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Gramática inglesa de nivel avanzado paso a paso (English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIT 12 - Page 2

   Change the singular words given in the exercises below into plural.

13 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)
(The Latin language took it from Greek.)
(Greek origin)
(The Latin language took it from Greek.)

a  nucleus
b  octopus
c  radius
d  syllabus
e  terminus

14 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns11)
   antenna→antennae (part of an insect), antennas (of a radio)

a  nebula
b  antenna
c  alga
d  formula
e  larva

15 Revision exercise.
a  six
b  torpedo
c  crocus
d  loaf
e  knapsack
f  fife
g  trigger
h  double dealer
i  bookcase
j  sofa
k  boxing ring
l  beetle
m  feline
n  view
o  puppy
p  stimulus
q  bypass
r  impediment
s  analysis
t  lady
u  day
v  tile
w  focus
x  goose
y  nanny
z  electricity meter

16 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)

a  memorandum
b  erratum
c  addendum
d  datum
e  stratum

17 Revision exercise.
a  sailor
b  turban
c  doll
d  season
e  porch
f  radio
g  family
h  bush
i  solo
j  brooch
k  pea
l  saucepan
m  piano
n  studio
o  flamingo
p  quota
q  alumna
r  crab
s  aquarium
t  motto
u  ovum
v  toy
w  corpus
x  chain
y  zoo
z  reveller

18 Example: (Greek-origin substantives)

a  ganglion16
b  automaton
c  phenomenon
d  demon
e  proton

19 Examples: (French-origin nouns)
   chateau (or château)→chateaux/chateaus

a  bureau
b  plateau
c  trousseau
d  portmanteau
e  gâteau

20 Revision exercise.
a  nappy
b  sex
c  parenthesis
d  half
e  lacuna
f  mischief
g  stadium
h  tableau
i  vignette
j  wheelchair
k  spoonful
l  curriculum
m  hole
n  branch
o  alibi
p  deity
q  valley
r  codex
s  peach
t  means
u  trout
v  neurosis
w  album
x  millennium
y  tusk
z  pumpkin

21 Examples: (plural words17)
   the Antipodes
   crow's feet
   genitals, genitalia
   the Middle Ages
   road works
   the wings

a  binoculars
b  clothes
c  fireworks
d  spectacles
e  police

22 Examples:
   a German→two Germans
   a Portuguese→two Portuguese
   a Swiss→two Swiss
   an Englishman→two Englishmen
   an Englishwoman→two Englishwomen

a  Japanese
b  American
c  Chinese
d  Australian
e  Irishman

23 Revision exercise.
a  bacillus
b  campus
c  splash
d  monkey
e  pony
f  Dutchwoman
g  spectrum
h  vermin
i  Nepalese
j  cell
k  rope
l  witness
m  bulldozer
n  pepper pot
o  letter box
p  handful
q  veto
r  paradox
s  Russian
t  locus
u  ostrich
v  lighthouse
w  fungus
x  series
y  elf
z  hippopotamus

10  But bonus→bonuses, campus→campuses, chorus→choruses (the Lating language took it from Greek), circus→circuses, genius→geniuses, since they have completely adapted. Notice also corpus→corpora/corpuses; genus→genera.
11  Some words have only regular plurals because they have adapted totally: area→areas, quota→quotas. Panorama→panoramas and idea→ideas come from Greek. Others have the Latin form only: alumna→alumnae.
12  The singular form is seldom used in modern English. The plural form algae occurs in scientific contexts, and is sometimes treated as an uncountable noun. In spoken English, weed or seaweed replaces algae.
13  But we say album→albums, ie this word is entirely adapted to the English language. As for asylum→asylums, bacterium→bacteria, gymnasium→gymnasiums/gymnasia, museum→museums and stadium→stadiums/stadia, the English language took them from Latin; and the Latin one, from Greek. As a general rule, we use irregular plurals when the meaning is specialized, and regular ones when it is not. Note also candelabrum/candelabra→candelabra/candelabras.
14  Its plural form is sometimes treated as an uncountable noun. The singular form "datum" is not used in modern English.
15  But demon→demons, electron→electrons, neutron→neutrons (Latin origin), proton→protons, as they have already adapted to the English language.
16  "Ganglions", "automatons" and "phenomenons" are also possible.
17  Some words have the appearance of a plural word, but they are uncountable: darts, linguistics, mathematics, measles, news, and so on and so forth. In general, collective nouns may be treated as singular words or as plural words: The team is/are playing very well tonight. Phrases referring to distances, liquids, money and time are often considered singular: Two litres of petrol isn't enough. There are also some expressions which are regarded as one unit. They are therefore singular:
     Bacon and eggs is her favourite breakfast.
     The United States of America is a very interesting country to visit.
     Niagara Falls is on the border between North America and Canada.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

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1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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