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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 24 - Page 2
     CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


   Put the verbs in brackets into a suitable form.


13 Examples:
   If you would like11 a bottle of washing-up liquid, I can give
   you one.
   If you like, I can give you a bottle of washing-up liquid.

   If you would like takes an object. When the object is not
   mentioned would must be removed. In other words, if you like
   is not followed by anything.

a  If you (like), I can lend you a bottle of washing liquid.
b  If you (like) a bag of washing powder, Iíll give you one.
c  They may take tomorrow off if they (like).
d  Iíll buy you a drink if you (like).
e  If you (like) to take early retirement, we can see to it.


14 Examples: (inversion12)
   Should you see the enemy, keep still. (= If you should see
   the enemy, keep still.)
   Were I to divorce, I would/should marry again. (= If I were
   to divorce, I would/should marry again.)
   Had you told me before, I would/should have helped you. (= If
   you had told me before, I would/should have helped you.)

   As has been seen in the examples above, we can place should,
   were or had before the subject to mean if. This construction
   is more formal than the one with if.

a  I (be) you, I would resign.
b  I (be) to be given the job, I would accept it.
c  You (require) any further information, please do not hesitate
   to contact us.
d  You (apply) for the post, you  would have obtained it. It is a
   pity that you did not.
e  You (inform) us earlier, we could have aided you in your
   research.


15 Examples: (special cases13)
   If Paula wonít take the exam, she wonít get her degree. (= If
   Paula refuses to take the exam, she wonít get her degree.)
   If you will/would14 give us your address and telephone number,
   we shall15/will contact you as soon as possible. (= Please
   give us your address and telephone number, and we shall/will
   contact you as soon as possible/Will [or ĎWouldí] you please
   give us your address and telephone number so that we can
   contact you as soon as possible?)
   I should/would be very grateful if you would send me some
   information about your courses in Great Britain. (Please
   send me some information about your courses in Britain.)
   If you will play truant, we will/shall expel you from this
   school. (If you do not stop playing truant, we will/shall
   expel you from this school.)
   If she would tell me what worries her so much, I would/should
   be able to help her. (If she wanted to tell me what worries
   her so much, I would/should be able to help her.)
   If these medicinal herbs will cure me of my backache, I
   will/shall take them/Provided that these medicinal herbs
   will cure me of my backache, I will/shall take them. (= I
   will take these medicinal herbs, and my backache will be cured
   as a result.)

a  If your car (not start), (use) this product. It works
   miraculously.
b  If you (hold) on, I (see) if the manager (be) in.
c  If you (skip) classes, you (fail).
d  I (buy) this electric razor providing that it (leave) my skin
   soft.
e  We (be) very grateful if you (keep) this secret.


16 Examples: (In this section, you have to fill in the spaces
   given with in case, in case of or if.)
   Take this telephone number with you (just) in case16 you have
   a breakdown.
   If you have a breakedown, take this telephone number from the
   glove compartment.
   In case of war, you should leave the country.
   If war breaks out/If there is a war, you should leave the
   country.

   In the first instance, you Ďtake the telephone number with youí
   because you might have a breakdown. In the second example, you
   perform the action only when this happens; but this may not
   occur, in which case, you do not Ďtake this telephone number
   from the glove compartmentí. The third and fourth sentences
   above have similar meanings.

a  __________ emergency, push this button.
b  __________ there is an emergency, push this button.
c  __________ fire, phone the fire brigade.
d  __________ there is a fire, phone the fire brigade.
e  The sky has clouded over. Take this umbrella with you
   __________ it rains.


17 Examples: (In this section, you have to rewrite the sentences
   as shown in the examples.)
   We must go on strike, or (else) our wages will be reduced
   by half.
   We must go on strike, otherwise our wages will be reduced
   by half.
   Either we go on strike or our wages will be reduced by half.
   If we donít go on strike, our wages will be reduced by half.
   You go on ragging me about my nose(,) and Iíll wring your neck.
   If you go on ragging me about my nose, Iíll wring your neck.

a  We must eradicate famine from the world, or many people
   will continue dying of hunger.
b  Either you submit your application forthwith or it will not
   be accepted.
c  You give me a hand, and Iíll give you a stick of chewing-gum.
d  Youíll have to study hard, otherwise you wonít pass.
e  Put some petrol now, or else weíll run out.


