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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words


English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Free English Grammar (Basic » Intermediate)


A, an, some, any and the


A and an are used with singular countable nouns. A is used before consonants; an, before vowels.

A cat

An ocean

An orange bike



Have a look at the following examples:

An hour (Please note that the h is silent; therefore, hour starts with a vowel sound.)

A hot dog (The h is not mute here.)

A university student ("University" does not begin with a vowel sound, but, with a consonant sound. It is equivalent to saying you in English.)

An unusual situation (The letter u has a vowel sound here.)



The plural of a or an is some:

Some cats

Some oceans



Some is also used with uncountable nouns: some milk.



In questions and in negatives sentences, any is used instead of some:

There wasn't any milk.

Has she sent you any photos?



However, when we expect a positive reply or when we are offering or asking for something, we use some instead of any:

Would you like some coffee?

Is there some ham in the fridge, mum? I'm very hungry. (The speaker wants to eat some ham, so he expects that his or her mother will say "yes".)



The is used to refer to things previously mentioned or to refer to something unique:

A man and a woman were walking along the path. The man was wearing a red jumper and the woman, a pink jacket.

I would like to go to the moon.



Some, any and the are omitted when the names express a general idea:

I love bananas.

Milk is very good for children.



Exercises:


A.  Fill in the gaps with a, an, some, any or -- (if no article is required).

  1.  I need __________ volunteer to sweep the sitting-room and the kitchen.

  2.  Let's buy __________ grapes for the party.

  3.  May I have __________ water, please?

  4.  There aren't __________ strawberries.

  5.  It was __________ easy exam. Everybody passed it.

  6.  There is __________ lady at the door who asks for you.

  7.  We don't have __________ coke.

  8.  She hasn't got __________ friends

  9.  "Are there __________ trees?"

       "No, there aren't __________ (trees). It's a desert place."

 10.  __________ elephants never forget.



B.  Fill in the gaps with a, an, some, any, the or -- (if no article is required).

  1.  __________ onions aren't in __________ cellar. They are in __________ kitchen.

  2.  __________ whales and __________ elephants are __________ biggest mammals on earth.

  3.  There were __________ books and __________ comics. __________ books were broken, but __________ comics weren't.

  4.  "Could you give me __________ sweets, granny?"

       "Of course, love!"

  5.  I've lost __________ crayons I bought yesterday.

  6.  She hates __________ garlic, but I love it.

  7.  We would like to spend __________ week in Barcelona.

  8.  __________ pollution is destroying __________ earth.

  9.  There isn't __________ apple juice left. Let's buy __________ (apple juice).

 10.  "Did they drink __________ wine?"

       "No, they didn't."


Written by Miquel Molina i Diez























A.

  1.  a

  2.  some

  3.  some

  4.  any

  5.  an

  6.  a

  7.  any

  8.  any

  9.  any, any

 10.  --



B.

  1.  The, the, the

  2.  --, --, the

  3.  some, some, The, the

  4.  some / the (Both alternatives are possible.)

  5.  the

  6.  --

  7.  a

  8.  --, the

  9.  any, some

 10.  some / the (Both alternatives are possible.)



Contents:
Unit 1: A, an, some, any and the
Unit 2: Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
Unit 3: Personal pronouns and possessives
Unit 4: Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
Unit 5: List of irregular verbs


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