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Gramática inglesa de nivel avanzado paso a paso (English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIT 24 - Page 2

   Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable form.

13 Examples:
   If you would like11 a bottle of washing-up liquid, I can give you one.
   If you like, I can give you a bottle of washing-up liquid.

   If you would like takes an object. When the object is not mentioned would must be removed. In other words, if you like is not followed by anything.

a  If you (like), I can lend you a bottle of washing liquid.
b  If you (like) a bag of washing powder, I'll give you one.
c  They may take tomorrow off if they (like).
d  I'll buy you a drink if you (like).
e  If you (like) to take early retirement, we can see to it.

14 Examples: (inversion12)
   Should you see the enemy, keep still. (= If you should see the enemy, keep still.)
   Were I to divorce, I would/should marry again. (= If I were to divorce, I would/should marry again.)
   Had you told me before, I would/should have helped you. (= If you had told me before, I would/should have helped you.)

   As has been seen in the examples above, we can place should, were or had before the subject to mean if. This construction is more formal than the one with if.

a  I (be) you, I would resign.
b  I (be) to be given the job, I would accept it.
c  You (require) any further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.
d  You (apply) for the post, you would have obtained it. It is a pity that you did not.
e  You (inform) us earlier, we could have aided you in your research.

15 Examples: (special cases13)
   If Paula won't take the exam, she won't get her degree. (= If
   Paula refuses to take the exam, she won't get her degree.)
   If you will/would14 give us your address and telephone number, we shall15/will contact you as soon as possible. (= Please give us your address and telephone number, and we shall/will contact you as soon as possible/Will [or "Would"] you please give us your address and telephone number so that we can contact you as soon as possible?)
   I should/would be very grateful if you would send me some information about your courses in Great Britain. (Please send me some information about your courses in Britain.)
   If you will play truant, we will/shall expel you from this school. (If you do not stop playing truant, we will/shall expel you from this school.)
   If she would tell me what worries her so much, I would/should be able to help her. (If she wanted to tell me what worries her so much, I would/should be able to help her.)
   If these medicinal herbs will cure me of my backache, I will/shall take them/Provided that these medicinal herbs will cure me of my backache, I will/shall take them. (= I will take these medicinal herbs, and my backache will be cured as a result.)

a  If your car (not start), (use) this product. It works miraculously.
b  If you (hold) on, I (see) if the manager (be) in.
c  If you (skip) classes, you (fail).
d  I (buy) this electric razor providing that it (leave) my skin soft.
e  We (be) very grateful if you (keep) this secret.

16 Examples: (In this section, you have to fill in the spaces given with in case, in case of or if.)
   Take this telephone number with you (just) in case16 you have a breakdown.
   If you have a breakedown, take this telephone number from the glove compartment.
   In case of war, you should leave the country.
   If war breaks out/If there is a war, you should leave the country.

   In the first instance, you "take the telephone number with you" because you might have a breakdown. In the second example, you perform the action only when this happens; but this may not occur, in which case, you do not "take this telephone number from the glove compartment". The third and fourth sentences above have similar meanings.

a  __________ emergency, push this button.
b  __________ there is an emergency, push this button.
c  __________ fire, phone the fire brigade.
d  __________ there is a fire, phone the fire brigade.
e  The sky has clouded over. Take this umbrella with you __________ it rains.

17 Examples: (In this section, you have to rewrite the sentences as shown in the examples.)
   We must go on strike, or (else) our wages will be reduced by half.
   We must go on strike, otherwise our wages will be reduced by half.
   Either we go on strike or our wages will be reduced by half.
   If we don't go on strike, our wages will be reduced by half.
   You go on ragging me about my nose(,) and I'll wring your neck.
   If you go on ragging me about my nose, I'll wring your neck.

a  We must eradicate famine from the world, or many people will continue dying of hunger.
b  Either you submit your application forthwith or it will not be accepted.
c  You give me a hand, and I'll give you a stick of chewing-gum.
d  You'll have to study hard, otherwise you won't pass.
e  Put some petrol now, or else we'll run out.

