

For a more compact version, click here.

 

infinitive simple past past participle
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned1
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbad(e) forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung hung2
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned
leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain3
light lit, lighted lit, lighted4
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
mistake mistook mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
oversleep overslept overslept
overtake overtook overtaken
pay paid paid
put put put
quit quit, quitted quit, quitted5
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled
smite smote smitten
speak spoke spoken
spell spelt, spelled spelt, spelled
spend spent spent
spill spilt, spilled spilt, spilled
spin spun spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank, stunk (US) stunk
strew strewed strewn, strewed
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
undergo underwent undergone
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
unwind unwound unwound
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
wed wed, wedded wed, wedded
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

 

____________________

1  Some verbs, such as burn, dream, dwell, etc., have both regular and irregular forms. However, the irregular ones are more common in British English, and in American English, the regular ones (-ed).

2  Hang is regular when it means "to kill someone with a rope around his or her neck": hanged.

3  Lie is regular when it means "not to tell the truth": lied (simple past and past participle).

4  In British English, the simple past and past participle is generally lit. Lighted is normally used before nouns: a lighted cigarette.

5  Quitted is used mainly in British English.

Written by Miquel Molina i Diez

    Contents

1.  The verb "to be" (the key)

2.  The verbs "can" and "may"

3.  The verb "have"

4.  Have to, must, need not, cannot and should

5.  The present simple and the present continuous (or progressive)

6.  The past simple and the past continuous (or progressive)

7.  The present perfect simple, the past simple, the present perfect continuous (or progressive), the past perfect simple and the past perfect continuous (or progressive)

8.  The "be going to" form, the present continuous and the future simple

9.  Irregular verbs

10.  Conditional sentences

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