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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 9 - The key
     VERB TENSES: USES


1 a boil; are b rises; sets c does not revolve d never take e usually works

2 a boil; is dripping b is getting c Are you watching d is your daughter getting e are they doing; are building

3 a is taking b am staying c are inviting d is taking e is leaving

4 a is lodging b do not fly c is having d is watering; generally waters e Do you usually leave f normally arrives g are making h is destroying i is smoking j is beginning k leads l is pouring m is not getting n is cooking o makes p never irons q expands; contracts r Are you going; is pouring s eat t Are they learning u always give v Donít you ever pray; pray; go w gather x are having y is making z is marking

5 a are b dislikes c knows d seems e do not mind

6 a am expecting b expect c tastes d are you smelling; Does it smell e hurt/are hurting

7 a is being b is being c are being d is being e is being

8 a is constantly boasting b always arrive c are always cheating d are continually getting e is perpetually smoking

9 a are just sitting b is just winning c are just going d is just getting e is just having

10 a produce b am trying c want d aches/is aching e feel/am feeling f is she doing; is watching; loves g do you do h normally work; are being i am j live k makes l is; is looking m are inviting; n smells o is doing p consider q are all these people clapping; is r are the children doing; are playing; are all the time playing; Donít you think; is s proves; am t are you tasting; am; like u are always telling; know; hate v is just arriving w feel/am feeling x does not often perspire y are being z is rotting

11 a are you carrying b do not generally wear; am wearing c is not joining d is not coming e are using

12 a leaves b stay; go; spend; leave; head; arrive; have; continue c thinks; sails; discovers d does the volleyball match finish e run

13 a was just going; tripped; tumbled b saw; was flying c was taking; put d was forever snatching; was e were gradually forgetting; caught; were

14 a donít you bring b isnít he wearing; always wears; do not know c didnít you come d found e Do you suffer; am; am f think; are; make g was going; approached; shot; h was wondering1; donít you ask your parents; donít want; squander i was flying; came j are belching; gets k saw; treated; felt l was; was walking m arose; were; was; managed; saw; succeeded n rose; did not pay; simply followed; heard, remembered o dreamt/dreamed; were creeping; was; looked; was crawling p awoke; realised q hanged; accused; was; do you know; was; robbed r hung; stole s hit, ran t did not forgive; felt; had; is living u forgot v had; came; had/has; is considering; does not want; detests w think; is; dare; are x stabbed; were having; ran; are looking y did she get; made; signed; was working z are perpetually leaving

15 a drew; shot; did he use b has not rained c has written d did not clear e told; was; burst

16 a have just shaken b has just admitted c Has anybody just called d have just had e have just killed

17 a spoilt/spoiled b said; are; not only kill; are still suffering; get; is; have; do not look; Are we c is; grows d have been; do not fight e beset; was f told; was; gave g has made h eats, feed; Donít you think; is; donít you feed i were diving; appeared j was blowing; crapped k delayed; had l saw; were lying m have been seeking/have sought; have not found n usually sweeps; did not sweep; still has not swept/still hasnít swept/has still not swept; is o does she look; has (got); is p have not heard; went q entered; heard; did you do; asked r is accompanying; wish s was bleeding; got t have devoted u are constantly libelling v keeps w is just giving; goes x has just given; have just become y flung z jumped; had

18 a have never seen b Have you fed c Has he ever fallen d Havenít we been e has painted

19 a has phoned b has not eaten c sewed d has not shone e have won

20 a assume; follow b has shrunk c have sent d have rebuilt; are considering; belongs e have sawn; have not sawn f Have you ever ridden; rode; have never ridden g ever spells/has ever spelt/ spelled; h is forever spitting i feel/am feeling j give k drank; had; had l Does God exist; asked; responded m am playing n conducted o has always led; does not know; means p jumped; escaped q wanted; ran; leapt/leaped r overtook; crashed s broadcast t have never besought/beseeched; need; owe u are inviting v has lent; is; is always trying/always tries w do not understand; are saying/say; do not speak x came; was crying y is leaning z told; did not trust; hung

21 a has composed b composed c has ever made d have flown e has built

22 a Have you ever seen b Has she still not thrown c Has he paid d have already manufactured e have been