18 Revision exercise.
a  If I (be) Mary, I (not breathe) a word of this to anyone.
b  If it (not be) for the children, I (leave) my husband. (I do not leave my husband on account of the children.)
c  Unless you (wait) for them, they (get) angry. So please wait for them.
d  If you (see) a fierce dog, you mustn't run from it.
e  Can you go a little bit more slowly? If you (go) so fast, you (overshoot) the turning.
f  "I couldn't watch the film on TV last night."
   "Don't worry; they'll probably rerun it again."
   "If so, I (not miss) it."
g  The fire engines got there in no time at all. If they (arrive) a bit later, the fire (destroy) everything.
h  The last time I went there they charged me an arm and a leg. If they (not charge) so much, I (go) there again. (But I won't.)
i  If you (like), you can come with us.
j  If you (like) to have a smashing dinner, you should go to the restaurant I told you about yesterday.
k  I did it only because they blackmailed me. If they (not blackmail) me, I (not do) it.
l  If you (sign) here, I (see) what I can do for you. (Please sign here, and I'll see what I can do for you.)
m  If they (not lend) you the money, I will. (= If they refuse to lend you the money, I will lend it to you.)
n  If I (be) you, I (take) his advice. You have nothing to lose by taking it.
o  I (be) you, I (follow) his advice. You have nothing to lose by following it.
p  You (require) anything from us, please (let) us know.
q  If you know your children have been found safe and sound, why you (be) so concerned about them?
r  If you need a freezer, why you (not buy) one yet?
s  Come on! If we (not rush), we (not finish) in time.
t  It's not surprising that he's always the laughing-stock of the whole office. If he (not be) such a wimp, people (respect) him.
u  You'd better slow down a little if you (not wish) to fall ill.
v  It's been raining quite a lot lately. If it (not stop) raining, the reservoir (fill) up in a week or so.
w  Whenever I (eat) spicy food, I have terrible stomack-aches. So
   I won't eat this lunch, as it is very hot.
x  "Why do always publishers proofread manuscripts before publishing them?"
   "If they (not proofread) them, some of them (be) published with errors."
y  If somebody (ask) you where I am, (tell) them I'm in Brazil on holiday.
z  If you (not have) the heart to kill the old dog, why you (tell) her that you would.

   PART 2

1  Complete the following sentences as appropriate.

a  If it hadn't been for your advice, I...
b  If you were aware of the many drawbacks of the contract, why...?
c  If he doesn't pay us back by Monday,...
d  If I were you,...
e  I'll take you there provided...
f  I'll teach you how to do it as long as...
g  But for her intervention, we...
h  I would have invited Laura if...
i  Should you require us,...
j  If you would like a racket,...
k  If you like,...
l  I'd buy lots of things if...
m  If you hadn't drunk so much,...
n  If you had employed an screwdriver,...
o  Unless you have your parents' consent,...
p  Suppose somebody recognized you —what...
q  If somebody makes good use of their time at school, they...
r  We could have saved his life if...
s  I'd be frightened to death if...
t  She might have passed the test if...
u  You're going to get sunstroke if...
v  If they were to win the lottery,...
w  My parents normally tell me off if...
x  If you kicked the smoking habit,...
y  Had they been arrested,...
z  If my moped hadn't been stolen,...

2  Complete the following sentences as appropriate.

a  If he had given himself up to the police,...
b  If my parents buy me a motorcycle,...
c  If you had fed the baby, it...
d  If my camera were not jammed,...
e  If there should be another earthquake,...
f  I'll tell you what happened so long as...
g  I'll go with you on condition that...
h  If it hadn't been for you,...
i  Providing these tablets will help me to get rid of my constipation, I...
j  If you will tell lies,... (= If you keep on telling lies,...)
k  If they won't let you in,...
l  If he were in her shoes,...
m  She wouldn't have gone there if...
n  If you dry up the dishes,...
o  If you didn't trust her, why...
p  If I were implicated in a murder,...
q  If he hadn't mocked (at) me,...
r  If I went overseas for over a year and found some squatters at home on my return, I...
s  If he feels drowsy,...
t  If my husband/wife snored at night,...
u  If you hang up your jacket,...
v  But for her spell,...
w  If you hadn't put your pullower on back to front,...
x  If you had read the set books,...
y  If I were immortal,...
z  Unless we go halves on the drinks,...

