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• Contents
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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 4 - Page 2
     QUESTIONS AND EXCLAMATIONS


   Make questions for the answers given.


13 Examples:
   I enjoy reading romantic poets.
   What poets do you enjoy reading? (what + a noun)
   I like this car.
   Which car do you like? (which + a noun)
   The man with a scar on his cheek is the killer.
   Which of them is the killer? (which of + a pronoun
   or a determiner + a noun→these people)

   We use what when we are talking in a general sense,
   and which, when we are choosing between something,
   although which is usually preferred to refer to
   people in a formal style, even when the sense is
   general: Which poets do you enjoy reading?

   In the last example, however, which of is the only
   possibility. If we do not wish to use which of,
   we have to use who4: Who is the killer? Yet, there
   is a slight difference in meaning. Who normally
   conveys the idea of unlimited choice, and which of,
   of a restricted one. Another alternative to this is
   to remove the preposition of and the object pronoun
   (or the determiner plus the noun): Which is the killer?

   It is also possible to use which one: Which one
   (= Which car) do you like? One is sometimes dropped:
    óWhich do you like? óI like the red one. Compare this
   question with What do you like? This is an open
   question, that is to say, without any restriction.
   A possible answer to this question could be I like cars
   and good food. Note also that both which + a noun and
   what + a noun can act as subjects:
     óWhich car broke down? 
     óPeterís (car).
     óWhat name was mentioned there?
     óThe name of a town, I think.

a  I love the blonde girl.
b  The girl with short hair is of humble origins.
c  I hate slow trains.
d  I want the red jumper.
e  I usually listen to rock and roll singers.


14 Revision exercise.
a  The Ebro River flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
b  BBC stands for British Broadcasting Corporation.
c  Iím heading for Rome.
d  She repeated the same thing over and over again.
   (Use how often.)
e  Iím very keen on having a baby.
f  No, they werenít all the time sticking their noses in.
g  Yes, Iíve combed my hair, mummy.
h  I got this pair of nutcrackers from your mother.
i  Everything went wrong.
j  This person is guilty.
k  These people are guilty.
l  Ants are very industrious insects.
m  I need three hours.
n  Hundreds of people are dying of hunger.
o  Our father is taller than yours.
p  My stepmother noticed the lack of water.
q  I envy Clare.
r  Iím thinking of building a hut.
s  No, we werenít snowblind.
t  She learnt the meaning of being poor when her father died.
u  Yes, this is liable to some changes.
v  Itís half past twelve.
w  Youíll find her at Tomís party.
x  No, it isnít ten past five.
y  We train twice a week.
z  We enjoyed the countryside.


15 Examples:
   Iím going to Cardiff by taxi.
   How are you going to Cardiff?
   I escaped from prison by climbing over the wall.
   How did you escape from prison?
   I spell it C-Y-R-I-L.
   How do you spell your name?

a  I always travel by plane.
b  She convinced her father by telling him a pack of lies.
c  Iím going in Tomís car.
d  They made it with great efforts.
e  She came here on foot.


16 Examples:
   She is very well.
   How is she? (health)
   She is tall and pretty.
   What is she like?/What does she look like? (physical
   characteristics)
   She is very friendly.
   What is she like? (behavioural characteristics)
   Life is very hard (for me nowadays).
   How is life? (temporal situations)
   The play was very boring. (I did not like it.)
   How was the play?
   This play is very good. (People say that it is very good.)
   What is the play like?
   It is very cold today. (weather)
   What is the weather like? (How is the weather? is
   possible, but probably less usual.)

a  My great-grandfather is very ill.
b  Heís not getting on very well at school.
c  The novel is terrible (although many critics say that it
   is very good).
d  The theatre is very old.
e  My girl-friend is very attractive.


17 Revision exercise.
a  Sheís looking at Charles.
b  His mother is very nice.
c  It happened without even being aware of the danger.
d  They are eighteen years old.
e  They came here on their bikes.
f  The room is eighty metres wide.
g  That cabbage patch is quite big.
h  It was very hot here yesterday.
i  He is very ugly.
j  Heís writing a letter.
k  Yes, her clothes are weird.
l  No, I canít go on with our relationship.
m  I want to become a pop star.
n  Yes, she uncovered her face.
o  Iím waiting for Martha.
p  No, that stain wonít come out.
q  They are going to take him home.
r  I bribed the jury with a million pounds.
s  Iím leaving at noon.
t  Yes, he likes almonds.
u  Molly is in a bad mood today.
v  No, he didnít lose his temper.
w  There are two armchairs left.
x  I like that colour.
y  All of us kept our word.
z  He found her at the waterís edge.


18 Examples:
   I know that because Iíve seen it with my own eyes.
   How do you know that?
   Heís sad because she doesnít want to see him any more.
   Why is he sad?

a  I canít go out with you any longer because my parents
   donít allow me to see you again.
b  We failed our examinations because we didnít study.
c  I can remember all the words she said because I wrote
   them down, and learnt them by heart afterwards.
d  They stood up because their teacher entered the classroom.
e  He smashed the car into a wall because he was driving
   too fast.


