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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 7 - Page 2
     VERB TENSES: FORMS


 
   Write the verbs in brackets in the correct form.


   PART 4: THE PAST CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + was/were11 + verb-ing12)
   The lions were roaring when he saw them. (affirmative)
   The lions were not/weren’t roaring when he saw them. (negative)
   Were the lions roaring when he saw them? (interrogative)
   Were the lions not/Weren’t the lions roaring when he
   saw them? (negative interrogative)
   She was sweeping the street when a car knocked her
   down. (affirmative)
   She was not/wasn’t sweeping the street when a car knocked her
   down. (negative)
   Was she sweeping the street when a car knocked her
   down? (interrogative)
   Was she not/Wasn’t she sweeping the streets when a car knocked
   her down? (negative interrogative)

a  They (load) the lorry when it exploded and injured two people.
b  She (pierce) John’s ears when his mother came in, and scolded
   her.
c  When war broke out, she (live) with her boy-friend.
d  She (walk) to and fro absorbed in her thoughts when she was
   knocked over by a motorbike.
e  Last year, my wife and I spent a few days in a hotel
   near the beach. When she (have) a bath, I discovered
   a peep-hole on the wall. As I (look) through it, she
   caught me red-handed, and told me off.
f  ‘What you (do) when I rang you up last night?’
   ‘I (chat) to friends.’
g  I (not pay) attention to what she (say).
h  When I got up, the snow (melt).
i  While he (milk) a cow, his wife (read) a novel.
j  ‘You (not go) to town this morning?’
   ‘Well, in fact, I was, but I changed my mind.


   PART 5: THE PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + have + past participle)
   She has/She’s threatened him four times. (affirmative)
   She has not/She hasn’t/She’s not threatened him four
   times. (negative)
   Has she threatened him four times? (interrrogative)
   Has she not/Hasn’t she threatened him four
   times? (negative interrogative)
   They have/They’ve taken everything for granted. (affirmative)
   They have not/They haven’t/They’ve not taken everything for
   granted. (negative)
   Have they taken everything for granted? (interrogative)
   Have they not/Haven’t they taken everything for
   granted? (negative interrogative)

   Has is used instead of have in the third person singular (he,
   she, it). The past participle is formed by adding -ed to the
   infinitive if the verb is regular; but if it is irregular,
   we need to learnt its form by heart. For irregular verbs,
   see the list provided in unit 8. For verb + ed, see part 3.

a  Her father wants to know who (steal) her heart.
b  ‘You ever (sprain) your ankle?’
   ‘No, I haven’t.’
c  —He (not book) the seats yet?
   —No, he hasn’t!
d  We (not be) to a fashion show since we were twenty-one.
e  They (postpone) the meeting.
f  ‘We (not meet) before?’
   ‘No, I don’t think so.’
g  You just (take) the words out of my mouth.
h  She just (have) an argument with her sister.
i  I (pass) two exams so far.
j  Pam (not come) home today?


   PART 6: THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE)
   TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + have + been + verb-ing)
   They have/They’ve been learning how to play chess for the last
   two days. (affirmative)
   They have not/They haven’t/They’ve not been learning how to
   play chess for the last two days. (negative)
   Have they been learning how to play chess for the last
   two days? (interrogative)
   Have they not/Haven’t they been learning how to play chess
   for the last two days? (negative interrogative)
   He has/He’s been weeping over the death of his wife since she
   died in 1970. (affirmative)
   He has not/He hasn’t/He’s not been weeping over the death
   of his wife since she died in 1970. (negative)
   Has he been weeping over the death of his wife since she died
   in 1970? (interrogative)
   Has he not/Hasn’t he been weeping over the death of his wife
   since she died in 1970? (negative interrogative)

   Has is used instead of have in the third person singular: he,
   she, it. For further information about verb-ing, see part 2.

a  I (try) to concentrate for the last two hours. Would you
   shut up once and for all.
b  He (make) coffins since he was eighteen.
c  People (use) this medicine from time immemorial.
d  He (pine) for his homeland since he left it years ago.
e  ‘How long they (live) here?’
   ‘I don’t know.’
f  I (serve) coffee and slices of toast since I came to this
   town.
g  ‘What you (do) in the last three hours?’
   ‘I (study).’
   ‘You (not study)! You (read) comics!’
h  There’s a lovely smell! You (cook)?
i  I (eat) scrambled eggs every day since we got married!
j  We (long) to see each other since we last said goodbye.


