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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step

 

     UNIT 30 - Page 2
     CONNECTORS



   Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in brackets.

11 Examples: (giving exceptions or saying that something is obvious)
   Our trip was marvellous if we don't take into account a couple of incidents.
   Apart from a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was marvellous, apart from a couple of incidents/A couple of incidents apart, our trip was marvellous.
   Except for a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our trip was marvellous, except for a couple of incidents.
   You were the only person to arrive on time.
   Nobody but15/except you arrived on time.
   I do not think it necessary to say that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons.
   Needless to say, you will have to bring your own forks and spoons.
   It goes without saying that you will have to bring your own forks and spoons.
   We don't have enough money to buy food; and as you can imagine, it is impossible for us to pay the rent.
   We don't have enough money to buy food, let alone pay the rent.
   Last night's hailstorm ruined our fruit crop. But this is not all, it also caused a lot of damage to the trees.
   Last's night hailstorm ruined our fruit crop, to say nothing of/not to mention the damage caused to the trees.


a  It is not necessary for me to tell you that those who do not pass the oral examination will have to resit everything next year. (it goes without saying)
b  If we don't consider the bad weather, the picnic was great. (apart from)
c  Martha was the only person to congratulate me on having been promoted. (but)
d  Many people died in the accident, but the environmental impact was also disastrous. (to say nothing of)
e  I don't have time to clean my house. I have even less time to do the shopping. (let alone)


12 Revision exercise.
a  You will have to carry, for example, a hundred pounds. (let's say)
b  If we don't take into account the people next door, everybody in the neighbourhood is lovely. (except for)
c  You should attend to your guests. Don't forget you're the hostess. (after all)
d  Consequently, we can reach the conclusion that something must be done to put an end to violence on the streets and drug trafficking. (summning up)
e  Although his fears about the side-effects of this drug were unfounded, he did not take it. (in spite of)
f  His suspicions were founded, but he did nothing about it. (even though)
g  As well as being a very good guitarist, he also sings beautifully. (apart from)
h  You need a dozen eggs, two onions and a kilogramme of potatoes. You beat the eggs, chop the onions into small pieces and dice the potatoes. Put a frying pan on to heat, add a lot of olive oil and wait until the oil is hot. You fry the onions and the potatoes. Mix the onions, the potatoes and the beaten eggs in a bowl. Fry the mixture in the pan with a little olive oil without stirring it until the underside is golden brown. Do the same with the other side. And that's a Mediterranean omelette with onion! (for a start, in the second place, in the next place, after that, then, next, finally)
i  They lost all their money in a shady business. But this is not all, they took a loan out of the bank and lost it as well (not to mention)
j  I enjoy their company very much, but my parents do not allow me to talk to them. (much as)
k  I reckon you should put your cards on the table. (the way I see it)
l  She likes many romantic poets. For instance, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Byron and keats. (like)
m  You're the only person that can make me happy. (except)
n  They had little confidence in him, so they abandoned him to his fate. (for)
o  They couldn't reach the peak because it had snowed heavily. (as a result of)
p  She not only lent me some money, but also gave me a very good piece of advice. (in addition to)
q  The country's economy is becoming better and better. For example, inflation is stabilising now. (a case in point)
r  There is no necessity to mention that all applicants must identify themselves before the interview. (needless to say)
s  For my part, I found his remarks unnecessary. (personally)
t  Time is short, so we'll have to hurry. (since)
u  They haven't spoken to each other for many years because there has been a fierce rivalry between them. (because of)
v  We'll grant you a favour because your days are numbered. (which is why)
w  I eat onions every day, but they repeat on me. (although)
x  Therefore, we can draw the following conclusion: we made a substantial profit last year. (in conclusion)
y  I think you shouldn't argue with them about politics. (to my way of thinking)
z  If I can't carry my belongings, how do you expect me to carry yours? (let alone)


13 Examples: (explaining something in other words)
   Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. What we want to say is that those who have no experience should not apply for it.
   Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. To put it another way, those who have no experience should not apply for it.
   Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job, that is16 (to say)(,) those who have no experience should not apply for it.
   "I'm afraid we're going through a crisis at the moment."
   "In other words, you won't lend me the money." (= I can infere from your words that you will not lend me the money.)
   Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. What I want to say is that I love him deeply.
   Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. I mean17, I love him deeply.


a  I'm very busy at the moment. What I want to say is that I can't have dinner with you this evening. (I mean)
b  "You know I'm your friend, but the thing is that I will be needing my car this week."
   "I can deduce from your own words that you will not lend me your car tomorrow." (in other words)
c  Money is what makes the world go round. What I want to say is that the more money you have, the more powerful you become. (that is to say)
d  Hatred creates even more hatred. What I want to say is that the more you hate somebody, the more they will hate you. (to put it another way)
e  He is the most important person in this company. What I want to say is that he is the boss. (that is)


14 Examples: (giving a general opinion and emphasizing the importance of something)
   Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. If we consider everything in general terms, it was a great success.
   Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. On the whole/By and large (informal)/Broadly speaking/Generally speaking/In general, it was a great success.
   My sister is very intelligent, but her best attribute is that she is a hard-working girl.
   My sister is very intelligent; but, above all (else)/first and foremost, she is a hard-working girl.