19 Examples:
   This pen is mine.
   Whose is this pen?
   This is my pen.
   Whose pen is this?

   The above questions mean the same.

a  I borrowed my fatherís car.
b  I brought Pamelaís stick.
c  That is his.
d  These are my keys.
e  This umbrella is hers.


20 Revision exercise.
a  There is plenty of wool.
b  There were plenty of rocks.
c  No, I donít want to stick to these rules.
d  I got rid of those old shoes because I was sick and
   tired of them.
e  Yes, I realised it at once.
f  These coats are theirs.
g  Yes, these coats are theirs.
h  It was Peterís fault.
i  No, it wasnít Peterís fault.
j  I feel awful today.
k  I can sing very well.
l  He is ten.
m  Yes, their children are running wild.
n  John wasnít invited to the fashion parade.
o  This manure is for the tomato plants.
p  Iíve got an English class at five oíclock.
q  Yes, you should opt for taking swimming lessons.
r  You have to select a candidate.
s  He beat me by playing dirty tricks.
t  They are fine, thank you.
u  He is slim and short.
v  I know it straight from the horseís mouth.
w  I like this hat best.
x  My motorbike is very fast.
y  He went out with Caroline yesterday evening.
z  They imposed a curfew.


21 Examples:
   How ever did you find my house? (= How on earth did you
   find my house?)
   Who ever did you go out with? (= Who on earth did you
   go out with?)

   Ever is an emphatic word added to some wh- question words.
   It tells us the speakerís reaction to something.

a  I failed my literature paper because I got very nervous. (how)
b  They will repair the oven tomorrow. (when)
c  I have come here because I feel very miserable. (why)
d  Mary has hidden under the bed. (where)
e  Iíve seen a monster. (what)


22 Exclamations:
   Exclamations express strong emotions. An exclamation can
   be formed by only a noun, a verb, or any other word or
   words that may be able to show our reaction to something:
     Ouch!
     Damn! Iíve lost her for good.
     Slowly! Youíre going to break it!
     Not on your nelly!
     Come on! Get moving!
     How dare you say that to me!
     Congratulations!
     Go to hell!
     Lucky you!/How lucky (you are)!
     Shit!
     Blow it! Theyíve already left.
     Oh, blast (it)! Iíve forgotten to give her a ring.
     ĎWomen are more intelligent than men.í
     ĎThatís all rubbish! Men and women have the same
     intelligence.í
     Ugh! Whatís this!
     My Goodness!/Goodness me!
     Good(ness) gracious!/Gracious me!
     Get lost!
     Go away!
     Shame on you!
     Youíve brought shame/disgrace on our family!/Youíve shamed
     our family!
     Cease fire!
     How tall (she is)! (how + adjective)
     How fast (she runs)! (how + adverb)
     What5 a beautiful horse! (what + a singular noun)
     What lovely music! (what + an uncoutable noun)
     What handsome boys! (what + a plural noun)

   Add an exclamation to each of these situations.

a  You see a very pretty girl or a good-looking boy.
b  We are expecting a baby.
c  I have finished my studies.
d  I want to kiss you.
e  Your daughterís room is in a terrible mess.
f  You can no longer stand your boy-friend/girl-friend. He/She has
   done something you detest, which is the last straw that breaks
   the camelís back.
g  Your brother has run your car into a shop window.
h  Your fifteen-year-old daughter tells you that she is pregnant.
i  A friend of yours tells you that he/she has won one thousand
   pounds in a raffle.
j  You have just brought a bottle of a very expensive wine home,
   but you forgot to buy a corkscrew.
k  You have lost your wallet/purse.
l  A boy/girl insults you.
m  You pinch your forefinger in a door.
n  Somebody pricks you with a pin.
o  You are a sergeant and your soldiers are very slow.
p  You try some soup that tastes awful.
q  What do you say to a person you do not want to see?
r  What do you say when you see some beautiful countryside?
s  What do you tell someone who is talking a lot of crap?
t  You see a lorry and a train colliding with each other.
u  You have failed your driving-test.
v  Somebody tells you that men are superior to women.
w  You see a very ugly person.
x  Your workmate asks you to work on Sundays, but you do not
   want to. What do you say to him?
y  Your daughter does something that you think is very
   disgraceful.
z  What does a captain say when he orders his men to stop
   shooting?


____________________
4  Compare the following:
     The Turners live in this house.
     Who lives in this house?
     Patrickís children are in hospital.
     Which children are in hospital?
     Who is in hospital?
     Romantic writers were fascinated by the supernatural.
     What/Which writers were fascinated by the supernatural?
     This is her notebook.
     Which notebook is hers?/Which is her notebook?
5  See unit 17, section 7.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)


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