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English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 20 - The key

1 a The hooligans who1 were arrested last night are dangerous criminals b The boy who lives next door wets the bed c The boy whose overcoat is filthy had a crush on her d The woman whose hair is wavy is a diver e The spinster (whom/that) you met three days ago wants to marry eagerly

2 a The spaghetti (which/that) we ate yesterday tasted delicious b The salad (which/that) you dressed with homemade vinegar and olive oil tasted great c He wants to catch the rabbit which/that eats the vegetables in his garden d This is the most interesting story (that) you have ever told me e The car the bonnet of which/whose bonnet has a few dents belongs to Mr Jones

3 a The table (which/that) we were sitting at/at which we were sitting/where we were sitting was very antique b The criminal (whom/that) she was robbed by/by whom she was robbed was taken to gaol c The woman (whom/that) he had an affair with/with whom he had an affair was the wife of a very important politician d The TV programme (which/that) I talked you about yesterday/about which I talked you yesterday is off e This is the spade (which/that) I was looking for/for which I was looking

4 a The lady who has just turned round is our sales director b These pills are for drug addicts who want to come off drugs c The car the bodywork of which/whose bodywork is in a bad state is mine d She showed me something (that) she got from an antique shop e The secretary who ushered me into Mr Goldsmith's office is a stunner f The stain (which/that) you have on your jacket won't come out g She was swept off her feet by a boy who save her life h The uncle who came home last night is very old-fashioned i The ship (which/that) they were on/on which they were was travelling north j The buttons (which/that) you bought yesterday are too small k The pullover (which/that) he has on is the very latest l The old dog whose owner/the owner of which painted a portrait of your mother the day before yesterday has just pegged out m I cut the branch (which/that) I stumbled on/on which I stumbled n The children whose mother teaches history at the local school are very naughty o The old man who came into the inn wet to the skin has a terrible cold p The mussels that you cooked last week were delicious q The jersey (which/that) her mother had knitted for her was naff r They are going to pull down the house the roof of which/whose roof is black s I saw an indigent whose hand was badly burnt t Everyone (who is) at the première says it is excellent u The last person (whom/that) he saw was a fifty-year-old woman v The old lady who has a lot of pets has been across the world w The inn (which/that) we stayed at/at which we stayed/where we stayed had central heating x She is the most charming girl (that) I know y This is the horse (which/ that) Mary rides z The boy (whom/that) she is going out with tonight/with whom she is going out tonight is very polite

5 a Don Quixote, which is a send-up of chivalry novels, was written by Cervantes b The police, who suspected us of being spies, were harassing us constantly c The examination (which/that) we did yesterday was as easy as ABC d The main character in this novel, who is very evil, is a tax-collector e The policewoman who was murdered by a gang of terrorists had four children

6 a She told him that she loved him, which made him felt very nervous b Everything went according to plan, which pleased them a lot c I told the whole matter to the police, who said it wasn't their business d I offered them my help, which they rejected e The new album outsells all their other works, which will make them one of the most popular bands in the world


Definig relative clauses: people

subject object possessive
who / that (whom / that) whose

Defining relative clauses: things

subject object possessive
which / that (which / that) of which / whose

Non-defining and co-ordinating relative clauses: people

subject object possessive
who whom whose

Non-defining and co-ordinating relative clauses: things

subject object possessive
which which of which / whose

8 a The runner who is in the lead now is my workmate b The lawyer who worked for my father twenty years ago has one foot in the grave c We are going through a crisis in which many employers will have to close down d They married her daughter to a man who was twice her age and (who was) very wealthy (or The man (whom/that) they married her daughter to/to whom they married her daughter was twice her age and very wealthy) e The man (whom/that) they married her daughter to/to whom they married her daughter was an old crock f He told her that she got what she deserved, which annoyed her very much g The woman whose husband is a member of the golf club is an ardent feminist h Sir Thomas, whose cavalry save their lives, did not die in vain. But for him, our siblings would not be alive now, which is why we will never forget him i They set fire to the barracks, which angered the captain j My grandmother, who is very old, suffers from senile dementia k Her sister, of whom he is very fond/whom he is very fond of, always gets out of bed on the wrong side l The children who are neighbours of ours were very afraid of lightning m Someone that knew the house very well nicked the silver cutlery set n That old man, who has outworn ideas, thinks women should stay at home and take care of their children o We put our trust in them, which was the silliest thing to do p Margaret, who was madly in love with him, did not want to tell the truth q Susie, who is swinging on the old rope, is a friend of my daughter's r The people next door, who come from well-to-do families, very often go to posh restaurants s Her father, who didn't want her daughter to arrive home late, gave her a lecture about the importance of getting home early t The little girls who are riding on the swings are my nieces u The man who runs this company is forty years of age v Mrs Brown, who has a crick in the neck, hasn't come to work today w The print cartride (which/that) we bought yesterday is faulty x Big cities' smog, which is very bad for peoples health, should be reduced y Miss Perkins, whom you teach biology, is very pessimistic about her future z New York, in which city/where she would like to live, is very cosmopolitan

9 a I saw several painting and sculptures by Michelangelo Buanarroti, all of which were superb b There were nearly fifty people at the party, the majority of whom were wearing informal clothes c He collects cuckoo clocks, some of which cost him a fortune d He borrowed a lot of books from the library, a few of which were on medieval history e This library loans art books, most of which are about the Middle Ages

10 a Aldrin, Collins and Amstrong were the first people to land on the moon/...were the first people that landed on the moon b Mary was the only person to ring me up/Mary was the only person that rang me up c There are a lof of things for us to eat at home/There are a lot of things that we can eat at home d He has nobody to go out with/He has nobody with whom to go out/He has nobody that wants to go out with him e He has a lot of homework to do for tomorrow/He has a lot of homework that must be done for tomorrow (less usual)/He has a lot of homework that he must do for tomorrow (less usual)