18 Revision exercise.
a  If I (be) Mary, I (not breathe) a word of this to anyone.
b  If it (not be) for the children, I (leave) my husband. (I do
   not leave my husband on account of the children.)
c  Unless you (wait) for them, they (get) angry. So please wait
   for them.
d  If you (see) a fierce dog, you mustnít run from it.
e  Can you go a little bit more slowly? If you (go) so fast,
   you (overshoot) the turning.
f  ĎI couldnít watch the film on TV last night.í
   ĎDonít worry; theyíll probably rerun it again.í
   ĎIf so, I (not miss) it.í
g  The fire engines got there in no time at all. If they (arrive)
   a bit later, the fire (destroy) everything.
h  The last time I went there they charged me an arm and a leg.
   If they (not charge) so much, I (go) there again. (But I
   wonít.)
i  If you (like), you can come with us.
j  If you (like) to have a smashing dinner, you should go to
   the restaurant I told you about yesterday.
k  I did it only because they blackmailed me. If they (not
   blackmail) me, I (not do) it.
l  If you (sign) here, I (see) what I can do for you. (Please
   sign here, and Iíll see what I can do for you.)
m  If they (not lend) you the money, I will. (= If they refuse to
   lend you the money, I will lend it to you.)
n  If I (be) you, I (take) his advice. You have nothing to lose
   by taking it.
o  I (be) you, I (follow) his advice. You have nothing to lose
   by following it.
p  You (require) anything from us, please (let) us know.
q  If you know your children have been found safe and sound, why
   you (be) so concerned about them?
r  If you need a freezer, why you (not buy) one yet?
s  Come on! If we (not rush), we (not finish) in time.
t  Itís not surprising that heís always the laughing-stock of
   the whole office. If he (not be) such a wimp, people (respect)
   him.
u  Youíd better slow down a little if you (not wish) to fall ill.
v  Itís been raining quite a lot lately. If it (not stop) raining,
   the reservoir (fill) up in a week or so.
w  Whenever I (eat) spicy food, I have terrible stomack-aches. So
   I wonít eat this lunch, as it is very hot.
x  ĎWhy do always publishers proofread manuscripts before
   publishing them?í
   ĎIf they (not proofread) them, some of them (be) published
   with errors.í
y  If somebody (ask) you where I am, (tell) them Iím in Brazil
   on holiday.
z  If you (not have) the heart to kill the old dog, why you (tell)
   her that you would.


   PART 2


1  Complete the following sentences as appropriate.

a  If it hadnít been for your advice, I...
b  If you were aware of the many drawbacks of the contract,
   why...?
c  If he doesnít pay us back by Monday,...
d  If I were you,...
e  Iíll take you there provided...
f  Iíll teach you how to do it as long as...
g  But for her intervention, we...
h  I would have invited Laura if...
i  Should you require us,...
j  If you would like a racket,...
k  If you like,...
l  Iíd buy lots of things if...
m  If you hadnít drunk so much,...
n  If you had employed an screwdriver,...
o  Unless you have your parentsí consent,...
p  Suppose somebody recognized you óówhat...
q  If somebody makes good use of their time at school, they...
r  We could have saved his life if...
s  Iíd be frightened to death if...
t  She might have passed the test if...
u  Youíre going to get sunstroke if...
v  If they were to win the lottery,...
w  My parents normally tell me off if...
x  If you kicked the smoking habit,...
y  Had they been arrested,...
z  If my moped hadnít been stolen,...


2  Complete the following sentences as appropriate.

a  If he had given himself up to the police,...
b  If my parents buy me a motorcycle,...
c  If you had fed the baby, it...
d  If my camera were not jammed,...
e  If there should be another earthquake,...
f  Iíll tell you what happened so long as...
g  Iíll go with you on condition that...
h  If it hadnít been for you,...
i  Providing these tablets will help me to get rid of my
   constipation, I...
j  If you will tell lies,... (= If you keep on telling lies,...)
k  If they wonít let you in,...
l  If he were in her shoes,...
m  She wouldnít have gone there if...
n  If you dry up the dishes,...
o  If you didnít trust her, why...
p  If I were implicated in a murder,...
q  If he hadnít mocked (at) me,...
r  If I went overseas for over a year and found some squatters at
   home on my return, I...
s  If he feels drowsy,...
t  If my husband/wife snored at night,...
u  If you hang up your jacket,...
v  But for her spell,...
w  If you hadnít put your pullower on back to front,...
x  If you had read the set books,...
y  If I were immortal,...
z  Unless we go halves on the drinks,...


