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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words

English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs

Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs

English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs

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English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 6 - Page 2


   She darenít/dare3 not interrupt him. (She has not
   the courage to interrupt him.)
   An AIDS test had been performed on her, but I
   dared not ask her about it in case it had proved
   positive. (formal)/An AIDS test had been performed
   on her, but I did not dare to ask her about it in
   case it had proved positive.
   I thought he would not dare to tell her the whole truth.
   How dare you (call me a liar)! (This is indignant!)
   If you dare do this again, you will be severely punished.
   How did you dare to lock me up! Youíll suffer for this!
   I dare you to speed the car up. (I challenge you
   to speed it up.)
   Donít you dare!/You dare! (I am your mother, father,
   and so forth. If you do what you intend, Iíll make sure
   you receive what you deserve.)
   I dare say/daresay you are right, but Iíll do it my way.
   (OK! You are right. Even so, Iíll do it my way.)
   I dare say/daresay they will come. (They will probably come.)

   Dare is a semi-modal auxiliary verb because we can make
   the negative and the interrogative with do or without,
   depending on the meaning. At times, either form is possible.
   However, if we use do, to should be mentioned when we
   have an infinitive after dare. In spite of this, some
   people leave it out in an informal style. To must be
   dropped when do is not used. Dare without to is only
   possible in negative (including negative words, such as
   hardly, nobody, never, seldom) and interrogative
   sentences and in conditional clauses. Dare say/daresay
   is only used with I.

   Complete the following sentences with dare.

a  I knew he __________ (not) to release the prisioners.
b  I __________ (not) ask her age. She may not like it.
c  How you __________ come home late!
d  I __________ say he was charged with murder.
e  óDaddy! Iím going to light a fire!
   óYou __________!
f  óYou __________ to tell her?
   óNo, I didnít.
g  óIíve read your diary.
   óHow you __________?
h  I __________ you to dive off the springboard.
i  óMy application was turned down yesterday.
   óHow they __________ to turn it down!
j  They __________ me to jump out of this window yesterday.


   Put the verbs in brackets as appropriate.

1  Examples:
   Iíve got/have (got) a blouse.
   I havenít (got)/have not (got)4 any socks.
   Have you (got) a hair-drier?
   Heís got/has (got) a pullover.
   She hasnít (got)/has not (got) high-heeled shoes.
   Has it (got) a handle?
   Weíve got/have (got) enough flour.
   You havenít (got)/have not (got) a towel.
   Havenít they (got) any pineapple juice?/Have they
   not (got) any pineapple juice?

   Have got means Ďpossessí here. The third person singular form
   is has got; have got is used for the other persons. Got5 can
   be omitted in a formal style.

a  She (have) got two fridges.
b  óHe (have) got a return ticket?
   óNo, he (not have).
c  They (not have) got a lot of stamps.
d  You (have) got a lot of chums?
e  I (not have) got a torch.

2  Examples:
   I donít usually have time to study. (a habit)
   I havenít got time to study. (now)
   She has got a beautiful smile. (a characteristic)
   Iíve got four children. (a fact)

   If there is the idea of habit, do is used in the interrogative
   and in the negative, and got is impossible. If not, have is
   used without do. Got is generally avoided in a formal context.
   Nonetheless, in American English, do is possible in all the
   examples above. This usage is, however, becoming common in
   British English as well. In the simple past, got is normally
   left out, and did is preferred to form the negative and the
     She had a terrible illness.
     She did not have/didnít have a terrible illness.
     Did she have a terrible illness?
   Less usual and more formal:
     She had not/hadnít a terrible illness.
     Had she a terrible illness?
   In the future, conditional, present perfect, past perfect,
   gerund and infinitive, got is never used:
     You will have better working conditions.

a  The sun is very strong, and Nora (not have) sunglasses. Can
   you lend her your spare pair?
b  You (have) any mushrooms? You need some to prepare the pizza
   I told you about.
c  He (have) ten brothers.
d  I generally (not have) headaches.
e  They (have) migraine.

