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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 14 - Page 2
     A, AN, SOME, ANY, NO, NOT, NONE,
     EACH, EVERY AND THE; COMPOUNDS
     OF SOME, ANY, NO AND EVERY


   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

17 Revision exercise.
a  They didnít set __________ trap for mice.
b  If __________ student should fail, he or she will have
   another opportunity in September.
c  I detest __________ fleas.
d  __________ houseflies are really a nuisance.
e  His daughterís __________ lovely creature.
f  There are __________ dragonflies in the garden.
g  They didnít observe __________ lack of confidence.
h  __________ mallet will do.
i  Thereís __________ inn near here.
j  We havenít reached __________ the peaks we wanted to.
k  __________ copper is used in electrical equipment.
l  I havenít got __________ low-heeled shoes. Do you have
   __________? I need __________ for tomorrowís party.
m  __________ lady told him that he was in danger. (=
   __________ unknown lady told him that he was in danger.)
n  Have you got __________ friends here? __________ friend of
   mine told me that you have.
o  No-one found __________ bolt on the floor.
p  She asked me whether __________ us had seen the head-on
   collision between the two lorries.
q  ĎDo you fancy __________ sweets?í
   ĎYes, please.í
r  Sheís __________ European citizen.
s  They gave him __________ honorific title.
t  When I reached home, I could perceive __________ horrid smell.
u  __________ us have come to the conclusion that itís not worth
   the hassle.
v  You can ring __________ us at __________ time you need a
   friend.
w  Itís __________ oak tree.
x  We employed __________ these materials to reinforce the roof
   of our cottage.
y  This job does not require __________ experience. Anybody can
   do it.
z  There arenít __________ compasses.


18 Examples:
   When he died, he left no children.
   We have no time to lose.
   No employee should enter this area.

   No4 means Ďnot anyí or Ďnot aí. No is followed by a noun
   (and sometimes, by an adjective); if we use a determiner
   + a noun, not must be used: Not a single mistake should
   be allowed. No cannot act as a pronoun; instead, we have
   to use none:
     ĎHave you got any cocktail sticks?í
     ĎNo, Iím afraid we have none left/No, Iím afraid we
     havenít got any left.í
     I have looked for toothpicks everywhere in the house,
     but I have found none/..., but I have not found any.
   For none, see unit 15, section 1.

a  No, there are __________ felt-tip pens left/No, there
   are __________ left/No, there arenít __________ left.
b  There was __________ train to that village yesterday night,
   so we stayed here.
c  __________ prisoner should leave this enclosure.
d  No, they have __________ furniture in the house/No, they
   have __________ in the house/No, they havenít got
   __________ in the house.
e  __________ many people attended the reception.


19 Example:
   Some thirty wizards assembled there.

   Some here means Ďmore or lessí, Ďapproximatelyí, Ďaboutí.

a  We carried out __________ two thousand urine tests.
b  I used __________ fifty safety pins.
c  __________ four million pounds were taken from the companyís
   funds.
d  She said Ďthe snow blinds meí for __________ ten times.
e  He told her __________ fifteen dirty jokes yesterday evening.


20 Example:
   She stayed for some weeks.

   The above sentence means that she stayed for quite a long time.

a  Sheís been waiting for him for __________ hours.
b  They have been running for __________ time. They have an
   incredible resistance.
c  They walked for __________ miles before they were able to
   find water.
d  It was __________ months later when he realized he couldnít
   live without her.
e  We have known each other for __________ years.


21 Examples:
   Some intervention she made!
   Heís some worse now.
   Some friend he is! He never does me a favour.

   In the first instance, some means Ďimportantí; in the second,
   Ďa littleí; in the third, it expresses irritation.

a  __________ help they are! They never do anything in the house.
b  ĎHow are you?í
  ĎIím feeling __________ better now, thank you.í
c  __________ people they are! They ripped off my calculator.
d  That was __________ snack!
e  __________ hope it is!


