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English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 3

   Question tags2 are normally used in informal speech or writing. Therefore, we usually contract them. If we say a question tag with a falling intonation, it is not a real question, that is to say we just want our listener(s) to agree with us. However, if it is uttered with a rising intonation, it is a real question, as we are not sure whether something is true or not. They mean "isn't it true/right?" or "is it true/right?".

   Add question tags to the statements given below.

1  Examples:
   John can come next weekend, can't he?
   John can't come next weekend, can he?

a  I can ride a bicycle.
b  She can't help talking nonsense.
c  They can't take your car.
d  We can arrange a big party.
e  It can't be done.

2  Examples:
   I am your best schoolmate, aren't I? (am I not? is also possible in a more formal context.)
   I am not your best schoolmate, am I?

a  I'm very intelligent.
b  I'm not very clever.
c  I am not to blame for the accident.
d  I'm very naughty.
e  I am very spoilt.

3  Examples: (he, she, it is; you, we, they are; see unit 6, part 1, section 1.)
   This is rubbish, isn't it?
   This is not rubbish, is it?

a  Paul isn't the black sheep of the family.
b  It's a deal.
c  Margaret and Mrs Green are speaking ill about Mr Green.
d  There3 aren't any strawberries left.
e  There are two beds.

4  Examples: (he, she, it has; other persons, have; see unit 6, part 4, sections 1 and 2.)
   She's got a beautiful smile, hasn't she?
   She hasn't got a beautiful smile, has she?

a  You've got ten quid.
b  It's got six sides.
c  She hasn't got a son and two daughters.
d  They've got some unripe bananas.
e  I haven't got a lot of apricots.

5  Examples: (simple present; all the persons, but the third person singular; see also unit 7, part 1.)
   My sisters love chatting to friends, don't they?
   My sisters don't love chatting to friends, do they?

a  You start work at 8 am.
b  You don't finish work at 5 pm.
c  They enjoy long conversations.
d  You don't share anything.
e  I talk too much.

6  Examples: (simple present; third person singular: he, she, it; see also unit 7, part 1.)
   This irritates him, doesn't it?
   This doesn't irritate him, does it?

a  He doesn't worry about car accidents.
b  His dog leads his blind sister home.
c  She wants to have a child.
d  It smells fishy to you.
e  She doesn't approve of parties.

7  Revision exercise.
a  She revises your work.
b  She doesn't like this corridor.
c  I'm the best singer in the world.
d  I am not an amateur.
e  They haven't got the keys.
f  He always rings the bell.
g  They don't go out very often.
h  He doesn't sell vegetables.
i  There aren't great expectations.
j  We are quits now.
k  He is going to phone Ann first thing in the morning.
l  You hate hunting.
m  You can't land a plane.
n  He is going to wind the clock.
o  Life is hard.
p  Charles and William aren't taking driving lessons.
q  Natasha does not know what to do.
r  My dogs don't bark at night.
s  They can't leave this door open.
t  Ingrid takes things easy.
u  Maggie is easygoing.
v  You remember the first time we met.
w  It doesn't work properly.
x  Oliver and Jeremy think this crossword is as easy as
   falling of a log.
y  You don't agree with them.
z  A lady doesn't smoke cigars.

8  Examples: (simple past; irregular verbs; see the list provided in unit 8; see also unit 7, part 3.)
   Mary and John went to Cuba, didn't they?
   Mary and John didn't go to Cuba, did they?

a  Judith didn't feed her Alsatian dog last night.
b  The vessel sank.
c  It froze yesterday night.
d  They didn't take cover from the blizzard.
e  They didn't find their way out.

9  Examples: (simple past; regular verbs; see unit 7, part 3.)
   Jason camplained about the food, didn't he?
   Jason didn't complain about the food, did he?

a  Kevin dropped the soup.
b  Your grandfather always carried a stick.
c  Barry robbed them last month.
d  Christopher joined the army last year.
e  His wound didn't heal.

10 Examples: (I, he, she, it was; you, we, they were; see unit 6, part 1, section 2.)
   You were frightened to death, weren't you?
   You weren't frightened to death, were you?

a  There wasn't anything to eat or drink.
b  We were in danger.
c  He wasn't inside the café.
d  She was outside the bookshop.
e  They were very sensitive.

11 Examples:
   He never goes to church, does he?
   They hardly ever go to Laura's surgery, do they?

   Barely, hardly, neither, never, nobody, scarcely, seldom, and so on, are negative words. Consequently, we shall use an affirmative interrogative tag. See units 5 (section 3) and 14 (section 9).

a  There is no butter left.
b  Nothing matters now.
c  I never drink beer.
d  He seldom stays at home.
e  He can barely read.

12 Examples:
   Nobody puts up with her behaviour, do they?
   Everything was said, wasn't it?

   We normally use they in the tag after anybody, anyone, everybody, everyone, nobody, no-one, somebody, someone, and any other singular words referring to people. However, he can be employed in more formal speech or writing. The change of he to they is due to the fact that many people consider he sexually bias. If we refer to things (anything, everything, nothing, something), we use it. See unit 10, section 9.

a  Nobody knows where the treasure is hidden.
b  Nothing was done about it.
c  Everything is very expensive nowadays.
d  Everybody gave him a warm reception.
e  Every child has4 to help to lay the table.

13 Revision exercise.
a  Edgar's talk was a failure.
b  The van crashed into a wall.
c  We didn't buy any pears.
d  My dog buried the bone.
e  I can't look her up when I go to Glasgow.
f  Your boss had to do without his secretary yesterday morning5.
g  She wants to open a stationer's shop.
h  No-one betrayed you.
i  She yelled at you about your getting there late.
j  She hugged him.
k  I can't catch up with you.
l  Mildred never shows off.
m  They were always boasting.
n  Nothing grows up there.
o  He wasn't up when you looked in on him at eight o'clock in
   the morning.
p  I told you not to hit your sister.
q  He doesn't cook very well.
r  Philip didn't climb that oak-tree.
s  Monica and you don't often make your beds.
t  None of them entered the hut.
u  Her new boss was impressed by her good manners.
v  I am a good politician.
w  I'm not in the mood for going out tonight.
x  They haven't got your purse.
y  He is in a good temper today.
z  She concluded by saying that one's family always comes last.

1  They are also called "tag questions'.
2  If the tag is positive, we expect a negative reply; if it is negative, a positive one:
     "She isn't cold-hearted, is she?"
     "No, she isn't."
     "They should at least acquaint themselves with the machinery, shouldn't they?"
     "Yes, I think they should."

3  Use there as the subject of the question tag.
4  Use do.
5  Use did.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

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1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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