3  Examples:
   Iím having breakfast now.
   Have a sandwich!/Have a drink!
   Did you have a row with your wife?
   I donít have a nap very often.
   We had a good time in Eivissa last summer.

   Have can mean Ďdrinkí, Ďeatí, Ďtakeí, and so on. In this case,
   it can be used in continuous (or progressive) tenses, and got
   cannot be added.

a  He (have) tea now.
b  Ian (have) whipped cream for dessert yesterday evening.
c  We (not have) dinner now.
d  She (have) a shower when he called her?
e  They never (have) long conversations.

4  Examples:
   I have/have got to ring her up. (present obligation)
   I donít have/havenít got to ring her.
   Do I have to ring her up?/Have I got to ring her up?
   I have to get up early in the morning. (a routine)
   I donít have to get up early in the morning.
   Do I have to get up early in the morning?

   Have to is more commonly used without got, and with do
   (in the interrogative and negative) when we refer to
   present obligation. When there is the idea of habit
   (or routine), got is impossible, and do is necessary.
   Got should be avoided in the simple past, and should
   never be mentioned in future, conditional or perfect
   tenses. Have to never takes continuous tenses. See
   unit 22, sections 19, 20, 21 and 23.

a  I (have) to replace this old machine with a new one.
b  Diana usually (not have) to rise from bed early in
   the morning, but tomorrow she (have) to.
c  She (have) to work long hours every day.
d  They (have) to make their own arrangements when they
   went on a cruise last year.
e  We (have) to buy a map, or else we wonít reach our

5  Examples:
   I had my house painted. (= The painter painted my house.)
   She is having her face made up. (= The make-up girl
   is making her face up.)
   He will have to have his car mended. (= A mechanic
   will have to mend his car.)
   She didnít have her windows cleaned last week. (= The
   window cleaner did not clean her windows last week.)
   Do you have your suits starched? (= Does your dry-cleaner
   starch your suits.)

   Have + object + past participle6 means that someone does
   something for us or to us. This construction can be used
   in continuous tenses. Get is an alternative to have in
   an informal style, and often imply some sort of difficulty
   (or effort)
   or the idea of having something to do:
     I had my car smashed in an accident. (It was not my fault.)
     I got my car smashed in an accident. (I was driving too
     fast; and probably, I was partly responsible for the
     accident. If I had been driving more slowly, I might
     have seen the car, which jumped the lights, coming down
     the road, and stopped my car in time.)
     Finally, I got the document signed. (despite all the

   Rewrite the following sentences using the structure seen in
   the examples.

a  Iím going to employ a glazier to glaze all my windows.
b  The barber is shaving my beard tomorrow morning.
c  An electrician is installing a burglar alarm at home
   this afternoon.
d  The dentist took out two of her teeth.
e  Somebody burnt a hole in my jacket when I was dancing.

6  Examples:
   I must have the plumber repair the tap. (= I must make
   the plumber repair the tap.)
   I must get the plumber to repair the tap. (= I must make
   the plumber repair the tap.)

   If the object is a person, we use an infinitive7: have +
   person + an infinitive without Ďtoí (formal) or get8 +
   person + an infinitive with Ďtoí (informal). Instead
   of an infinitive, we can also use a present participle
   (infinitive + -ing) if there is the idea of a progressive
     She had everybody looking at her. (formal)
     She got her children studying again. (informal)

   Rewrite the following sentences using the structure seen in
   the examples.

a  My husband must wash the dishes.
b  Peter will have to change the tiles of the roof.
c  The gardener must come to cut the hedge.
d  The bricklayer came to erect the wall of my garden yesterday.
e  Everybody is dancing because of the music.

7  Examples:
   I got it ready.
   I got my daughter ready for the party.
   Iím getting ready.
   He is getting/becoming tired. (Get is informal; become,
   He got/was caught for committing the crime. (Get is informal;
   be, formal.)