   PART 3


1  Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing
   its meaning. Use IF.

   Example:
   Stop fooling about or Iíll go home.
   If you donít stop fooling about, Iíll go home.

a  Stop winding the clock, or youíll overwind it.
b  He thrust at her with a machete, so she shot him dead.
c  This frying pan has gone rusty because you didnít leave it to
   drain when you last washed it.
d  The reason why I didnít attend the meeting was that they
   wanted to try to involve me in their shady business.
e  You didnít turn up at the party, which annoyed her.
f  I took off my shoes in order not to wake up my parents.
g  I donít want you to get home late any more, or else you wonít
   get any pocket money.
h  You havenít eaten your supper, so you will not watch the telly
   this evening.
i  Either you give up smoking, or youíll die in less than a year.
j  She was ill in bed, and couldnít come to your date.
k  You let me drive, and Iíll give you a kiss.
l  In case of theft, phone the police at once.
m  Nobody was hurt because he was near, and was able to defuse
   the bomb.
n  I didnít get the job because I was left of centre.
o  You tell me that name again and Iíll break your neck.
p  I didnít get a wink of sleep last night. Therefore, Iím very
   tired.
q  Weíve just missed the bus. As a result of this, weíll have to
   wait till tomorrow.
r  Help us out and weíll repay you.
s  Iíll show you a photograph of her to jog your memory. (If...,
   will this jog...?)
t  Put these things away, or you wonít have anything for dessert.
u  My father was in high spirits, so I asked him to let me come
   back home late.
v  I hope it wonít rain this afternoon, since it will prevent us
   from climbing.
w  When the police stopped me, I was as sober as a judge. This is
   why, they didnít fine me.
x  We must hire a taxi, or weíll miss the basketball final.
y  She lost faith in him, so she didnít tell him anything about
   the matter.
z  He had fallen for her, which is why he believed her.


2  Rewrite each of the following sentences without changing
   its meaning. Use IF.

   Example:
   He arrived there so late because he had had a puncture.
   If he hadnít had a puncture, he wouldnít have arrived there
   so late.

a  Without your piece of advice, we wouldnít have been able to do
   it.
b  You trod in a puddle because you werenít looking where you
   were going.
c  Maybe she got cross with you because you told her that she
   should go on a diet.
d  We hate going for a walk in the rain, and itís raining. (Do
   not use Ďhateí.)
e  We must leave now, otherwise we wonít be punctual.
f  As you havenít been a good boy, you wonít watch telly tonight.
g  Either you come on time, or I wonít wait for you.
h  You sticked your neck out by telling the boss he was wrong, so
   itís not surprising that youíre fired now.
i  England has not got much chance of qualifying for the final,
   since Brazil has won against England.
j  Now, we canít lose the match against Greece, or weíll be
   eliminated from the competition.
k  Well, Italy can beat Brazil, which would make things easier
   for us.
l  You finish your dinner, and Iíll take you to the zoo tomorrow.
m  You work overtime this week, and Iíll give you next Monday off.
n  In case of robbery, contact us immediately.
o  You failed because you skipped most of your classes.
p  Iíll give you a hundred pounds to refresh your memory. (If...,
   will this refresh...?)
q  Donít eat between meals, or youíll get fat.
r  She saw a viper on her bed, which made her scream with terror.
s  She couldnít explain herself because he rang off.
t  Breathe deeply, and youíll feel the clean air in the country
   coming into your lungs.
u  She likes him a lot because heís straightforward.
v  Having a child is a rewarding experience, but you have to have
   one to understand this.
w  Our children must study our mother language, or else itíll die
   out.
x  Think about being stuck up. What would you do?
y  He got the job because he has qualities of leadership.
z  With my salary, itís very difficult to make both ends meet.


____________________ 
11  Note also the following: 
     If you would care for/like an ice-cream, Iíll give you one.
     If you would care to/like to have an ice-cream, Iíll give
     you one.
   See also unit 9, section 60.
12  See unit 29, section 4.
13  See units 9 (section 60) and 26 (section 12).
14  More formal than will.
15  More formal than will, and only used in the first persons (I,
   we).
16  See units 22 (section 37) and 27 (section 7).
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)


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