23 a am spending b wrote c bought; is not working d Have you heard; have just forbidden e froze f overslept g undertook; only obeyed h has stopped; Did you wind; am; forgot i abandoned; underpaid j was searching; was having k happen/should happen l is always boasting; do not like m am giving n hardly ever let; really want o are perpetually entreating; do not feel; have offered; prefer p hid; managed; succeded; is living q never chats; is chatting r won s open t donít you put; is u got; were; tried; arrived v are being w lit x has bitten; muzzles y is being repaired z saw; broke; got; wanted; think; work; are

24 a have arrested; did that happen b have passed; did you do c have been; last went d has had e has asked; did he ask; did you answer; answered

25 a have never been b has never eaten c have never drunk d never drink e never poke/have never poked

26 a has painted; is thinking b has left c held d sank e swore; died; keep f are continually upsetting; donít you leave g is forever beating; wish h did not know; had i bespoke j does maelstrom mean; means k came; did not give l have rewritten; still is not/still isnít/is still not/is not still m went n were; hated; lived; were quarrelling; liked o smoke; drink; are damaging; donít you try p never snored; snores; suffers q has never hurt r Has your conscience ever smitten; do not believe s only struck; exploded t are eating u were not going; were coming v has just stung; itches/is itching w get x think; is leaking; donít you send y dates z has just bought

27 a comes2 b arrives c (had) had; came d get e could3 say/had been able to say/were able to say; (had) told

28 a have been running b has been drawing c has drawn d have drunk e have been drinking

29 a has sculped b has been knitting c has knitted d have you been doing; have been greasing e has been pulling

30 a rings b think c has been stalking/has stalked; presume d was stalking; noticed; ran e are; are f look g set; is looking h hates; says; stole; wants; guess; is; fear i gripped; saved j Have you ground; have bought k keep l have not cast; Do you think m sound n did not rewind o dressed; missed p has outgrown; no longer likes q breeds/is breeding; thought r bet; lost; did not win s have misled; have just done; is t have not repaid; do not do it u dwelt/dwelled v is continously bending; reckon w are still clinging; has not died; have not found; presume x mistook; said; was not; liked; assumed; wanted y misspells z are thinking; are considering

31 a have been wishing b has loved c has been longing d have been thinking e has had

32 a has been sleeping4 b has been snowing c has been thundering d have always wanted e have been taking

33 a has been eroding/has eroded b have you been married; have been married; Have you been changing/have you changed; got; have had; Are you thinking; loves; wishes; sympathize c is forever dwelling; made d do not believe e has been wanting f withdrew g do you make h taught; was i have been waiting j suppose; restored k have done; have not finished l have been hunting/have hunted m has spread n are always making; wish o know; have been leaking/have leaked; confess p hangs; seeps q went; was not running r begins; ends s produces; disappear/have disappeared; does not wear; does not pass t have rebuked; u think; have misheard; have just said v do not overcome w has just bitten x proved y stings z was

34 a had been working/had worked b had never lived c still had not/ still hadnít/had still not turned d had just regained e had begged

35 a switched; had fled b wanted; had not done; was c had reserved; arrived d got; noticed, had snowed/had been snowing; were; had been making; had left; had had; had not had e had struck; was lying; had

36 a had been whispering; (had) arrived; told; did not want; left b had eaten; had never seen c was snowing/had been snowing/had snowed; was watching; brought; was d came, had already passed; felt/could feel; was getting e had already perished; did not feel; had appeared; was f was; treated; was; wished; did not find g brake h tries; has i abided; did j does not bend k do you make l acted; ruled m has been lying n dates o was just going; owed; appeared p Have you been overeating; have had q has been shoeing; did not know; was r have been; Are wars s came; told; had been weaving; felt/was feeling; told t kidnapped; underfed; liberated u have never met v still has not/still hasnít/has still not apologised w has never worked; prefers; disagrees x is always saying; pities; drives y had just bought; were sitting z heard; dived

37 a am not doing/am not going to do b am having c is buying/is going to buy d are supplying e are going (to go)

38 a are going to furnish; are looking b is getting c are you going; am going to hail d was peeling/was going to peel e was going to peel

39 a is he going to do; is going to shear; was going to cut b will light c will make d am going to be e am going to fix

