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• Contents
• The Colours in English
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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 30 - The key
     CONNECTORS


1 a Despite1 being snowing heavily, they went on climbing/Despite the heavy snow, they went on climbing/Despite the fact (that) it was snowing heavily, they went on climbing b Although he is very poor, he is happy c He was caught driving dangerously. All the same, he was not fined d In spite of the sea being very rough, they went sailing/In spite of the rough sea, they went sailing/In spite of the fact (that) the sea was very rough, they went sailing e Even though (I know) you donít love me, Iíll marry you

2 a Ill though she was, she did not stay in bed b Even though you give him a lot of money, he will not accept c Fast as it is, I will not buy it d Much as I admire him, I recognise that he is a bit selfish e Everyone is worried about the scandal; but, for all its implications, I think it will do us some good

3 a The layman will not understand these instructions. Moreover, some experts might find some difficulties interpreting them b These fairy cakes are homemade. Besides, they have the best quality ingredients c On the one hand, we must consider the fact that this yearís income is lower that last yearís; on the other (hand), that we are working harder than last year d In addition to being well-trained for the post, she is beautiful e I submit it to you for your approval. Furthermore, you may/can carry out any changes that you consider necessary

4 a We have spent all our money, so we canít buy the train tickets b They have violated our civil rights. Therefore, we should like to lodge a complaint/We should therefore like to lodge a complaint c He has broken his promise twice, with the result that they will no longer trust him d They were driving too fast; in consequence, they were fined/...fast, and they were fined in consequence e I failed to write the essay on Shakespeare. For this reason, he did not pass me

5 a I ate it, as it made my mouth water/As it made my mouth water, I ate it b I left because they tried to ridicule me c He canít be moved because of his illness d The reason (why/that) I didnít sign the document was that it was badly written e I didnít get sunburnt thanks to your protective cream

6 a He canít be a basketball player because heís too short b Much as I approve of parties, I cannot let you give one tonight c You have not performed your duties. Consequently, you will be expelled from the club d ĎAlthough I ran as fast as I could, I was always in the same place,í she dreamt e He is crying his heart out owing to his fatherís death f These are the rules. Nevertheless, there are exceptions/There are exceptions, nevertheless g I donít love you; whatís more, I donít wnat to see you again/I donít love you and, whatís more, I donít want to see you again/...you, and whatís more I... h Majorca is a paradise for tourists; hence its popularity i His death was due to a heart attack j Our business is going from bad to worse; as a rusult, we will have to close down/Our business is going from bad to worse, and we will have to close down as a result k Many people are dying in the third world every day on account of lack of food l Time is pressing on, so weíll have to work hard at it m Even if you hate them, youíll have to live with them n The unemployment rate has increased. Thus we will/shall have to take sterner measures o We will not buy you the bike we promised, since you have failed all your exams p They lost the battle through lack of discipline q Happy though he was, he felt lonely at times r Clever as he was with his hand, he couldnít fix it s We saw many paratroopers. Besides, they were armed to the teeth t I bought a padlock, but it was not big enough for the gate u He consented to all her wishes, for he could not live without her v We have considered your proposal thouroughly. However, we (are afraid to tell you that) we cannot assent to it w The reason (why/ that) we didnít wait for them was that we were in a hurry x Nobody dare to dissent from the decision of the prime minister. All the same, she did y I didnít drown thanks to her z In spite of her telling/having told him that she would always be true to him, she wasnít/In spite of the fact (that) she had told him that she would always be true to him, she wasnít

7 a To me, we could do without them b If you ask me, she just wanted to impress you c To the best of my knowledge, they have divorced d In my opinion, men and women should be treated equally e As I see it, you have dazzled them with your beauty and good manners

8 a They havenít come tonight, but we mustnít forget they are very busy after all b All in all, a remedy to prevent tooth decay will be available soon c After all, sheís paid the bill/Sheís paid the bill(,) after all d In short, we cannot disregard all they have done for us e To sum up, the government should do away with this law

9 a In the first place, we had an increase in sales last year b In the second place, the raw material was cheaper c In the third place, the labour force was very efficient d In the next place, the new machinery was very productive e To end with, we had to pay fewer taxes

10 a We need some new furniture in the house. For instance, a table for the dining room and two bedside tables b There are animals which are in danger of extinction, such as the whale c You will have to employ, (let us/letís) say, twenty men to do the job d A case in point is the increase in violence on our streets/The increase in violence on our streets is a case in point/As a case in point, we can mention the increase in vilence on our streets/We can mention the increase in violence on our streets, as a case in point e The bets you can make are as follows: £5, £10, £15, £20, and so on and so forth

11 a It goes without saying that those who do not pass the oral examination will have to resit everything next year b Apart from the bad weather, the picnic was great/The picnic was great, apart from the bad weather/Bad weather apart, the picnic was great c Nobody/No-one but Martha congratulated me on (my) having been promoted/on (my) being promoted/on my promotion d Many people died in the accident, to say nothing of the disastrous environmental impact e I donít have time to clean the house, let alone do the shopping