   PART 3

1  Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing its meaning. Use IF.

   Stop fooling about or I'll go home.
   If you don't stop fooling about, I'll go home.

a  Stop winding the clock, or you'll overwind it.
b  He thrust at her with a machete, so she shot him dead.
c  This frying pan has gone rusty because you didn't leave it to drain when you last washed it.
d  The reason why I didn't attend the meeting was that they wanted to try to involve me in their shady business.
e  You didn't turn up at the party, which annoyed her.
f  I took off my shoes in order not to wake up my parents.
g  I don't want you to get home late any more, or else you won't get any pocket money.
h  You haven't eaten your supper, so you will not watch the telly this evening.
i  Either you give up smoking, or you'll die in less than a year.
j  She was ill in bed, and couldn't come to your date.
k  You let me drive, and I'll give you a kiss.
l  In case of theft, phone the police at once.
m  Nobody was hurt because he was near, and was able to defuse the bomb.
n  I didn't get the job because I was left of centre.
o  You tell me that name again and I'll break your neck.
p  I didn't get a wink of sleep last night. Therefore, I'm very tired.
q  We've just missed the bus. As a result of this, we'll have to wait till tomorrow.
r  Help us out and we'll repay you.
s  I'll show you a photograph of her to jog your memory. (If..., will this jog...?)
t  Put these things away, or you won't have anything for dessert.
u  My father was in high spirits, so I asked him to let me come back home late.
v  I hope it won't rain this afternoon, since it will prevent us from climbing.
w  When the police stopped me, I was as sober as a judge. This is why, they didn't fine me.
x  We must hire a taxi, or we'll miss the basketball final.
y  She lost faith in him, so she didn't tell him anything about the matter.
z  He had fallen for her, which is why he believed her.

2  Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing its meaning. Use IF.

   He arrived there so late because he had had a puncture.
   If he hadn't had a puncture, he wouldn't have arrived there
   so late.

a  Without your piece of advice, we wouldn't have been able to do it.
b  You trod in a puddle because you weren't looking where you were going.
c  Maybe she got cross with you because you told her that she should go on a diet.
d  We hate going for a walk in the rain, and it's raining. (Do not use "hate".)
e  We must leave now, otherwise we won't be punctual.
f  As you haven't been a good boy, you won't watch telly tonight.
g  Either you come on time, or I won't wait for you.
h  You sticked your neck out by telling the boss he was wrong, so it's not surprising that you're fired now.
i  England has not got much chance of qualifying for the final, since Brazil has won against England.
j  Now, we can't lose the match against Greece, or we'll be eliminated from the competition.
k  Well, Italy can beat Brazil, which would make things easier for us.
l  You finish your dinner, and I'll take you to the zoo tomorrow.
m  You work overtime this week, and I'll give you next Monday off.
n  In case of robbery, contact us immediately.
o  You failed because you skipped most of your classes.
p  I'll give you a hundred pounds to refresh your memory. (If..., will this refresh...?)
q  Don't eat between meals, or you'll get fat.
r  She saw a viper on her bed, which made her scream with terror.
s  She couldn't explain herself because he rang off.
t  Breathe deeply, and you'll feel the clean air in the country coming into your lungs.
u  She likes him a lot because he's straightforward.
v  Having a child is a rewarding experience, but you have to have one to understand this.
w  Our children must study our mother language, or else it'll die out.
x  Think about being stuck up. What would you do?
y  He got the job because he has qualities of leadership.
z  With my salary, it's very difficult to make both ends meet.

11  Note also the following:
     If you would care for/like an ice-cream, I'll give you one.
     If you would care to/like to have an ice-cream, I'll give you one.

    See also unit 9, section 60.
12  See unit 29, section 4.
13  See units 9 (section 60) and 26 (section 12).
14  More formal than will.
15  More formal than will, and only used in the first persons (I, we).
16  See units 22 (section 37) and 27 (section 7).

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

Tal vez le interese recibir un archivo pdf con las unidades de esta sección para que pueda estudiar siempre que quiera. En este caso, se lo podemos mandar por correo electrónico a cambio de una contribución de 25 euros.





1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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