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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words

English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs

Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs

English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs

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English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 9 - Page 5

   Write the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.

61 Examples:
   Smoking is not permitted in this area.
   They were bound with adhesive tape and (they were) gagged when
   they were found by the police.
   Your house has just been burnt down.
   This building has to be demolished/will have to be demolished.

   We use the verb be + a past participle to form passive
   sentences. For more details, see unit 25.

a  Priscilla badly (miscast) as Ophelia in last night’s
b  This chalice just (inlay) with jewels. Now it looks much
   better than before.
c  Your face (swell)! Have you got toothache?
d  Don Quixote (read) by many people throughout several
e  These letters should (send) immediately.

62 Revision exercise.
a  He says that he (not like) stern teachers.
b  They (oversell) this product on television lately, but I
   (not think) it is as good as they say.
c  He talks as though he (be) the richest person on earth; but,
   in actual fact, he’s very poor.
d  If you kindly (sign) here, you (not have) to worry about
e  If you (like), we can sit beside that tree.
f  I wish I (not sell) any head of cattle last month. If I had
   sold them now, I (get) twice as much.
g  If you happen to see my wife, please (not tell) her you
   (see) me here.
h  If he (not put) to death, we would have discovered the
   criminal. Now it’s no use crying over spilt milk, as we
   never (get) the money back.
i  If they (like) a pay rise, they (have) to work long hours.
j  It’s about time we (put) our ideas into action.
k  Last night I (dream) that someone (follow) me. I (want) to
   escape from him; but however fast I (run), I always (be)
   in the same place.
l  Even if you are tired, (keep) going. If you (stop), you
   (take) prisoner; and if you are taken prisoner, you
m  If they (not apprehend) her, we will. (= If they
   refuse to apprehend her, we will.)
n  I wish she (not regard) me as a fool. (This annoys me.)
o  So long as you (not contradict) me, I’ll help you
   with your homework.
p  ‘You (pass) me the salt, please?’
   ‘Yes, of course.’
q  ‘What you (do) with that axe?’
   ‘I (chop) some wood.’
   ‘I (help) you. You (have) another axe?’
   ‘Yes, I have. (look) in the outhouse.’
r  She (misread) my instructions, and (think) I wanted to get
   rid of her.
s  ‘I (call) the waiter?’
   ‘Yes, please.’
t  Department stores (undersell) small shops.
u  ‘You look as if you (pass) your exams.’
   ‘Yes, I have. I’m very happy.’
v  They (smell) a rat when she kept asking if they (leave).
w  She (sit) there since noon. (tell) her to come in the house
   and have something to eat.
x  ‘No matter where you (go), I always (find) you,’ he said
y  (rid) the entire building of mice, and you (give) the job.
z  She often (override) my decisions; but now she (realize)
   that I always (be) right.

63 Example:
   He will be having a nap tomorrow at half past three.

   The future continuous20 indicates that an action
   will not be finished at a future time point.

a  I guess she (work)21 then. Why don’t you telephone her now?
b  Tomorrow at noon, he (chat) to the girl of his dreams.
c  They probably (dive) now.
d  I think they (break) the law now.
e  This time next Sunday, I (sell) sweets.

64 Examples:
   I’ll be seeing Mary tomorrow morning, since we work together.
   How long will you be staying, madam?

   The future continuous22 implies that something will take
   place in the future without being arranged. It is also
   a polite way of asking about someone’s intentions, as
   in the second example.

a  Tomorrow is a flag day, so Mary (collect) money for
   handicapped people, and everyone (wear) a small paper
b  ‘You (stay) long, sir?’
   ‘Only a couple of days.’
c  Tomorrow is Sunday, and on Sundays I go and visit my children.
   Then I (see) them tomorrow.
d  Now she (take) a plane to London. She takes one every day
   at ten o’clock; and it is three minutes past ten.
e  ‘You (use) your lawnmower this afternoon?’
   ‘No, you can take it.’

65 Examples:
   Her sister won’t be coming23 tonight, as she is seriously ill.
   Her sister won’t come tonight, as Peter has been invited
   to the party, and she detests Peter.

   The first example indicates that her sister will not be
   able to come because of her illness; the second, that
   she refuses to come because Peter has been invited to
   the party.

a  My wife (not lend) the hoover to his wife again, since
   she never brings it back.
b  Her small son (not come) to school this month, as he’s
   got a severe disease.
c  He (not go) to the spa with her. He can’t bear her.
d  He (not rub) shoulders with famous people in the near
   future. He can’t endure them.
e  Mrs Smith (not meet) you at the airport tonight, as she’ll
   be away for the next three days.