40 a mishit b withheld; want; am not going to help c never forbear d are you going; am going to cut; will look; will help e have been learning/have learnt/have learned f will bring g kept; was doing h had misspent i very rarely use j had treated; said k did you buy l had studied/had been studying; smelt/smelled; had been; scolded; are not m thinks; believes n do not add; remains o Do you mind; smoke p tells; always begs q learnt/learned; had been doing/had done/were doing; felt r persuaded; loved s has beaten; will teach; is always hitting t shook; burst; was u does ďbe bornĒ mean; means v carries w does a cat shed x always has; does not like y will take; (will) try z got; had already decided

41 a will recognise (I think so.)/are going to recognise (There are signs of this or I am convinced about this.) b will have to resign (He has no other alternative.); is going to resign (This is his intention.) c will believe d will refuse e will perceive

42 a had sprung b would not be here c will get d would not have become e overflew

43 a Arenít you going to play/Arenít you playing b Will/Would you answer c Are they really going to decorate d Will/Would you organize e Are you going to take/Are you taking

44 a do b went; was wearing c Will/Would you find d Have you insured e do not keep f Will/Would you give g had never strung; liked h Are you meeting; is waiting i Will/Would you stand j had torn; (had) thrown k would not seek l are you going; am going to buy; are m Is it raining n will take o do not know; will ask p have censured; has been handling/has handled q misunderstood; misunderstand; have; learn; do; see; happens r did not want; had done s Did you know; did it happen; heaved t have felt/have been feeling; Have you been poisoning u Is you daughter coming/Is your daughter going to come v disobey w will take x have not brought; will lend y had not wrung z had rebound; would not have come; would not be missing

45 a will not come b will not use c will not eat d will not hunt e will not make

46 a were going to perish b are going to crash c is going to be d is going to shoot e is going to beat

47 a will watch b will release c will treat d will give; will have e will root; (will) plant

48 a invite b do not bid c will/shall stay d is not e catches

49 a will have b saw c is; will attack; bit; was going d will/shall miss e will/shall have f wrung; congratulated; was going g bellow h have been hoping/have hoped; left i will get j will never be; works k had knelt/had kneeled; (had) prayed l retold m studied n would not be/would not have been; will take o had foretold p had already killed; was q brings r entered; had abandoned s did not want t are eating; will buy u likes/liked v sneezed w interwove x had just spilt/had just spilled; had done y am just coming z stink; have not washed

50 a will always fear5; will defend b will never listen c would crack d will send e will take

51 a Shall we go b Shall I come c shall/should we do d Shall/Will I live e Shall I stay

52 a shall6 have b Will you be; will c shall pay d shall have e Will you shut

53 a will intend b knew; would like; bought c will remember; see; promise; know; will/shall always love d had crossbred e will/shall find f will encourage/is going to encourage g passed h loathe; will happen i had retaken j will have k will/shall wring l Shall we help m Shall we pick n have withstood; will/shall beat o Will they accommodate; will p is always forcing q waylaid; Did he report; do not know r has not been; shall not/will not have s had misdealt/had been misdealing; got t outwitted; crossed u shall/will come v donít we investigate w underwrote x will bring; will cook y am studying; is expecting z had speeded; would have reached; will/shall be

54 a do not make b Do not count c Do not make d Do not make e Come; Make

55 a had b to declare c were not/was not d took e die; help

56 a had stayed b had not mixed c had not emptied d had not eaten e had not called

57 a would not graze b would rain c would stop d would get e would not hail

58 a were/was b remind c will turn d donít we go; have e not overlook f Make g had not upbraided h Do not overdo; will believe i had not sedated j to go k to get l Help m said; move; will/shall kill n shall/will eat o will find p has rusted q seem; are always mislaying r forsook; died; did he do; think; had; fled s overspend t Halt; Halt; will/shall shoot u had not screamed; will know v would stop w did not come; do not invite x do not do y had not endured; had asked z outbid; is; inherited/has inherited (or was; had inherited)

59 a were/was b are having c have d were/was e have

60 a will not start (or does not start) b would like c like d would train e will/would tell

61 a was badly miscast b has just been inlaid c is/has swollen d has been read e be sent

