English Grammar Step by Step
UNIT 30 - Page 2
Rewrite the sentences below with the connectors given in
11 Examples: (giving exceptions or saying that something is
Our trip was marvellous if we donít take into account a couple
Apart from a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our
trip was marvellous, apart from a couple of incidents/A couple
of incidents apart, our trip was marvellous.
Except for a couple of incidents, our trip was marvellous/Our
trip was marvellous, except for a couple of incidents.
You were the only person to arrive on time.
Nobody but/except you arrived on time.
I do not think it necessary to say that you will have to bring
your own forks and spoons.
Needless to say, you will have to bring your own forks and
It goes without saying that you will have to bring your own
forks and spoons.
We donít have enough money to buy food; and as you can imagine,
it is impossible for us to pay the rent.
We donít have enough money to buy food, let alone pay the rent.
Last nightís hailstorm ruined our fruit crop. But this is not
all, it also caused a lot of damage to the trees.
Lastís night hailstorm ruined our fruit crop, to say nothing
of/not to mention the damage caused to the trees.
a It is not necessary for me to tell you that those who do not
pass the oral examination will have to resit everything next
year. (it goes without saying)
b If we donít consider the bad weather, the picnic was great.
c Martha was the only person to congratulate me on having
been promoted. (but)
d Many people died in the accident, but the environmental impact
was also disastrous. (to say nothing of)
e I donít have time to clean my house. I have even less time to
do the shopping. (let alone)
12 Revision exercise.
a You will have to carry, for example, a hundred pounds. (letís
b If we donít take into account the people next door, everybody
in the neighbourhood is lovely. (except for)
c You should attend to your guests. Donít forget youíre the
hostess. (after all)
d Consequently, we can reach the conclusion that something must
be done to put an end to violence on the streets and drug
trafficking. (summning up)
e Although his fears about the side-effects of this drug were
unfounded, he did not take it. (in spite of)
f His suspicions were founded, but he did nothing about it. (even
g As well as being a very good guitarist, he also sings
beautifully. (apart from)
h You need a dozen eggs, two onions and a kilogramme of potatoes.
You beat the eggs, chop the onions into small pieces and dice
the potatoes. Put a frying pan on to heat, add a lot of olive
oil and wait until the oil is hot. You fry the onions and the
potatoes. Mix the onions, the potatoes and the beaten eggs in
a bowl. Fry the mixture in the pan with a little olive oil
without stirring it until the underside is golden brown. Do the
same with the other side. And thatís a Mediterranean omelette
with onion! (for a start, in the second place, in the next
place, after that, then, next, finally)
i They lost all their money in a shady business. But this is not
all, they took a loan out of the bank and lost it as well (not
j I enjoy their company very much, but my parents do not allow me
to talk to them. (much as)
k I reckon you should put your cards on the table. (the way I see
l She likes many romantic poets. For instance, Coleridge,
Wordsworth, Byron and keats. (like)
m Youíre the only person that can make me happy. (except)
n They had little confidence in him, so they abandoned him to
his fate. (for)
o They couldnít reach the peak because it had snowed heavily. (as
a result of)
p She not only lent me some money, but also gave me a very good
piece of advice. (in addition to)
q The countryís economy is becoming better and better. For
example, inflation is stabilising now. (a case in point)
r There is no necessity to mention that all applicants must
identify themselves before the interview. (needless to say)
s For my part, I found his remarks unnecessary. (personally)
t Time is short, so weíll have to hurry. (since)
u They havenít spoken to each other for many years because there
has been a fierce rivalry between them. (because of)
v Weíll grant you a favour because your days are numbered. (which
w I eat onions every day, but they repeat on me. (although)
x Therefore, we can draw the following conclusion: we made
a substantial profit last year. (in conclusion)
y I think you shouldnít argue with them about politics. (to my way
z If I canít carry my belongings, how do you expect me to
carry yours? (let alone)
13 Examples: (explaining something in other words)
Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. What we want
to say is that those who have no experience should not apply for
Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job. To put it
another way, those who have no experience should not apply for
Experience is a sine qua non to apply for this job, that is
(to say)(,) those who have no experience should not apply for
ĎIím afraid weíre going through a crisis at the moment.í
ĎIn other words, you wonít lend me the money.í (= I can infere
from your words that you will not lend me the money.)
Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. What I want to
say is that I love him deeply.
Well, my life has changed a lot since I met him. I mean, I
love him deeply.
a Iím very busy at the moment. What I want to say is that I
canít have dinner with you this evening. (I mean)
b ĎYou know Iím your friend, but the thing is that I will be
needing my car this week.í
ĎI can deduce from your own words that you will not lend me
your car tomorrow.í (in other words)
c Money is what makes the world go round. What I want to say is
that the more money you have, the more powerful you become.
(that is to say)
d Hatred creates even more hatred. What I want to say is that
the more you hate somebody, the more they will hate you. (to
put it another way)
e He is the most important person in this company. What I want to
say is that he is the boss. (that is)
14 Examples: (giving a general opinion and emphasizing
the importance of something)
Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. If
we consider everything in general terms, it was a great success.
Everybody came to my party and enjoyed themselves very much. On
the whole/By and large (informal)/Broadly speaking/Generally
speaking/In general, it was a great success.