66 Revision exercise.
a  ‘Didn’t you tell me that you (overpay)?
   ‘No, I didn’t. I (tell) you that I (underpay).’
   ‘Then, why you (not ask) for a rise?’
   ‘Because I’m afraid of being fired.’
b  ‘Why she (weep) when you (see) her last night?’
   ‘Her father just (have) an accident, and just (take) to
c  If he (like) to go to the art gallery, I can give him a lift.
d  If only we (have) bullet-proof vests. If we (have) them, they
   would protect us against the enemy fire.
e  It’s high time we (ask) for a pay increase.
f  I wish (walk) on the pavement.
g  ‘He speaks English as if he (be) American.’
   ‘Well, he (bear) in Atlanta.’
h  By this time tomorrow, I (kiss) her under a tree.
i  During the Franco régime, the Castilian empire (isolate) from the rest
   of the world.
j  My husband (not go) to the burial, as he (travel) around
k  (not touch) this wire! It’s live.
l  ‘Her little child (pass) on yesterday. He (contract) a
   very terrible illness.’
   ‘What illness he (catch)?’
   ‘I (think) it (call) Aids.’
m  It’s ten o’clock now. They (launch) the rocket. Let’s switch
   on the TV, and watch it.
n  He asked her if she (leave) the town as soon as the day broke.
o  He says that he (not sing) with those two idiots, since he
   can’t bear the sight of them.
p  They (not walk) along this alley, as it is very dangerous.
q  Your love together with your tenderness (save) his life.
   But for you, he (be) dead now.
r  They say that it (be) as easy as pie, but I (not think) it
s  (not be) afraid. This creepy-crawly (not sting) you.
t  She is the greediest person that I ever (meet).
u  This time next month, we (contemplate) one of the most
   beautiful wonders of the world.
v  If you (oversee) their work, this wouldn’t have happened.
w  They (not partake) in the race; so we (win).
x  It’s half past twelve. Now, sleep (begin) to come over her;
   and in half and hour, she (be) sound asleep.
y  He probably (say) Mass now. It is Sunday morning;
   and he (celebrate) two Masses on Sunday mornings.
z  He and his wife (have) a row earlier that morning. As a
   result, he (be) a little worried, so he (decide) to go
   home and ask for her forgiveness. Unfortunately, when he
   (arrive) home, his wife (slit) her wrists, and her dead
   body (lie) on the floor.

67 Examples:
   By the end of the month, they will have defeated us.
   He will have been learning Chinese for five years by the end
   of the year.

   The future perfect simple is used to relate to the completion
   of an action at a future time point, as in the first example.
   In the second instance, however, the period of five years
   will have been completed by the end of the year, but the
   action will continue after it24.
a  By now, she (become) hooked on him.
b  By then, they (escape) from our clutches.
c  By this time next month, I (be) unemployed for a year.
d  By the end of the day, they (stand) in that queue for eleven
   hours. I think they plan to be there till the pop singer
e  By the end of this week, I (stay) in this hotel for ten weeks.
   I hope to find a cheaper one very soon.

68 Revision exercise.
a  If we (not take) sterner measures, we’ll have to close down.
b  He perpetually (pick) his nose.
c  ‘(keep) back,’ she cried out. And the whole building (burst)
   into flames.
d  The weatherman says that rain (forecast) for the whole
   country tomorrow.
e  By the end of the year, our income (rise) by six per cent.
f  It’s high time they (renovate) our local museum. It is falling
   into decay.
g  Yesterday, the flags (flutter) at half-mast owing to the
   soldier’s death.
h  We (have) a cosy chat tonight at half past eleven. If you
   (like), you can come and join us.
i  They (not corroborate) her story. They can’t stand her. So,
   they (try) to ruin her alibi.
j  ‘Now she probably (wallow) in all the comforts of wealth
   and happiness, whereas I (wallow) in poverty here.
k  I (assure) you, madam, that in an hour, or so, we
   (exterminate) all the cockroaches in your house.
l  In ten minutes’ time, you (fire) that gun for an hour and
   a half. You (not think) it is time to stop?
m  If only I (not disappoint) them last night. Now they even
   (not want) to speak to me.
n  You look as though a monster (attack) you.
o  If you (oversell) your shares, you’ll get into trouble.
p  ‘You (need) your car this afternoon, dad? I (want) to go to
   ‘No, you can take it.’
q  (stop) fooling around, will you?
r  By the end of the month, they (raise) money for the country
   for thirteen years.
s  As the light (go) out, she was peering about for the switch.
t  I’d sooner (die) than (go) down a sewer.
u  I presuppose that he (drink) like a fish now. He (drink)
   very heavily every time he (go) out.
v  Why you (not take) your umbrella and your raincoat when you
   (go) out? Look at you! You’re wringing wet.
w  She (outrun) her persuer very easily, and (hide) in the wood.
x  I wish we (not ambush) them. They were merely innocent people.
y  Her mother is very cross with her because she (leave)
   her room topsy-turvy.
z  If we (uphold) the company’s policy, we (not be) unemployed
   now. I definately (not follow) your pieces of advice any