   Insert be, become or get in the spaces provided.

a  Your chinawear __________ broken.
b  Unfortunately, he __________ the sack, and had to beg.
c  Wait a moment! Iím __________ dressed!
d  She __________ pregnant and had to __________ married.
e  She __________ famous and __________ a lot of money. Now sheís
   lost popularity, but sheís stinking rich.

8  Examples:
   She is getting/becoming/growing old/tall/prettier and
   Itís getting/becoming/growing dark.
   You are going blind/bald/insane/crazy.
   The milk has gone sour/off.
   My calculator has gone down.
   My television set has gone wrong twice this year.
   If my brakes hadnít gone, I wouldnít have had the accident.
   Iím on the dole, as the factory I worked for went bankrupt
   three months ago.
   This cardigan is going at/in the elbows.
   The trees are going/turning green.
   She went/turned as red as a beetroot when he told her that
   he was mad about her.
   She fell in love with him.
   She fell ill.
   He fell asleep.
   Night fell.

   As a general rule, we can say that go and turn9 (more
   formal) are used of colours; go, of mental or physical
   illnesses, of food that is no longer eatable and of
   things that have stopped functioning, or are worn out.
   We fall asleep/ill/in love, and so forth. For any other
   type of process, we normally use get (informal) and
   become10 (formal). Grow11 is an alternative to get
   or become, but implies a slow change. Be, feel, and
   so on, do not entail any kind of process or change:
     She is tired. (now)
     She is growing tired. (little by little)

   Insert become, fall, get, go, grow or turn in the spaces

a  He is __________ deaf. He will have to do something about it.
b  Night was __________, and she was __________ frightened
   because she was lost and darkness terrified her.
c  Dennis is __________ mad.
d  My eyesight is __________. I must have my eyes tested.
e  The ceiling of this room is __________ black because of
   your smoking.

9  Examples:
   He has already spent the money I gave him.
   This time tomorrow, Iíll have had my three bad teeth taken
   She will have been married for twenty years by the end of
   this month.
   They have been working here since they were sixteen.
   They hadnít unwrapped all the parcels when I phoned them.
   We wanted to go for a picnic very early in the morning,
   but we had to stay at home because it had been snowing the
   previous night.
   He could have unveiled the statue.

   Have12 is an auxiliary verb in all the examples above,
   because it is used to form perfect tenses.

   Complete the following sentences with have, as has been seen
   in the examples.

a  Melinda __________ just left for Brazil.
b  I __________ never been on good terms with her.
c  Diana __________ run her own business for twenty-five years;
   but, unfortunately, she fell ill, and her sons had to take
   it over.
d  They could __________ spurned him, but they thought it
   was very impolite, although he deserved it.
e  Critics say that he __________ already fallen from grace
   before he left the country.

10 Examples:
   You had better speak out/Youíd better speak out.
   He had better not see her off at the airport/Heíd better not
   see her off at the airport.
   We had better stay here, hadnít we?/Weíd better stay here,
   hadnít we?
   Hadnít we better interrupt their conversation?

   Had better means more or less the same as should or ought to.
   Had better is not very common in the interrogative, unless
   we use a negative interrogative sentence.

   Comment on these situations with had better.

a  Itís very cold outside.
b  This colour doesnít match the curtains.
c  The light has gone out!
d  She is leading a very stressful life.
e  Your son is growing sleepy.

11 Revision exercise.


   Rewrite the following sentences without changing the meaning.
   Use one of the constructions seen above (part 4).

     I must make my wife mend the fuse.
     I must get my wife to mend the fuse/I must have my wife
     mend the fuse.

a  We want to ring up a builder to put up a house here.
b  A house belongs to me. (This sentence is awkward as it stands
c  It was necessary for us to vote by a show of hands.
d  Every day she is prettier.
e  They should wear a life-jacket.
f  The secretary must type this letter for me.
g  Your clothes are dirty. This happens every time you play
h  They are in Liverpool now. They are enjoying themselves
   very much.
i  Everybody was crying because of the film.
j  Someone bruised her eye in a fight.