My sister is very intelligent, but her best attribute is that
she is a hard-working girl.
My sister is very intelligent; but, above all (else)/first
and foremost, she is a hard-working girl.
a If we consider military service in general terms, it is a waste
of time and money. (on the whole)
b I donít mind what time you arrive home. The most important thing
is that you arrive safe and sound. (above all)
c He has presented several television shows; but, most
importantly, he is a journalist. (first and foremost)
d If we speak in general terms, this play may be divided into
four main parts. (broadly speaking)
e If we talk generally, Eivissa is one of the best holiday spots
in the world. (by and large)
15 Examples: (giving more detailed information about something
or disagreeing with something mentioned previously)
The weather was bad. It rained all the time to be precise.
The weather was bad. In (actual) fact/In point of fact/As a
matter of fact/Actually (spoken), it rained all the time.
She told me that he was a little bit retarded, which was
not exactly true, as he was very retarded.
She told me that he was a little bit retarded; but, in
(actual) fact/in point of fact/as a matter of fact/
actually, he was very retarded.
a She told me that the grammar exercises were as easy as falling
off a log; but it was untrue, since I found them very difficult.
(as a matter of fact)
b The weather forecaster said that today would be quite hot, but
it is quite chilly. (in fact)
c I donít want to see them any more. The truth is that I hate
them. (in actual fact)
d They said that they had done all the work, but the truth of
the matter is that they had done nothing. (in point of fact)
e She told me that she was as poor as a church mouse, which was
not true, as she was loaded. (actually)
16 Examples: (introducing a topic)
Something must be done about the drop in sales.
In connection with the drop in sales, something must be done
As regards/Regarding/In regard to/With regard to/As for/
Apropos (of) the drop in sales, something must be done about it.
As far as the drop in sales is concerned, something must be
done about it.
I have something to say about this.
In this regard/In this connection/On this score/In this respect/
On this matter/On this subject/As regards this, etc., I have
something to say.
a With reference to your application for the job as a
sales representative, we are glad to inform you that
it will be offered to you. (regarding)
b Concerning your brother, he is the most qualified person for
the post. (in regard to)
c In connection with air pollution, the government should
take stronger measures to combat it. (as for)
d In connection to what he stated yesterday, we consider it the
most appropriate alternative. (apropos)
e The government should act at once about the decline in
the countryís exports. (as far as)
17 Revision exercise.
a She got very good school results. She was the best student in
her class to be precise. (in fact)
b Despite all the difficulties that they encountered, they managed
to reach the top of the mountain at the expected time. (although)
c These are my reasons: I want to watch my favourite TV serial
and Iím tired out. (in the first place, in the second)
d He let her smoke at his home. He strongly disapproves of
peopleís smoking, all the same. (though)
e I think this university was founded in 1864. (for all I know)
f Iím a hard-working student. What I want to say is that I donít
mind working hard. (that is to say)
g If I exclude the long weekend I had last month, I havenít had
a holiday for more than two years. (apart from)
h This institution was funded by the local authority, that is, by
the money from our taxes. (in other words)
i She tried to disprove my argument, but she couldnít. (even
j Taking everything into account, we must do something to
stop poachers. (in a nutshell)
k Women are usually more astute than men. (in general)
l In connection with your fax of 10th September, we are afraid
to inform you that the goods that you requested of us are out
of stock at the moment. (with regard to)
m Although he likes her paintings very much, he cannot afford
them. (much though)
n The countryís economy is becoming better and better. The
decrease in inflation is a good example of this fact. (a case in
o His manager had rigged the boxing match, so he win it. (because)
p They said that they didnít need me any longer, that is they
fired me. (to put it another way)
q We want you to write to us regularly; but, most importantly,
donít forget to telephone us. (above all else)
r I would like to say a few words in this regard. (as regards)
s She loves science fiction novels. For instance, those of
Jules Verne. She thinks that Journey to the Centre of the
Earth and Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea are two of
the greatest works of art in French literature. (such as, from
t If we talk in general terms, our investments have doubled in
value in the last few months. (generally speaking)
u Her lawyer had fixed the jury, so she was acquitted. (the reason)
v He beat us at cards because he had marked them. (so)
w They were of great help; but, more importantly, we won two
friends. (first and foremost)
x Now Iíd like to talk about my parents. They separated long ago.
y He didnít say hello to me, but the truth is that I think he
didnít even see me. (as a matter of fact)
z Firstly, it rained heavily that weekend. Secondly, I felt
unwell most of the time. (on the one hand, on the other)
Observe as well:
They were spies, not ambassadors.
They were not ambassadors, but (they were) spies.
See unit 10, section 8.
Another alternative to that is (to say) is ie (from Latin id
est), but it is chiefly found in written English: Experience
is a sine qua non to apply for this job, ie/i.e. those who
have no experience should not apply for it.
This mainly occurs in a conversational style. If we add
Ďto sayí, we imply that we disapprove of it: You canít do
that. I mean to say, you are over fifty. (= This is
inappropriate for a man of your age.)
As to is possible instead of as for to refer to things:
As to/As for the drop in sales,...
As for Peter, I must say he is a hard-working person.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez
Pages: 1, 2 and the key
1 Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2 Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3 Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4 Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5 So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6 Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7 Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8 Irregular verbs
9 Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)