22 Revision exercise.
a  __________ people think my half-sister is a dear, others donít.
b  This medical treatment will do you __________ good. (= It is
   useless.)
c  This treatment will not do you __________ good. (= It is
   useless.)
d  We caught __________ eighty tarantulas.
e  __________ help you are! Youíve been lying on the grass for
   the last three hours!
f  The weightlifter lifted up __________ pounds. It amazed
   everybody.
g  Theyíve got __________ blankets, but not enough.
h  __________ school you sent me to! It was dreadful!
i  We saw __________ the exhibits, but not all of them.
j  She avoided __________ comment(s) on my style of dress.
k  She made __________ comment about his eyesight. (= She did not
   say anything about it.)
l  If __________ you is interested in this matter, please let me
   know.
m  We didnít buy __________ cheap outfit.
n  Is there __________ cheese? (= Iíd like __________.)
o  Is there __________ cheese? (= Iím going shopping, and if
   there isnít __________, Iíll buy __________.)
p  This word should be written with __________ r at the end.
q  You have committed __________ sins, but I havenít
   committed __________.
r  We didnít find __________ gold last week.
s  She failed her examination because she made __________
   twenty mistakes in her written paper.
t  Heíd been running for __________ kilometres when he fell dizzy.
u  __________ a soul was found in the street.
v  She usually uses __________ overhead projector in her classes.
w  She sells __________ daisies.
x  You can give me __________ these photographs. (= I donít mind
   which one you give me.)
y  __________ hour __________ (= per or each) day will be enough.
z  The van was __________ write-off after being involved in
   __________ collision with __________ tow truck.


23 Examples:
   We test each bulletproof vest.
   Every professional football player has to train regularly.

   Sometimes it does not really matter whether we use each or
   every, but there is a difference in meaning. Each carries
   the idea of Ďone by oneí. Every implies that something is
   regarded collectively. The first example is equivalent to
   Bulletproof vests are tested one by one. Instead of the
   second example, we could have said All professional
   football players have to train regularly. We say every
   single day, nearly every day, and so forth, which is due
   to the fact that we consider the items as a group: I come
   here nearly every day/practically every day. And last but
   not least, each refers to two or more people or things;
   and every, to three or more: Each parent is essential in
   the education of a child. We cannot say Every parent is
   essential in the education of a child, since we have only
   two parents.

a  I work __________ night, as Iím a nightwatchman.
b  __________ student will have to take an oral exam.
c  __________ cerebral hemisphere controls different parts of our
   body.
d  They go to Eivissa __________ year, since they love its sun
   and beaches.
e  She shouts at me almost __________ time we meet.


24 Examples:
   Each of them loves noodle soup.
   Each of our kids got poor marks at school.
   Our friends have each bought a very large Elizabethan house.
   He paid us ten pounds each/He paid each of us ten pounds/He
   paid us each ten pounds.
   They have ten dogs, and each (one) has its kennel.

   In the above examples, each is not a determiner, but an
   indefinite pronoun. Therefore, every is  not possible.
   Each may also be used as an indefinite adverb: These
   paintbrushes are/cost £1 each. Notice the following
   sentence as well: Each and every one of them had to
   pay the fine, which emphasizes the idea of Ďone by oneí.
   Note also the reciprocal pronoun each other: We see each
   other at the weekend. For more details about the usage
   of each other, see unit 10, section 17.

a  We went to ten used-car dealers, and __________ them told us
   that our car was worthless.
b  She gave them __________ a kiss.
c  These croissants are 20p __________.
d  __________ you should take things easy.
e  __________ and every one of us cannot stand the sight of
   powerful people destroying the Earth.


