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Vocabulario básico:
• Índice
• Los colores en inglés
• Meses y estaciones
• Los días de la semana
• Nacionalidades


English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Gramática inglesa de nivel medio:
• Índice
• Unidad 9:  Verbos irregulares


Gramática inglesa para principiantes:
• Índice
• Unidad 1:  A, an, some, any y the
• Unidad 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unidad 3:  Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos y pronombres posesivos
• Unidad 4:  Los pronombres reflexivos, el pronombre recíproco "each other" y los pronombres personales de complemento
• Unidad 5:  Lista de verbos irregulares


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Vocabulario para principiantes - Vocabulario básico


Palabras que hacen referencia a la nacionalidad

País Traducción al castellano Adjetivo Nombre
Singular    Plural   
Los ciudadanos
Afghanistan Afganistán Afghan
An Afghan, two Afghans
The Afghans
Angola Angola Angolan
An Angolan, two Angolans
The Angolans
Argentina / The Argentine (La) Argentina Argentinian, Argentine
An Argentinian,
An Argentine,
two Argentinians
two Argentines
The Argentinians / The Argentines
Armenia Armenia Armenian
An Armenian, two Armenians
The Armenians
Australia Australia Australian
An Australian, two Australians
The Australians
Austria Austria Austrian
An Austrian, two Austrians
The Austrians
The Basque Country El País Vasco / Euskadi Basque
A Basque, two Basques
The Basques
Belgium Bélgica Belgian
A Belgian, two Belgians
The Belgians
Bolivia Bolivia Bolivian
A Bolivian, two Bolivians
The Bolivians
Brazil (El) Brasil Brazilian
A Brazilian, two Brazilians
The Brazilians
Canada (El) Canadá Canadian
A Canadian, two Canadians
The Canadians
Catalonia Cataluña Catalan
A Catalan, two Catalans
The Catalans
Chile Chile Chilean
A Chilean, two Chileans
The Chileans
China (La) China Chinese
A Chinese, two Chinese
The Chinese
Colombia Colombia Colombian
A Colombian, two Colombians
The Colombians
Costa Rica Costa Rica Costa Rican
A Costa Rican, two Costa Ricans
The Costa Ricans
Croatia Croacia Croatian
A Croatian, two Croatians
The Croatians
Cuba Cuba Cuban
A Cuban, two Cubans
The Cubans
Czechoslovakia Checoslovaquia Czech
A Czech, two Czechs
The Czechs
Denmark Dinamarca Danish
A Dane, two Danes
The Danes
Ecuador (El) Ecuador Ecuadorian
An Ecuadorian, two Ecuadorians
The Ecuadorians
Egypt Egipto Egyptian
An Egyptian, two Egyptians
The Egyptians
England Inglaterra English
An Englishman (male),
An Englishwoman (female),
two Englishmen
two Englishwomen
The English
Estonia Estonia Estonian
An Estonian, two Estonians
The Estonians
Findland Finlandia Finnish
A Finn, two Finns
The Finns
France Francia French
A Frenchman (male),
A Frenchwoman (female),
two Frenchmen
two Frenchwomen
The French
Germany Alemania German
A German, two Germans
The Germans
Greece Grecia Greek
A Greek, two Greeks
The Greeks
Guatemala Guatemala Guatemalan
A Guatemalan, two Guatemalans
The Guatemalans
Holland / The Netherlands Holanda / Los Países Bajos Dutch
A Dutchman (male),
A Dutchwoman (female),
two Dutchmen
two Dutchwomen
The Dutch
Honduras Honduras Honduran
A Honduran, two Hondurans
The Hondurans
Hungary Hungría Hungarian
A Hungarian, two Hungarians
The Hungarians
Iceland Islandia Icelandic
An Icelander, two Icelanders
The Icelanders
India La India Indian
An Indian, two Indians
The Indians
Iran El Irán Iranian
An Iranian, two Iranians
The Iranians
Iraq El Irak / Iraq Iraqi
An Iraqi, two Iraqis
The Iraqis
Ireland Irlanda Irish
An Irishman (male),
An Irishwoman (female),
two Irishmen
two Irishwomen
The Irish
Israel Israel Israeli
An Israeli, two Israelis
The Israelis
Italy Italia Italian
An Italian, two Italians
The Italians
Japan (El) Japón Japanese
A Japanese, two Japanese
The Japanese
Laos Laos Loatian
A Loatian, two Loatians
The Loatians
Lithuania Lituania Lithuanian
A Lithuanian, two Lithuanians
The Lithuanians
Mexico México / Méjico Mexican
A Mexican, two Mexicans
The Mexicans
Mongolia Mongolia Mongolian
A Mongolian,
A Mongol,
two Mongolians
two Mongols
The Mongolians / The Mongols
Morocco Marruecos Moroccan
A Moroccan, two Moroccans
The Moroccans
Nepal Nepal Nepalese / Nepali
A Nepalese,
A Nepali,
two Nepalese
two Nepalis
The Nepalese / The Nepalis
New Zealand Nueva Zelanda New Zealand
A New Zealander, two New Zealanders
The New Zealanders
Nicaragua Nicaragua Nicaraguan
A Nicaraguan, two Nicaraguans
The Nicaraguans
Nigeria Nigeria Nigerian
A Nigerian, two Nigerians
The Nigerians
Norway Noruega Norwegian
A Norwegian, two Norwegians
The Norwegians
Pakistan Pakistán / Paquistán Pakistani
A Pakistani, two Pakistanis
The Pakistanis
Panama Panamá Panamanian
A Panamanian, two Panamanians
The Panamanians
Paraguay (El) Paraguay Paraguayan
A Paraguayan, two Paraguayans
The Paraguayans
Peru (El) Perú Peruvian
A Peruvian, two Peruvians
The Peruvians
The Philippines (Las) Filipinas Filipino
A Filipino, two Filipinos
The Filipinos
Poland Polonia Polish
A Pole, two Poles
The Poles
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Puerto Rican
A Puerto Rican, two Puerto Ricans
The Puerto Ricans
Russia Rusia Russian
A Russian, two Russians
The Russians
Portugal Portugal Portuguese
A Portuguese, two Portuguese
The Portuguese
Romania / Rumania / Roumania Rumanía Romanian
A Romanian, two Romanians
The Romanians
Scotland Escocia Scottish / Scottch
A Scot(sman) (male),
A Scot(swoman) (female),
two Scots(men)
two Scots(women)
The Scots
Spain / Castile España / Castilla Spanish / Castilian*
A Spaniard / A Castilian, two Spaniards / two Castilians
The Spanish / The Castilians
Sweden Suecia Swedish
A Swede, two Swedes
The Swedes
Switzerland Suiza Swiss
A Swiss, two Swiss
The Swiss
Thailand Tailandia Thai
A Thai, two Thais
The Thais
Turkey Turquía Turkish
A Turk, two Turks
The Turks
Uruguay (El) Uruguay Uruguayan
A Uruguayan, two Uruguayans
The Uruguayans
Venezuela Venezuela Venezuelan
A Venezuelan, two Venezuelans
The Venezuelans
Vietnam (El) Vietnam Vietnamese
A Vietnamese, two Vietnamese
The Vietnamese
Wales El País de Gales Welsh
A Welshman (male),
A Welshwoman (female),
two Welshmen
two Welshwomen
The Welsh