69 Examples:
   I would/should like you to come early tonight.
   He wants to jump ship, but we shan’t allow him to.
   They might use a rope.
   Before rewarding him with a decoration medal, the prime
   minister made a very eloquent speech.
   We’re interested in doing some sightseeing this afternoon.
   Would you like to come with us?
   She doesn’t mind going out alone.
   They saw him talking/talk to her.
   Being a woman, she loves jewels and fine clothes.
   Having finished work, he went home.
   The blizzard dropping considerably, we decided to return home.
   Please do not drink when (you are) dancing.

   For full details about infinitives and -ing forms, see
   unit 23.

a  She admitted (chat) up the boy she has always liked. At first,
   she didn’t even dare (look) at him; but, later on, she thought
   she had to, and so she did.
b  She plans (flutter) her eyelashes at him, which always works.
c  We expected him (take) us in his car, but he didn’t.
d  I’m fed up to the back teeth with her (leave) everything
   upside down.
e  If it starts (rain), we’ll stay at home.

70 Revision exercise.
a  They should not (persist) in (think) that their personal
   benefit (be) above eveything. They should (be) more
   considerate towards others.
b  He says that he (forswear) all his wealth if it (be)
   necessary, but I (not think) he will.
c  Whenever I try (be) polite, I (undersell) myself.
d  These doors (need) a coat of varnish. How long it (be) since
   you last (varnish) them?
e  If you (play) truant, I (tell) dad. (= If you persist in
   playing truant, I’ll tell dad.)
f  It’s time for her (update) her partner on the latest models.
g  I (wish) we (have) a life jacket yesterday.
h  If only we (not rip) off the old wallpaper. Yesterday evening,
   the shop assistant (tell) me that  they (have) no wallpaper
   left, and that they could get us some in a week, or so.
i  You ought (trust) your parents, as they never (fail) you.
j  If you (go) against the system, the system will go against
   you, and (destroy) you.
k  Please (remind) me (unfreeze) some fish when we (get) home.
l  ‘It looks as though somebody (sprinkle) some parsley on
   the main dish’
   ‘You (not like) parsley?’
   ‘You (know) I (hate) it.’
m  Despite (be) given a black eye, she won the beauty contest.
n  I (let) them (know) my decision very soon.
o  Yesterday she (congratulate) me on (win) the competition.
p  ‘Could you (direct) me to the Tower of London, please?’
   ‘Yes, of course. (go) straight on and then (turn) right.’
q  You always (walk) all over her. If I (be) in her shoes, I
   wouldn’t tolerate your behaviour.
r  It is common knowledge that the police (have) their eye on
   us at the moment. For this reason, we had better not do
   anything suspicious.
s  If my memory (serve) me well, this film (get) great reviews
   last year.
t  ‘Should we (accept) their offer?’
   ‘Well, you (know), a bird in the hand is worth two in the
u  I think you should (move) with the times, and (buy) new
   machinery. I (mean), either you invest money in new
   machinery or you (have) to shut down.
v  In case of theft, (ring) this number.
w  I know we never (take) them by surprise till now. If we
   (not take) them by surprise tomorrow, we (lose) the
x  ‘You (use) your vacuum cleaner this afternoon? I want to
   clean my bedroom.’
   ‘No, you can (take) it.’
y  When I (get) to the old house, I (realise) that someone
   (eat) pizza, since there was some left on the table.
   They also (light) a fire and (drink) some wine.
z  I wish they (not be) so unfriendly towards the people next
   door. They should (be) friendlier towards them. After all,
   they (be) our neighbours

71 Examples:
   When I told her that my mother was ill, she said that she
   would go and see her that afternoon.
   She said that she would know the results of her exams the
   next day.
   He said that he would not stub the duke.
   He said that he thought that they would put their foot in it.

   The past forms of will and shall are would and
   should, respectively. For this reason, the rules
   for will and shall, explained in the above
   sections, are normally the same as the ones for
   would and should, with the only difference that
   would and should refer to the past.

a  She supposed that her mother (work) the next Friday,
   as she normally worked on Fridays.
b  She (kiss) me on my cheeks whenever we met. She was
   a very affectionate girl.
c  He told me that he (not go) to the reception that
   afternoon, because he didn’t like receptions.
d  He told me that he (not go) to the reception that afternoon,
   as he was not feeling very well.
e  They presumed that their daughter (get) top marks
   in her examinations.