62 a does not like b have been overselling/have oversold; do not think c were/was d will/would kindly sign; will not have e like f had not sold; would have got g do not tell; have seen h had not been put; will/shall never get i would like; will have j put k dreamt/ dreamed; was following; wanted; ran; was always l keep; stop; will be taken; will be tortured m will not apprehend/do not apprehend n would not regard o do not contradict p Will/Would you pass q are you going; am going to chop; will help; Have you (got)/Do you have; Look r misread; thought s Shall I call t undersell u have passed v smelt/smelled; were leaving w has been sitting; Tell x go; will always find y Rid; will/shall be given z has often overridden; has realized/realizes; am always

63 a will be working b will be chatting c will probably be diving d will be breaking e will/shall be selling

64 a will be collecting; will be wearing b Will you be staying7/Are you staying/Are you going to stay c will/shall be seeing d will be taking e Will you be using/Are you going to use/Are you using

65 a will not lend/is not going to lend8 b will not be coming/is not coming c will not go/is not going (to go) d will not rub/is not going to rub e will not be meeting/is not meeting

66 a were overpaid; told; was underpaid; donít you ask b was she weeping; saw; had just had; had just been taken c would like d had; had e asked f to walk g is; was born h will/shall be kissing i was isolated j will not be going; will be travelling k Do not touch l passed; contracted; did he catch; think; is called m will be launching n was leaving o will not sing p will not walk q saved; would be r will be; do not think s Do not be; will not sting t have ever met u will/shall be contemplating v had overseen w will not partake/are not partaking/are not going to partake; will/shall win (or did not partake; won) x is beginning/will be beginning; will be y will probably be saying; celebrates z had had; was; decided; arrived; had slit; was lying

67 a will have become b will have escaped c will have been d will have been standing/will have stood e will have been staying/will have stayed

68 a do not take b is perpetually picking c Keep back; burst d is forecast(ed) e will have risen f renovated g were fluttering h are having; like i will not corroborate; will try j will probably be wallowing; am wallowing k assure; will/shall have exterminated l will have been firing/will have fired; Donít you think m had not disappointed; do not even want n had attacked o oversell p Will you be needing; want q Stop r will have been raising s had gone t die; go u will be drinking; drinks; goes v didnít you take; went w outran; hid x had not ambushed y has left z had upheld; would not be; will definately not follow/definately will not follow/definately wonít follow

69 a chatting/having chatted; to look b to flutter c to take d leaving e to rain/raining

70 a persist; thinking; is; be b will forswear; is; do not think c to be; undersell d need; is it; last varnished e will play; will tell f to update g wish; had had h had not ripped; told; had i to trust; will never fail j go; (will) destroy k remind; to unfreeze; get l has sprinkled; Donít you like; know; hate m being n will/shall let; know o congratulated; winning p direct; Go; turn q have always walked/are always walking; were/was; r have (got) s serves; got t accept; know; u move; buy; mean; will have v ring w have never taken; do not take; we will/shall lose x Will you be using; take y got; realised; had been eating; had also lit; (had also) drunk z were not; be; are

71 a would be working b would kiss c would not go d would not be going e would get/would be getting

72 a would not stay b Will/Would you partake c will unfreeze d did not say e will take; is not; say that he is/said that he was; occurred f would not be g is; to make; meet; does not change; will be h has subsided/subsides; will/shall continue; stay; light i Will/Would you clear; will do; am going to clear j eat k was raining/had rained/ had been raining; lent l would not come m Not understanding; ran n having died; going; advised; not to continue o had been walking; to stop; (to) have; to eat p Stand; get q have been dying; stop r has just had s had; had been drinking; had drunk/drank; had not drunk; would not have had t would/should be staying/was going to stay/was staying u Will/Would you turn v will do w have been trying/have tried; to get; were founded; remains x writing; not use y had substituted z are; have you been working


____________________
1  I wonder if/whether would sound less hesitant:
     I wonder if/whether you could come tomorrow. (Why donít you come tomorrow?)
     I was wondering if/whether you could lend me a thousand pounds. (I do not know what you will say about this, but the fact is that I need that sum of money.)
2  If we use has come, we imply that it will take her a long time to come. The same goes for exercises b and d.
3  For could, see unit 22, section 2.
4  The simple form is not impossible in some cases where we have used the continuous form, but the continuous tense is a much better alternative.
5  The simple present is also possible in this section.
6  In this section, will is also possible instead of shall.
7  In the following sections, I shall only give the first alternative.
8  The first alternative in this section is far better than the second. In the next sections, I have only included the first one, usually.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)


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