Observe que las palabras que hacen referencia a la nacionalidad se escriben en mayúscula en inglés, pero no en castellano:

(The) Italians eat a lot of pasta.
Los italianos comen mucha pasta.


Como hemos visto en el ejemplo anterior, el artículo definido (the) puede omitirse con los plurales terminados en s. Compare las oraciones siguientes:

I am going to study Catalan because I like the Catalans.
I am going to study Catalan because I like Catalans.
Voy a estudiar catalán porque los catalanes me caen bien.

The Chinese grow a lot of rice. (El artículo the es necesario.)
Los chinos cultivan mucho arroz.

The Swiss make very tasty chocolates. (El artículo the no se puede quitar, puesto que no se ha añadido s alguna para hacer el plural.)
Los suizos hacen bombones muy ricos.


Las oraciones de abajo significan lo mismo:

(The) Germans are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.
German people are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.
Los alemanes están acostumbrados al frío. Hace mucho frío en Alemania en invierno.


Más ejemplos:

Japanese girls are beautiful.
Las chicas japonesas son preciosas.

(The) Canadians speak English and French.
Los canadienses hablan inglés y francés.

We like Chinese food, so we ate at a Chinese restaurant.
Nos gusta la comida china, así que comimos en un restaurante chino.

A person who comes from Poland is Polish / A person who comes from Poland is a Pole.
Una persona que procede de Polonia es polaca.

Two people who come from Poland are Polish / Two people who come from Poland are Poles.
Dos personas de Polonia son polacas.


*Observe que las palabras Spain y Spanish són imperialistas o colonialistas. Para referirse a la lengua de Castilla, debería emplearse Castilian:
He speaks Castilian.
(Él) habla castellano.
Sin embargo, si está haciendo un examen, su profesor puede que prefiera "Spanish". En caso de duda, pregúntele.




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