   Fill in the blanks with one of the verbs given above (part 4).

a  He __________ got the password.
b  We __________ to pay cash on the nail, because they didnít
   sell on credit.
c  We are going to __________ a baby.
d  Youíll __________ to stir it, otherwise it wonít be fit to
e  I __________ no mercy, since they had been very cruel to me.
f  They __________ just cleared the table when she came in.
g  I __________ uneasy, so I went home.
h  The traffic light __________ green, so we continued our
i  The fish __________ __________ off, so we couldnít eat it.
j  John is very ugly. Besides, he is __________ bald.
k  She __________ pale, and had to be taken to hospital
l  We __________ better pay the ransom.
m  This bread __________ __________ stale.
n  They will __________ to enforce the law.
o  You __________ better not put your money into a bank account.
p  He __________ his eyesight tested last week.


   Use one of the verbs given in this unit (be, get, have, and
   so forth), and to when necessary, to complete the blanks.

a  Well, then, the light __________ red, and she __________
   __________ stop the car.
b  ĎYou __________ kidding?í
   ĎOf course not! I __________ speaking seriously! I tell you
   that I __________ taken to a flying saucer last night!í
c  He __________ shot dead an hour ago.
d  I think it __________ about time you got down to work.
e  Children __________ taller and taller at this age, so you
   need a lot of money to buy them clothes.
f  You __________ not __________ take these tablets. They are
   harmful for pregnant women.
g  They __________ __________ rob banks, but they __________
   caught. Now they are very honest and respectable.
h  I __________ __________ __________ selling things for
   next to nothing, as the people here are very poor.
i  Instead of __________ better, it __________ worse.
j  How did you __________ __________ decline his offer?
k  I assure you that there __________ a lot of poachers. We
   must take drastic steps to put an end to poaching.
l  I __________ you __________ hold his hand.
m  John __________ __________ a lot of pocket money. Why donít
   you ask him to lend you some?
n  There __________ __________ __________ a lot of hatred
   among our people, but now there __________ not.
o  They canít __________ against us.
p  My mother-in-law __________ hug and kiss me whenever we met.
q  Iíll never __________ __________ __________ wearing these
r  They __________ __________ have __________ a big party,
   but their mother __________ ill, and __________ __________
   postpone it.
s  This palace __________ __________ into decay. It should
   __________ restored at once, as it __________ an ancient
t  This bread __________ __________ hard. We __________
   better cover it with a piece of cloth.
u  This jacket __________ __________ at the elbows.
v  óI __________ going to drink some wine, mummy.
  óYou __________ (not)!
w  Daddy! I __________ just __________ my bike stolen.
x  I must __________ my daughter __________ help me with
   the housework.
y  You __________ better discuss this issue with your teacher.
z  She __________ __________influence him , but now he hates
   her guts.

3  Note that dare is a modal verb in this sentence, hence
   we do not add an -s or -es to the third person singular.
4  Have not got and has not got can also be contracted to
   Ďve not got and Ďs not got, respectively. In this case,
   got must not be omitted: 
     Iíve not got any socks.
     Sheís not got high-heeled shoes.
5  Never remove got in contracted affirmative sentences.
6  See also unit 25, section 14.
7  See unit 23, section 10.
8  The construction with get is more commonly heard in
   British English than the one with have.  
9  Something can turn cold, nasty, sour, violent if it
   suddenly becomes cold, nasty, sour, violent: We were
   swimming in the sea, but the weather turned cold/nasty,
   and we had to go home. A person can also turn something:
   He was a Latin teacher; but, as he earned very little,
   he turned politician.
10  Come is necessary in a few expressions:
     If you make all my wishes come true, Iíll be your wife.
11  Grow, get and come can be followed by an infinitive, but
   become cannot:
     After a couple of months, she grew to enjoy reading.
     In a day or two, she will get to rely on us.
     When I had stayed there for a year, I came to get used
     to it.
12  For full details about how to form  perfect tenses, see
   units 7 (parts 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13 and 14)) and 22 (section
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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