25 Revision exercise.
a  Thereís __________ uniform left.
b  She tried on __________ one-piece swimsuit.
c  __________ twin has his own bed.
d  She told __________ her pupils the truth. (But not to all of
   them.)
e  We need __________ barbed wire to fence our thatched cottage.
f  My godson gave __________ the girls a bun.
g  A couple of swallows builds a nest on the roof ledge of our
   hayloft __________ summer.
h  They didnít serve us __________ lobster.
i  Sheís __________ real raver.
j  Youíre __________ early bird!
k  I donít see __________ idlers. Everybody is working hard.
l  ĎHave you seen __________ good films on the telly recently?í
  ĎNo, I havenít.í
m  __________ these pastry brushes will be all right. (= It does
   not matter which one we take.)
n  We have __________ time to lose. If we donít hurry, weíll be
   in dire straits.
o  She learnt __________ word of his letter by heart.
p  I think of you __________ single minute.
q  I wanted to have all my wisdom teeth extracted, but my
   dentist didnít pull __________ them. She told me that
   my gums were infected, and that they had to be desinfected
   before pulling the teeth.
r  I sent them __________ __________ postcard.
s  She has __________ passion for __________ turtle-doves.
t  These pumpkins cost £3 __________.
u  They asked me whether __________ us had been overseas.
v  ĎChinese food should be eaten with chopsticks. Have you
   brought __________?í
  ĎNo, Iím afraid I have brought __________.í
w  They called out my name __________ ten times.
x  __________ essay she wrote! It was the best one in the whole
   class.
y  They __________ told me __________ secret.
z  Please donít buy me __________ lavish gifts.


26 Examples:
   Somebody/Someone has been here recently.
   Is there anything on the luggage rack?
   May I have something to drink?
   If anybody/anyone phones, tell them Iíll be back right away.
   Anybody/Anyone can do it, as it is as easy as winking.
   It was impossible for anybody/anyone to arrive there on time.
   Itís the best bread (that) anybody5/anyone in the house has
   tasted for years.
   She loves him more than anybody/anyone else in the world.
   Why are you putting on your coat? Are you going somewhere6?
   I didnít find your nail file anywhere.

   The compounds of some and any have the same rules as some and
   any. Here they are: somebody/someone, anybody/anyone,
   something, anything, somewhere and anywhere.

a  Itís difficult for __________ to beat Olivia at draughts.
b  If __________ wrong should happen, ring me up at once.
c  Do you want __________ to eat?
d  We have more tourists here than __________ else in the island.
e  Would you like to have __________ else?


27 Examples:
   I didnít see anybody/anyone in the sitting-room.
   I saw nobody/no-one in the sitting room.
   There isnít anything in that drawer.
   Thereís nothing in that drawer.
   I didnít go anywhere.
   I went nowhere.

   In general, we cannot make two negatives in the same clause.
   Thus, we cannot say I didnít see nobody/no-one in the
   sitting-room, There isnít nothing in that drawer or I didnít
   go nowhere.

a  I stayed at home the whole afternoon, so I went __________.
b  I stayed at home the whole afternoon, so I didnít go
   __________.
c  There was __________ in the wardrobe. It was empty.
d  There isnít __________ in the cupboard. Itís empty.
e  __________ saw me at the party because I didnít go there.


28 Examples:
   Everything was mistaken.
   Everybody/Everyone was tired out, so we stayed there.
   Some people say that God is everywhere.

   Every means Ďallí. The same goes for its compounds.

a  The party was a complete failure. __________ went wrong.
b  The party was a roaring success. __________ enjoyed it.
c  He told her __________, so she knows the whole truth.
d  When we were in Paris, we saw the same man __________. I think
   he was following us.
e  __________ knows her, since sheís very popular in this town.


