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• Contents
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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 30 - Page 2
     CONNECTORS


   Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in
   brackets.

11 Examples: (giving exceptions or saying that something is
   obvious)
   Our trip was marvellous if we donít take into account a couple
   of incidents.
   Apart from a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our
   trip was marvellous, apart from a couple of incidents/A couple
   of incidents apart, our trip was marvellous.
   Except for a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our
   trip was marvellous, except for a couple of incidents.
   You were the only person to arrive on time.
   Nobody but15/except you arrived on time.
   I do not think it necessary to say that you will have to bring
   your own forks and spoons.
   Needless to say, you will have to bring your own forks and
   spoons.
   It goes without saying that you will have to bring your own
   forks and spoons.
   We donít have enough money to buy food; and as you can imagine,
   it is impossible for us to pay the rent.
   We donít have enough money to buy food, let alone pay the rent.
   Last nightís hailstorm ruined our fruit crop. But this is not
   all, it also caused a lot of damage to the trees.
   Lastís night hailstorm ruined our fruit crop, to say nothing
   of/not to mention the damage caused to the trees.

a  It is not necessary for me to tell you that those who do not
   pass the oral examination will have to resit everything next
   year. (it goes without saying)
b  If we donít consider the bad weather, the picnic was great.
   (apart from)
c  Martha was the only person to congratulate me on having
   been promoted. (but)
d  Many people died in the accident, but the environmental impact
   was also disastrous. (to say nothing of)
e  I donít have time to clean my house. I have even less time to
   do the shopping. (let alone)


12 Revision exercise.
a  You will have to carry, for example, a hundred pounds. (letís
   say)
b  If we donít take into account the people next door, everybody
   in the neighbourhood is lovely. (except for)
c  You should attend to your guests. Donít forget youíre the
   hostess. (after all)
d  Consequently, we can reach the conclusion that something must
   be done to put an end to violence on the streets and drug
   trafficking. (summning up)
e  Although his fears about the side-effects of this drug were
   unfounded, he did not take it. (in spite of)
f  His suspicions were founded, but he did nothing about it. (even
   though)
g  As well as being a very good guitarist, he also sings
   beautifully. (apart from)
h  You need a dozen eggs, two onions and a kilogramme of potatoes.
   You beat the eggs, chop the onions into small pieces and dice
   the potatoes. Put a frying pan on to heat, add a lot of olive
   oil and wait until the oil is hot. You fry the onions and the
   potatoes. Mix the onions, the potatoes and the beaten eggs in
   a bowl. Fry the mixture in the pan with a little olive oil
   without stirring it until the underside is golden brown. Do the
   same with the other side. And thatís a Mediterranean omelette
   with onion! (for a start, in the second place, in the next
   place, after that, then, next, finally)
i  They lost all their money in a shady business. But this is not
   all, they took a loan out of the bank and lost it as well (not
   to mention)
j  I enjoy their company very much, but my parents do not allow me
   to talk to them. (much as)
k  I reckon you should put your cards on the table. (the way I see
   it)
l  She likes many romantic poets. For instance, Coleridge,
   Wordsworth, Byron and keats. (like)
m  Youíre the only person that can make me happy. (except)
n  They had little confidence in him, so they abandoned him to
   his fate. (for)
o  They couldnít reach the peak because it had snowed heavily. (as
   a result of)
p  She not only lent me some money, but also gave me a very good
   piece of advice. (in addition to)
q  The countryís economy is becoming better and better. For
   example, inflation is stabilising now. (a case in point)
r  There is no necessity to mention that all applicants must
   identify themselves before the interview. (needless to say)
s  For my part, I found his remarks unnecessary. (personally)
t  Time is short, so weíll have to hurry. (since)
u  They havenít spoken to each other for many years because there
   has been a fierce rivalry between them. (because of)
v  Weíll grant you a favour because your days are numbered. (which
   is why)
w  I eat onions every day, but they repeat on me. (although)
x  Therefore, we can draw the following conclusion: we made
   a substantial profit last year. (in conclusion)
y  I think you shouldnít argue with them about politics. (to my way
   of thinking)
z  If I canít carry my belongings, how do you expect me to
   carry yours? (let alone)


13 Examples: (explaining something in other words)
   Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. What we want
   to say is that those who have no experience should not apply for
   it.
   Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. To put it
   another way, those who have no experience should not apply for
   it.
   Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job, that is16
   (to say)(,) those who have no experience should not apply for
   it.
   ĎIím afraid weíre going through a crisis at the moment.í
   ĎIn other words, you wonít lend me the money.í (= I can infere
   from your words that you will not lend me the money.)
   Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. What I want to
   say is that I love him deeply.
   Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. I mean17, I
   love him deeply.

a  Iím very busy at the moment. What I want to say is that I
   canít have dinner with you this evening. (I mean)
b  ĎYou know Iím your friend, but the thing is that I will be
   needing my car this week.í
   ĎI can deduce from your own words that you will not lend me
   your car tomorrow.í (in other words)
c  Money is what makes the world go round. What I want to say is
   that the more money you have, the more powerful you become.
   (that is to say)
d  Hatred creates even more hatred. What I want to say is that
   the more you hate somebody, the more they will hate you. (to
   put it another way)
e  He is the most important person in this company. What I want to
   say is that he is the boss. (that is)


14 Examples: (giving a general opinion and emphasizing
   the importance of something)
   Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. If
   we consider everything in general terms, it was a great success.
   Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. On
   the whole/By and large (informal)/Broadly speaking/Generally
   speaking/In general, it was a great success.
   My sister is very intelligent, but her best attribute is that
   she is a hard-working girl.
   My sister is very intelligent; but, above all (else)/first
   and foremost, she is a hard-working girl.