11 a Any application form arriving/that arrives after 12th March will not be considered b Sandy, hoping/who hoped to be given the post, was too familiar with the interviewer c Everybody wishing/that wishes to have a drink can raise their hands d Women (who are) ill-treated by their husbands should report this to the police e He sent us a fax saying/that said that the books were out of stock

12 a This factory, the waste of which/whose waste is contamining the river, must be closed down b I wanted to buy an anorak the sleeves of which/whose sleeves were royal blue c His dreams, which gave him the strength and morale to carry on with his miserable life, had vanished d The chest of drawers (which/that) I showed (to) you belongs to my grandmother e This video cassette recorder, which is a gift from my mother, is the last word in sound and picture reproduction f We have some wine in the cellar, most of which is mellow g She has thirty pupils, half of whom are from abroad h He coached a second division football team, which made him very happy i The banker (whom/that) I'm on familiar terms with/with whom I am on familiar terms told me my account was in the red j The refugees fainted, which was caused by malnutrition k His little daughter, who came home soaked through, caught a cold yesterday l She always plays down everything (that) I do, but she plays up everything (that) she does m The girl (whom/that) he has a date with/with whom she has a date was fined for reckless driving n They need a house to live in/They need a house in which to live/They need a house where to live o This is the largest passenger ship (which/that) has ever plied across the Pacific Ocean p He sent out a circular which/ that informed his clients about this issue/He sent out a circular informing his clients about this issue q Mr Jones, who says it is not worth getting married, is a confirmed bachelor r Mr White, who was the last person in the family to learn/that learnt about his wife's illness, cannot get used to the idea of her death s Donald, to whom you want to speak/whom you want to speak to is getting into a taxi t Your irresponsible behaviour has undone many years of negotiations, which will annoy the president u Mrs Carter, whose husband has a viperish tongue, was astonished by the news of their neighbours' divorce v Tom, who is very tight-fisted, will not invite you for a snack lunch w My neighbour's van, the doors of which/whose doors are pink, has got a diesel engine x Miss Scott, whose father is a colleague of mine, left me speechless y This settee, which belonged to my grandmother, is very uncomfortable, but beautiful z He introduced me to his fiancée, who told me she lost her parents in an accident at the age of six

13 a She was complaining all the time (that/when) we were there b The reason (why/that) I have changed down to second gear is that I want to park the car there/The reason for me/my changing down to second gear is that I want to park the car there c The city where/in which I was born is two hundred miles from here/The city (that/which) I was born in is two hundred miles from here d Germany, where her mother was born, is her favourite country e They could have crossed the border, in which case we would never be able to catch them

14 a The people (who were) at the wedding said that she looked terrific on that dress b We can post the postcard in the postbox (which is just) round the corner c The woman with curly hair/who has curly hair/whose hair is curly is my German teacher d I bought a cardigan that/which has/with orange and white stripes e Go and bring me the screwdriver with a (or "the") black handle/whose handle is black/which (or "that") has a black handle

15 a The children, who had been getting into mischief, were severly punished b The children who had been getting into mischief were severely punished c The garments, which were in this wardrobe, got moth-eaten d The furniture (which/that is) in this room is riddle with worms e The dogs which/that carried rabbies were put down

16 a It is tell-tales that/who get on my nerves b It is you who/that judge by appearances c It is the manor house that is surrounded with tall trees/What is surrounded with tall trees is the manor house/The manor house is what is surrounded with tall trees d It is two walkmans that we want/What we want is two walkmans/Two walkmans is what we want e It was last night that she had the accident

17 a I told her a pack of lies, which she believed b Luke, whose daughter is a friend of my son's, is very talkative c The reason (why/that) I didn't changed up to fifth gear was that I wasn't driving fast enough d The restaurant where/in (or "at') which we ate yesterday was very good/The restaurant (that/which) we ate in/at yesterday was very good e The lilies (which/that are) in my garden are flowering now f The bear whose fur/the fur of which is brown is going to have cubs/The bear with brown fur is going to have cubs g It was a sudden change, which we did not expect h The cheese, which we left in the cellar to mature, tastes delicious i It is the dog that is whimpering under the table j The man (who is) carrying a walking stick has travelled the world k She experience an unpleasant situation in which she suffered a lot l The place (that/which) we were in/in which we were/where we were last night was infected with rats m The reason (why/that) I kept it secret was that I did not want to worry you/The reason for me/my keeping it secret was that I did not want to worry you n He always picks me up at half past six, when/at which time I am usually studying o The child (whom/that) is wearing a red skirt/in a red skirt is gifted at dancing/The child whose skirt is red is gifted at dancing p The lady who is waiting for the bus won the lottery last month q Teddy's missis, who is waiting for the bus, won the lottery last month r They have told me a lot of falsehoods since we first met, most of which were unbelievable s There were a lot of children, the oldest of whom did not like her t He needs a woman to share his life with/with whom to share his life u There are many things for him to do2 v You are always the last person to finish/that finishes your work w Your are ill-manered, which is irritating x The manor house3 the roof of which/whose roof is falling into decay was built in the eighteen century y Mr Green, whose wife has just passed away, forgot his belongings on the bus z The people who said something wrong about the boss were fired

1  That can replace who in defining relative clauses.
2  There are many things (that) he has to do is possible, but far less usual.
3  If there is only one manor house in the area, commas are necessary: The manor house, the roof of which/whose roof is falling into decay, was built in the eighteen century.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez
Pages: 1, 2 and the key

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1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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