a  If we consider military service in general terms, it is a waste of time and money. (on the whole)
b  I don't mind what time you arrive home. The most important thing is that you arrive safe and sound. (above all)
c  He has presented several television shows; but, most importantly, he is a journalist. (first and foremost)
d  If we speak in general terms, this play may be divided into four main parts. (broadly speaking)
e  If we talk generally, Eivissa is one of the best holiday spots in the world. (by and large)


15 Examples: (giving more detailed information about something or disagreeing with something mentioned previously)
   The weather was bad. It rained all the time to be precise.
   The weather was bad. In (actual) fact/In point of fact/As a matter of fact/Actually
(spoken), it rained all the time.
   She told me that he was a little bit retarded, which was not exactly true, as he was very retarded.
   She told me that he was a little bit retarded; but, in (actual) fact/in point of fact/as a matter of fact/actually, he was very retarded.


a  She told me that the grammar exercises were as easy as falling off a log; but it was untrue, since I found them very difficult. (as a matter of fact)
b  The weather forecaster said that today would be quite hot, but it is quite chilly. (in fact)
c  I don't want to see them any more. The truth is that I hate them. (in actual fact)
d  They said that they had done all the work, but the truth of the matter is that they had done nothing. (in point of fact)
e  She told me that she was as poor as a church mouse, which was not true, as she was loaded. (actually)


16 Examples: (introducing a topic)
   Something must be done about the drop in sales.
   In connection with the drop in sales, something must be done about it.
   As regards/Regarding/In regard to/With regard to/As for18/Apropos (of) the drop in sales, something must be done about it.
   As far as the drop in sales is concerned, something must be done about it.
   I have something to say about this.
   In this regard/In this connection/On this score/In this respect/On this matter/On this subject/As regards this, etc., I have something to say.


a  With reference to your application for the job as a sales representative, we are glad to inform you that it will be offered to you. (regarding)
b  Concerning your brother, he is the most qualified person for the post. (in regard to)
c  In connection with air pollution, the government should take stronger measures to combat it. (as for)
d  In connection to what he stated yesterday, we consider it the most appropriate alternative. (apropos)
e  The government should act at once about the decline in the country's exports. (as far as)


17 Revision exercise.
a  She got very good school results. She was the best student in her class to be precise. (in fact)
b  Despite all the difficulties that they encountered, they managed to reach the top of the mountain at the expected time. (although)
c  These are my reasons: I want to watch my favourite TV serial and I'm tired out. (in the first place, in the second)
d  He let her smoke at his home. He strongly disapproves of people's smoking, all the same. (though)
e  I think this university was founded in 1864. (for all I know)
f  I'm a hard-working student. What I want to say is that I don't mind working hard. (that is to say)
g  If I exclude the long weekend I had last month, I haven't had a holiday for more than two years. (apart from)
h  This institution was funded by the local authority, that is, by the money from our taxes. (in other words)
i  She tried to disprove my argument, but she couldn't. (even though)
j  Taking everything into account, we must do something to stop poachers. (in a nutshell)
k  Women are usually more astute than men. (in general)
l  In connection with your fax of 10th September, we are afraid to inform you that the goods that you requested of us are out of stock at the moment. (with regard to)
m  Although he likes her paintings very much, he cannot afford them. (much though)
n  The country's economy is becoming better and better. The decrease in inflation is a good example of this fact. (a case in point)
o  His manager had rigged the boxing match, so he win it. (because)
p  They said that they didn't need me any longer, that is they fired me. (to put it another way)
q  We want you to write to us regularly; but, most importantly, don't forget to telephone us. (above all else)
r  I would like to say a few words in this regard. (as regards)
s  She loves science fiction novels. For instance, those of Jules Verne. She thinks that Journey to the Centre of the Earth and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea are two of the greatest works of art in French literature. (such as, from her viewpoint)
t  If we talk in general terms, our investments have doubled in value in the last few months. (generally speaking)
u  Her lawyer had fixed the jury, so she was acquitted. (the reason)
v  He beat us at cards because he had marked them. (so)
w  They were of great help; but, more importantly, we won two friends. (first and foremost)
x  Now I'd like to talk about my parents. They separated long ago. (as for)
y  He didn't say hello to me, but the truth is that I think he didn't even see me. (as a matter of fact)
z  Firstly, it rained heavily that weekend. Secondly, I felt unwell most of the time. (on the one hand, on the other)


____________________
15  Observe as well:
     They were spies, not ambassadors.
     They were not ambassadors, but (they were) spies.

   See unit 10, section 8.
16  Another alternative to that is (to say) is ie (from Latin id est), but it is chiefly found in written English: Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job, ie/i.e. those who have no experience should not apply for it.
17  This mainly occurs in a conversational style. If we add "to say", we imply that we disapprove of it: You can't do that. I mean to say, you are over fifty. (= This is inappropriate for a man of your age.)
18  As to is possible instead of as for to refer to things:
     As to/As for the drop in sales,...
     As for Peter, I must say he is a hard-working person.


Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents

   Introduction

   Notes

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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