72 Revision exercise.
a  She went to bed, for her eyes (not stay) open.
b  ‘You (partake) of a glass of brandy?’
   ‘Yes, please.’
c  The government say that they (unfreeze) pensions in
   the near future.
d  Astonished as they were at the news of her feats, they
   (not say) a word.
e  I think it (take) at least two years for the alleged
   culprit to prove his innocence. Innocent though he is,
   there (not be) enough evidence to prove it. The worst
   thing of all is that some false witnesses (say) that
   he (be) to blame for what (occur) on the night of
   the murder.
f  He said that he (not be) long.
g  At present, it (be) very difficult (make) ends (meet) at the
   end of the month. If the present situation (not change),
   there (be) a social revolt.
h  When the storm (subside), we (continue) our journey.
   In the meantime, we had better (stay) here and
   (light) a fire.
i  Gloria: You (clear) the table, please?
   Donald: I can’t now, but I (do) it this evening.
   (Later on)
   Donald: I (clear) the table this evening.
   Brenda: Really?
j  Lizards (eat) insects.
k  As it (rain) very hard, I was soaked to the skin. So they
   (lend) me some dry clothes.
l  They said that the stain (not come) out.
m  (not understand) the situation, she (run) away as fast
   as she could.
n  The snowstorm (die) down, we thought of (go) on. Yet,
   somebody (advise) us (not continue).
o  We (walk) on and on for the last ten hours, so we decided
   (stop) and (have) something (eat).
p  (stand) back, or you might (get) hurt.
q  Our soldiers (die) like flies for the last week. We must
   (stop) this killing.
r  This sow just (have) piglets. Would you like one?
s  They (have) the accident last night because they (drink)
   very heavily. They (drink) two bottles of wine each. If
   they (not drink) that much, they (have) the accident.
t  She asked me if I (stay) long there.
u  ‘You (turn) off the lights, please?’
v  She says that she (do) it in the twinkling of an eye.
w  Unions (try) (get) better working conditions since they
   (found). Still, the situation (remain) the same in
   some parts of the globe.
x  When (write) a composition, you must (not use) contractions.
y  If only they (substitute) Peter for John in the last match.
   John plays better than Peter.
z  You look as though you (be) worn out. You (work) hard?

20  In the past, the conditional continuous.
21  In section 47, we said that the future simple (will +
   infinitive) is used to express an opinion or point of
   view. In this case, the action is not finished yet,
   so the future continuous must be used.
22  There is a difference of meaning, although it may be very
   slight at times, between the future continuous and the be
   going to form and the present continuous: the future
   continuous, as is stated in this section, suggests that
   something will occur in the future without being planned
   or that we are asking about someone’s intentions politely,
   whilst the present continuous indicates a future plan and
   the be going to form, that something has already been
   decided at the moment of speaking:
     I’m seeing Mary this afternoon. (I have a date with her.)
     I’m going to see Mary this afternoon. (I have the
     intention of seeing her this afternoon.)
     I’ll be seeing Mary this afternoon. (This will occur,
     not because I have planned this or I have the
     intention of seeing her, but because we work
     How long will you be staying? (very polite)
     How long are you going to stay? (not so polite)
     How long are you staying? (not so polite)
     His brother will be taking them to the zoo this
     afternoon. (Today is Sunday and he always takes
     them to the zoo on Sunday afternoons.)
     His brother is taking them to the zoo this
     afternoon. (He has told them that he will
     take them to the zoo this afternoon.)
     His brother is going to take them to the zoo this
     afternoon. (This is his intention.)
23  The present continuous is sometimes used instead of the
   future continuous; and the be going to form, instead of
   will not + infinitive:
     Her sister is not coming tonight. (She has said
     that she cannot come tonight.)
     Her sister will not be coming tonight. (She cannot
     come tonight.)
     Her sister is not going to come. (She has no
     intention of coming tonight.)
     Her sister will not come tonight. (She does not want
     to come or I do not think she will come.)
   See the previous footnote.  	
24  All the same, at times both tenses are possible: By the end
   of this term, he will have lived/he will have been living
   here for six years. The present perfect simple and
   continuous have a similar meaning. The only difference is
   that the future perfect and continuous refer to the future;
   and the present perfect simple and continuous, to the
   present. See also sections 28, 29, 31 and 32 above.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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