29 Revision exercise.
a  Sheís the most conceited person that I know. She thinks that
   she knows __________, that sheís the most beautiful girl on
   earth and that she does __________ better than __________
   else in the world.
b  Iíve looked __________ in the house, but I still canít find
   the sellotape. Weíd better go to the stationerís and buy
   __________.
c  We should send out __________ circular to all the union
   members.
d  When she told him that she had fallen in love with him, he
   went as red as __________ beetroot.
e  We write to __________ other __________ month.
f  What __________ rogue your godfather is!
g  __________ pickpockets will be prosecuted.
h  We havenít got __________ luxury goods in our Georgian house.
i  Would you mind giving me __________ to drink, please? Iím
   terribly thirsty.
j  They donít want to hold __________ dance on their wedding day.
k  Come __________ day you like, but do come.
l  Thatís __________ way to address __________ lady! Go and
   apology to her.
m  __________ way will she allow you to smoke cigars in her
   bedroom. She loathes them.
n  Ď__________ there?í
   ĎI donít think there is __________. If __________ was there,
   they would have answered you.í
o  There were __________ boys; __________ (one) was in low
   spirits, for __________ had payed attention to them
   since they had arrived there.
p  ĎHave you got __________ to spend the night?í
   ĎNo, I havenít; but donít worry, Iíll sleep under the stars!í
q  __________ you hide from me, Iíll find you. You have
   __________ escape from me.
r  You ought to be __________ gentleman, and buy her
   __________ bouquet of flowers.
s  We have just gone through __________ awful ordeal. After all
   weíve been through, __________ will stop us.
t  __________ went according to plan. This is why I propose
   __________ toast.
u  __________ them stooped very low when they told __________
   in the party that she was __________ easy girl. After all,
   theyíre her friends, and the people at the party shouldnít
   have heard about that.
v  My cousin Deborah is constantly walking past us with her nose
   in the air. We have passed her __________ twenty times for
   the last month, and she didnít even say goodbye to us.
w  ĎIs there __________ I can do for you?í
   ĎNo, thank you. I donít need __________.í
x  I feel very unhappy. Scarcely __________ wants to be my
   friend.
y  __________ years later, she ran into him again when she was
   walking along __________ very busy street in __________
   far-off country.
z  Iím __________ longer going to tolerate her criticism.
   She criticises __________ I do, __________ I wear,
   __________ I say. Itís very irritating!


30 Examples:
   The capital of Catalonia is Barcelona.
   The moon revolves around the earth.
   This is the largest cot (that) I have ever made.
   Mary is the best marathon runner in the world.

   The is used before things or people that are unique and
   before superlative adjectives or adverbs. For more details
   about superlatives, see unit 18, sections 6, 7 and 17.

a  From some of the windows of my cottage, you can see
   __________ Mediterranean Sea washing __________ cliffs.
   This brings up memories of __________ wonderful time
   I spent with my former partner.
b  __________ sunís rays are essential to life on this planet.
c  This is __________ worst omen I have had for years and years.
d  When you look up at __________ sky at night, you see
   __________ stars above.
e  __________ earth is __________ only planet we have to live on,
   so we ought to love it and to lavish care on it.


31 Examples:
   I bought a bomber jacket yesterday.
   The person you met yesterday is a bumpkin.
   Thereís some ground cinnamon in the larder.
   The furniture my grandmother gave me is very antique.

   A (with singular countable nouns) and some or any (with plural
   and uncountable nouns) suggest that we are introducing a new
   item in our conversation. The, on the other hand, implies that
   we already know the person or thing we are talking about.

a  __________ fodder is in __________ basement.
b  We need __________ more hay.
c  I think you should pull out __________ choke before
   you start your car every morning.
d  Please buy __________ small paintbrush. __________ one I have
   here is too big.
e  We havenít got __________ napkins


32 Examples:
   He doesnít like firing guns.
   She loves listening to music.

   The is not used with plural and uncountable nouns when they
   are used in a general sense. See also section 16 in this unit.

a  She never sings at __________ karaoke bars.
b  She reads __________ books in her leisure time.
c  They never take __________ salt in their meals.
d  We should take __________ sterner measures.
e  He never has __________ chicken.


____________________
4  See also unit 16, section 3.
5  Any is used in comparative and superlative clauses. See also
   unit 18, section 16. 
6  The usage of somewhere is due to the fact that we expect
   an affirmative answer. If you are putting on your coat,
   it implies that you are going out.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2, 3 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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