   PART 7: THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + had + past participle)
   They had announced/They’d announced their engagement to
   all the guests when he arrived. (affirmative)
   They had not/They hadn’t/They’d not announced their
   engagement to all the guests when he arrived. (negative)
   Had they announced their engagement to all the guests
   when he arrived? (interrogative)
   Had they not/Hadn’t they announced their engagement to
   all the guests when he arrived? (negative interrogative)
   He had/He’d gone ashore when she woke up. (affirmative)
   He had not/He hadn’t/He’d not gone ashore when she
   woke up. (negative)
   Had he gone ashore when she woke up? (interrogative)
   Had he not/Hadn’t he gone ashore when she
   woke up? (negative interrogative)

   The past participle is made by adding -ed to the infinitive
   if the verb is regular; but if it is irregular, we have to
   learn its form by heart. For irregular verbs, see the list
   given in unit 8. For verb + ed, see part 3.

a  When he came in, she already (regain) consciousness.
b  He (develop) the illness when he visited the doctor.
c  As soon as he was introduced to that girl, he realised
   that he (see) her somewhere else.
d  We were going to play poker; but, unfortunately, we
   (forget) to bring a pack of cards with us.
e  He asked me if I (groom) a horse before.
f  If he (take) into consideration my advice, they wouldn’t have
   rejected him.
g  When I arrived, I was told that the meeting (be) put off.
h  If you (make) up your mind earlier, you would have got the
   prize.
i  If they (tell) the naked true, I might have forgiven them.
j  Oscar told me that he never (study).


   PART 8: THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE)
   TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + had + been + verb-ing13)
   He had/He’d been weeping. (affirmative)
   He had not/He hadn’t/He’d not been weeping. (negative)
   Had he been weeping? (interrogative)
   Had he not/Hadn’t he been weeping? (negative interrogative)

a  When I met her, I (serve) drinks for ten years.
b  I just told her that she (growl) for nearly two hours.
c  They (take) precautions, so they managed to run away.
d  I was very angry, for my friends (tease) me.
e  He (witness) their talk about assassinating the king, so they
   killed him.
f  The teacher told me that he would fail me, because I (cheat).
g  They (eat) a very chilli soup. This is why everybody had
   diarrhoea afterwards, but my grandmother was very pleased
   with it, as she (suffer) from constipation for three
   weeks, and (feel) very badly. She even wanted the cook
   to give her the recipe.
h  We (discuss) that matter for nearly ten hours when Ian
   told everybody to postpone it, since we were exhausted.
i  We (sweat) blood since the new boss took over the
   factory, so we decided to seek for another job.
j  He (learn) Russian for twenty years when he died.


   PART 9: BE14 GOING TO


   Examples:
   I am/I’m going to buy a shawl. (affirmative)
   I am not/I’m not going to buy a shawl. (negative)
   Am I going to buy a shawl? (interrogative)
   Am I not going to buy a shawl? (negative interrogative)
   She is/She’s going to be a pauper. (affirmative)
   She is not/She isn’t/She’s not going to be a pauper. (negative)
   Is she going to be a pauper? (interrogative)
   Is she not/Isn’t she going to be a pauper? (negative
   interrogative)
   They are/They’re going to find out the truth. (affirmative)
   They are not/They aren’t/They’re not going to find out
   the truth. (negative)
   Are they going to find out the truth? (interrogative)
   Are they not/Aren’t they going to find out the
   truth? (negative interrogative)
   His godmother was going to change from neutral into first gear
   when she fainted. (affirmative→past)
   His godmother was not/wasn’t going to change from neutral
   into first gear when she fainted. (negative)
   Was his godmother going to change from neutral into first gear
   when she fainted? (interrogative)
   They were going to turn out the light when Miriam’s
   goddaughter came in. (affirmative→past)
   They were not/weren’t going to turn out the light when
   Miriam’s goddaughter came in. (negative)
   Were they going to turn out the light when Miriam’s
   goddaughter came in. (interrogative)
	
a  A lot of people (perish) if we keep selling these weapons.
b  Look! That lass (fall) off her bike.
c  —Why are you carrying a bone?
   —I (turn) it into a flute.
d  I think they (change) this shabby beggar into an elegant
   gentleman.
e  The clock (strike) ten when I came in the house.
f  —He (divide) his fortune among the needy?
   —Yes, I think so.
g  We (not divide) this pudding into halves, but into thirds,
   as my sister is coming to dinner.
h  —They (not release) the prisoner?
   —No, they aren’t.
i  We (set) them free?
   —Yes, we are.
j  We (not make) war on them, but they attacked us first, so we
   had to.


   PART 10: THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + will + infinitive without ‘to’)
   I shall/I will/I’ll give them a lot of pocket money.
   (affirmative)
   I shall not/I shan’t/I will not/I won’t/I’ll not give them
   a lot of pocket money. (negative)
   Shall I give them a lot of pocket money? (interrogative)
   Shall I not/Shan’t I give them a lot of pocket
   money? (negative interrogative)
   They will/They’ll let you alone. (affirmative)
   They will not/They won’t/They’ll not let you alone. (negative)
   Will they let you alone? (interrogative)
   Will they not/Won’t they let you alone? (negative
   interrogative)

   Shall is possible instead of will in the first persons
   (I, we), and is usually required in the interrogative.
   See unit 9, sections 51 and 52. Negative contractions:
   shall not = shan’t; will not = won’t.

a  I assure you that they (remain) silent.
b  They (be) pleased if you look them up.
c  If we go to London, we (drop) in on Charles.
d  They never (surrender) to your soldiers.
e  He (implore) your forgiveness.
f  His chauvinism (give) him away.
g  He (not take) these books back to the library.
h  —Everyone (be) for her proposal?
   —I hope not.
i  He (lend) you a hand if you promise not to betray him.
j  She (not be) kind to them.