12 a You will have to carry, (letís) say, a hundred pounds b Except for the people next door, everybody in the neighbourhood is lovely/ Everybody in the neighbourhood is love, except for the people next door c You should attend to your guests. After all, you are the hostess/Youíre the hostess(,) after all d Summning up, something must be done to put an end to violence on the streets and drug trafficking e In spite of the fact that his fears about the side-effects of this drug were unfounded, he did not take it/In spite of his fears about the side-effects of this drug being unfounded, he did not take it/In spite his unfounded fears about the side-effects of this drug, he did not take it f Even though his suspicions were founded, he did nothing about it g Apart from being a very good guitarist, he sings beautifully h For a start, you need a dozen eggs, two onions and a kilogramme of potatoes. In the second place, you beat the eggs, chop the onions into small pieces and dice the potatoes. In the next place, put a frying pan on to heat, add a lot of olive oil and wait until the oil is hot. After that, you fry the onions and the potatoes. Then, mix the onions, the potatoes and the beaten eggs in a bowl. Next, fry the mixture in the pan with a little olive oil without stirring it until the underside is golden brown. Finally, do the same with the other side. And thatís a Mediterranean omelette with onion i They lost all their money in a shady business, not to mention the loan they took out of the bank j Much as I enjoy their company, my parents do not allow me to talk to them k The way I see it, you should put your cards on the table l She likes many romantic poets, like Coleridge, Wordsworth, Byron and Keats m Nobody/No-one except you can make me happy n They abandoned him to his fate, for they had little confidence in him o They couldnít reach the peak as a result of the heavy snow p In addition to a very good piece of advice, she lent me some money/In addition to lending me some money, she gave me a very good piece of advice q The countryís economy is getting better and better. A case in point is the stabilisation (or Ďstabilizationí) of inflation/the stabilisation of inflation is a case in point/As a case in point, we can mention the stabilisation of inflation/We can mention the stabilisation of inflation, as a case in point r Needless to say, all aplicants must identify themselves before the interview s Personally, I found his remarks unnecessary t Weíll have to harry, since time is short u They havenít spoken to each other for many years because of a fierce rivalry between them/because of there being a fierce rivalry between them v Your days are numbered, which is why weíll grant you a favour w Although onions repeat on me, I eat them every day/I eat onions every day, although they repeat on me x In conclusion, we made a substantial profit last year y To my way of thinking, you shouldnít argue with them about politics z I canít carry my belongings, let alone (carry) yours

13 a Iím very busy at the moment. I mean, I canít have dinner with you this evening b (The first sentence is left unchanged) In other words, you will not lend me your car tomorrow c Money is what makes the world go round, that is to say(,) the more money you have, the more powerful you become d Hatred creates even more hatred. To Put it another way, the more you hate somebody, the more they will hate you e He is the most important person in this company, that is(,) he is the boss

14 a On the whole, military service is a waste of time and money b I donít mind what time you arrive home. Above all (else), I want you to arrive safe and sound c He had presented several television shows; but, first and foremost, he is a journalist d Broadly speaking, this play may be divided into four main parts e By and large, Eivissa is one of the best holiday spots in the world

15 a She told me that the grammar exercises were as easy as falling off a log; but, as a matter of fact, I found them very difficult b The weather forecaster said that today would be quite hot; but, in (actual) fact, it is quite chilly c I donít want to see them any more. In actual fact, I hate them d They said that they had done all the work; but, in point of fact, they had done nothing e She told me that she was as poor as a church mouse, but actually she was loaded

16 a Regarding your application for the job as a sales representative, we are glad to inform you that it will be offered to you b In regard to your brother, he is the most qualified person for the post c As for air pollution, the government should take stronger measures to combat it d Apropos (of) what he stated yesterday, we consider it the most appropriate alternative e As far as the decline in the countryís exports is concerned, the government should act at once

17 a She got very good school results. In fact, she was the best student in her class b Although they encountered a lot of difficulties, they managed to reach the top of the mountain at the expected time c In the first place, I want to watch my favourite TV serial; in the second, Iím tired out d He let her smoke at his home. He strongly disapproves of peopleís smoking, though/Though he strongly disapprove of peopleís smoking, he let her smoke at his home e For all I know, this university was founded in 1864 f Iím a hard working student, that is to say(,) I donít mind working hard g Apart from the long weekend I had last month, I havenít had a holiday for more than two years h This institution was funded by the local authority; in other words, by the money from our taxes i Even though she tried to disprove my argument, she couldnít j In a nutshell, we must do something to stop poachers k In general, women are more astute than men l With regard to the fax of 10th September, we are afraid to inform... m Much though he likes her paintings, he cannot afford them n The countryís economy is becoming better and better. A case in point is the decrease in inflation/The decrease in inflation is a case in point/As a case in point, we can mention the decrease in inflation/We can mention the decrease in inflation, as a case in point o He win the boxing match because his manager had rigged it p They said that they didnít need me any longer. To put it another way, they fired me q We want you to write to us regularly; but, above all else, donít forget to telephone us r As regards this, I would like to say a few words s She loves science fiction novels, such as those of Jules Verne. From her viewpoint, Journey to the Centre of the Earth and... t Generally speaking, our investments have doubled in value in the last few months u The reason (why/that) she was acquitted was that her lawyer had fixed the jury v He had marked the cards, so he beat us w They were of great help; but, first and foremost, we won two friends x As for my parents, they separated long ago y He didnít say hello to me. As a matter of fact, I think he didnít even see me z On the one hand, it rained heavily that weekend; on the other, I felt unwell most of the time

____________________
1  Despite, in spite of, although, even though and though may also be placed after the main clause: They went on climbing, despite being snowing heavily. If you prefer this alternative, you only have to change the order.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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