a  If we consider military service in general terms, it is a waste
   of time and money. (on the whole)
b  I donít mind what time you arrive home. The most important thing
   is that you arrive safe and sound. (above all)
c  He has presented several television shows; but, most
   importantly, he is a journalist. (first and foremost)
d  If we speak in general terms, this play may be divided into
   four main parts. (broadly speaking)
e  If we talk generally, Eivissa is one of the best holiday spots
   in the world. (by and large)


15 Examples: (giving more detailed information about something
   or disagreeing with something mentioned previously)
   The weather was bad. It rained all the time to be precise.
   The weather was bad. In (actual) fact/In point of fact/As a
   matter of fact/Actually (spoken), it rained all the time.
   She told me that he was a little bit retarded, which was
   not exactly true, as he was very retarded.
   She told me that he was a little bit retarded; but, in
   (actual) fact/in point of fact/as a matter of fact/
   actually, he was very retarded.

a  She told me that the grammar exercises were as easy as falling
   off a log; but it was untrue, since I found them very difficult.
   (as a matter of fact)
b  The weather forecaster said that today would be quite hot, but
   it is quite chilly. (in fact)
c  I donít want to see them any more. The truth is that I hate
   them. (in actual fact)
d  They said that they had done all the work, but the truth of
   the matter is that they had done nothing. (in point of fact)
e  She told me that she was as poor as a church mouse, which was
   not true, as she was loaded. (actually)


16 Examples: (introducing a topic)
   Something must be done about the drop in sales.
   In connection with the drop in sales, something must be done
   about it.
   As regards/Regarding/In regard to/With regard to/As for18/
   Apropos (of) the drop in sales, something must be done about it.
   As far as the drop in sales is concerned, something must be
   done about it.
   I have something to say about this.
   In this regard/In this connection/On this score/In this respect/
   On this matter/On this subject/As regards this, etc., I have
   something to say.

a  With reference to your application for the job as a
   sales representative, we are glad to inform you that
   it will be offered to you. (regarding)
b  Concerning your brother, he is the most qualified person for
   the post. (in regard to)
c  In connection with air pollution, the government should
   take stronger measures to combat it. (as for)
d  In connection to what he stated yesterday, we consider it the
   most appropriate alternative. (apropos)
e  The government should act at once about the decline in
   the countryís exports. (as far as)


17 Revision exercise.
a  She got very good school results. She was the best student in
   her class to be precise. (in fact)
b  Despite all the difficulties that they encountered, they managed
   to reach the top of the mountain at the expected time. (although)
c  These are my reasons: I want to watch my favourite TV serial
   and Iím tired out. (in the first place, in the second)
d  He let her smoke at his home. He strongly disapproves of
   peopleís smoking, all the same. (though)
e  I think this university was founded in 1864. (for all I know)
f  Iím a hard-working student. What I want to say is that I donít
   mind working hard. (that is to say)
g  If I exclude the long weekend I had last month, I havenít had
   a holiday for more than two years. (apart from)
h  This institution was funded by the local authority, that is, by
   the money from our taxes. (in other words)
i  She tried to disprove my argument, but she couldnít. (even
   though)
j  Taking everything into account, we must do something to
   stop poachers. (in a nutshell)
k  Women are usually more astute than men. (in general)
l  In connection with your fax of 10th September, we are afraid
   to inform you that the goods that you requested of us are out
   of stock at the moment. (with regard to)
m  Although he likes her paintings very much, he cannot afford
   them. (much though)
n  The countryís economy is becoming better and better. The
   decrease in inflation is a good example of this fact. (a case in
   point)
o  His manager had rigged the boxing match, so he win it. (because)
p  They said that they didnít need me any longer, that is they
   fired me. (to put it another way)
q  We want you to write to us regularly; but, most importantly,
   donít forget to telephone us. (above all else)
r  I would like to say a few words in this regard. (as regards)
s  She loves science fiction novels. For instance, those of
   Jules Verne. She thinks that Journey to the Centre of the
   Earth and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea are two of
   the greatest works of art in French literature. (such as, from
   her viewpoint)
t  If we talk in general terms, our investments have doubled in
   value in the last few months. (generally speaking)
u  Her lawyer had fixed the jury, so she was acquitted. (the reason)
v  He beat us at cards because he had marked them. (so)
w  They were of great help; but, more importantly, we won two
   friends. (first and foremost)
x  Now Iíd like to talk about my parents. They separated long ago.
   (as for)
y  He didnít say hello to me, but the truth is that I think he
   didnít even see me. (as a matter of fact)
z  Firstly, it rained heavily that weekend. Secondly, I felt
   unwell most of the time. (on the one hand, on the other)


____________________ 
15  Observe as well:
     They were spies, not ambassadors.
     They were not ambassadors, but (they were) spies.
   See unit 10, section 8.
16  Another alternative to that is (to say) is ie (from Latin id
   est), but it is chiefly found in written English: Experience
   is a sine qua non to apply for this job, ie/i.e. those who
   have no experience should not apply for it.
17  This mainly occurs in a conversational style. If we add
   Ďto sayí, we imply that we disapprove of it: You canít do
   that. I mean to say, you are over fifty. (= This is
   inappropriate for a man of your age.)
18  As to is possible instead of as for to refer to things:
     As to/As for the drop in sales,...
     As for Peter, I must say he is a hard-working person.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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