   PART 11: THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + will + be + verb-ing)
   I shall/I will/I’ll be doing an examination tomorrow at eight.
   He will not/He won’t/He’ll not be coming to our party,
   since his wife is seriously ill.
   Will you be coming to see us tomorrow?

   Shall is possible instead of will with I and we. Will not
   can be contracted to won’t; shall not, to shan’t. For further
   information about verb-ing, see part 2.

a  This time tomorrow, I (cross) the English Channel.
b  How long you (stay) here?
c  This time next month, we (spend) our honeymoon in Brazil.
d  They (not go) to our wedding, as their mother is having
   an operation then.
e  If you want me to give him a message, I (see) him this
   afternoon, since we work together.
f  My bike is broken, and I’d like to go cycling this afternoon.
   You (use) yours?
g  I visit my parents at weekends, and today is Thursday.
   Therefore, I (visit) them tomorrow.
h  ‘Can we phone her in an hour’s time?’
   ‘No, don’t. She (do) the cooking, and she doesn’t like
   being interrupted when she’s cooking.’
i  This time next week, he (pick) up beautiful girls in Benidorm.
j  You (come) to dinner tonight?


   PART 12: THE FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE


   Examples: (form: subject + will + have + past participle)
   We shall/We will/We’ll have painted his bedroom by
   tomorrow evening.
   They will not/They won’t/They’ll not have wallpapered
   everything by Monday.
   Will he have done his homework when I come back?

   Shall is possible instead of will with the first persons.
   The past participle of regular verbs is made with -ed;
   but if the verb has an irregular past participle, we need
   to learn its form by heart. For irregular verbs, see the
   list given in unit 8. For further information about
   verb + ed, see part 3. Will not can be contracted to
   won’t; shall not, to shan’t.

a  By the time we get there, she (clean) my parents out.
b  A lot of people (enrol) in our club by the end of the year.
c  He (finish) by then.
d  He (enlist) the army by then.
e  By this time next month, we (fleece) about 30,000
   customers of their money.
f  When we have reached Rome, we (do) two hundred and fifty
   miles.
g  When daddy comes back at five o’clock, we (fool) a lot of
   idiots.
h  By the end of the century, many people (perish) from Aids.
i  If you buy this car, I (sell) one thousand cars.
j  When the sun rises, they (destroy) everything.


   PART 13: THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE)
   TENSE


   Example: (form: subject + will + have + been + verb-ing)
   I shall/I will/I’ll have been teaching Swahili for ten
   years in May.

   Shall is possible instead of will in the first persons. For
   further information about verb-ing, see part 2. For the
   interrogative and the negative, see the previous parts.

a  They (train) her for twelve years next month.
b  By the end of the year, she (parachute) for twenty months.
c  In May, she (sell) oysters for seven years.
d  This time tomorrow, I (walk) through this forest for thirty
   years.
e  She (take) these tablets for eleven months next week.
f  She (sleep) for two days in two hours’ time.
g  In October, he (work) for the same firm for twenty-eight
   years.
h  We (live) in this old house for sixty years on Wednesday.
i  On 15th September, I (study) Italian for five years.
j  He (play) the cello for two years tomorrow.


   PART 14: CONDITIONAL TENSES


   Examples:
   He retorted that he would not give them the money.
   (conditional simple)
   She said that she would be doing an examination the following
   day at eight.
   (conditional continuous)
   She asked him if he would have finished his homework when she
   came back. (conditional perfect simple)
   I told her that I should/would15 have been teaching Swahili
   for ten years in May. (conditional perfect continuous)

   The past or conditional form of will is would; and,
   of shall, should.

a  He presupposed that she (live) with him for good.
   (conditional continuous)
b  He told me that he (see) her the next day, as they both
   worked together. (conditional continuous)
c  He thought that they (destroy) it by then, which is why he
   didn’t go there. (conditional perfect simple)
d  They imagined that John (go) to the United Kingdom to brush
   up his English. (conditional simple)
e  Ian supposed that Erica (come) that afternoon. (conditional
   simple)
f  He didn’t think they (drop) off like flies. (conditional
   simple)
g  They assumed he (finish) by then. (conditional perfect simple)
h  He said that he (serve) his master for twenty years on
   New Year’s Eve. (conditional perfect continuous)
i  They presumed that they (take) it away by then. (conditional
   perfect simple)
j  He told me that he (suffer) from indigestion for a week
   the next day. (conditional perfect continuous)


____________________ 
11  For the past form of the verb be, see unit 6, part 1,
   section 2.
12  When -ing is added to a verb, there are often some changes.
   For further information about verb-ing, see part 2. 
13  For further information about verb-ing, see part 2.
14  For further details about the verb be, see unit 6, part 1.
15  Would and should may be contracted to ‘d: I told her that I’d
   have been teaching Swahili for ten years in May.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)


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