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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words

English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs

Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs

English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs

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English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 14 - Page 3

   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

33 Examples:
   An elephant has an incredible memory.
   The elephant has an incredible memory.
   Elephants have an incredible memory.

   The sentences above mean roughly the same.

a  __________ giraffe has a long neck.
b  __________ apple is a very healthy fruit.
c  __________ mother and __________ father are indispensable
   for bringing up a child.
d  It’s not easy to understand __________ women.
e  __________ orange has a lot of vitamin C.

34 Revision exercise.
a  Can you pass me __________ salt, please?
b  When I arrived there, __________ entire building had
   been demolished.
c  She considers __________ tulips __________ best flowers on
d  We must find __________ to go with __________ curtains.
e  __________ girl in blue is retarded.
f  Switch off __________ light, please.
g  __________ knows this. It’s __________ secret.
h  Make sure that __________ gear lever is in neutral.
i  __________ cocks crow.
j  __________ boys look up to their fathers.
k  He hears this radio programme __________ single day. He’s
   very keen on it.
l  We fell in love with __________ other at first sight.
m  I haven’t got __________ vinegar. Have you got __________?
n  I detest reading __________ yellow press.
o  They took __________ chances, since they thought it was very
p  __________ has seen your gold ring __________. I think you
   should go to __________ lost property office.
q  If __________ you should see __________ golden scimitar,
   please tell me immediately.
r  Can you turn down __________ heating, please? It’s very hot
   in here.
s  __________ goose cackles.
t  These rakes are ten quid __________.
u  This photocopier can photocopy __________, as it is
   __________ best on the market.
v  He belongs to __________ club or other. There are so many in
   this town that it is very difficult to tell you which one he
   is __________ member of.
w  We haven’t had __________ corn this year. If it hadn’t
   hailed, we would have had __________.
x  The lighthouse keeper’s wife is __________ very charming
y  He left home without eating __________.
z  __________only drawback to living in this region is its
   extreme climate.

35 Examples:
   The English defeated the Castilian Armada in 1558.
   (The) Americans think they are the rulers of the world.

   Nationality adjectives ending in -ch, -ese, -sh or -ss are
   turned into nouns by adding the. If they have another ending,
   they take an -s, and the may often be left out.

a  __________ Portuguese are very friendly towards strangers.
b  __________ Dutch should be afraid of living in a country
   where most of it is below sea level.
c  __________ Germans are very hard-working people.
d  __________ Italians love pasta.
e  __________ Japanese are experts at making electronic goods.

36 Example:
   The rich should help the poor.

   Apart from the words seen in the above section, there
   are adjectives referring to people that can be change
   into nouns by adding the article the. If we use the
   plus a plural surname, we refer to a family: The Evans
   are coming home for dinner.

a  __________ young don’t worry about ageing.
b  __________ Greens are delighted with their new car.
c  __________ disabled should be helped to find work.
d  __________ strong shouldn’t take advantage of __________
e  __________ Taylors failed to turn up at the party.

37 Examples:
   She plays the saxophone.
   His half-brother plays football very well.
   The telephone allows two people to talk to each other over
   the earth.
   Television is the most popular mass media.
   Notice that we use the before musical instruments, but we
   do not, before sports and games. Note that 'television'
   does not take the definite article, unless we refer to
   'the televion set' in particular: Can you turn the
   television7 (set) down? I’m trying to concentrate.

a  They can’t play __________ flute.
b  I like __________ tennis.
c  __________ swimming is the healthiest sport.
d  She’s learning to play __________ viola.
e  Please switch on __________ radio: I want to hear the news.

38 Examples:
   ‘Where is your mother? I haven’t seen her for ages!’
   ‘She’s in hospital now. She’s very ill.’
   I’m going home to do my homework.

   Some buildings are built for a particular purpose. For
   instance, a hospital is for treating people’s illnesses.
   If you were going to a hospital as a patient you would
   say, ‘I’m going to hospital’; but as a visitor, ‘I’m
   going to the hospital,’ as this is not the purpose of
   a hospital. We go to bed and are in bed in order to
   sleep, otherwise we use the: She sat on the bed. When
   the word ‘home’ is used alone, the is always dropped;
   but if it is modified by another term, the8 is necessary:
     They stayed at home the whole afternoon.
     They stayed at/in the home of the man who had a scar
     on his face.
   As for the substantive ‘work’, the must be omitted: She’s
   at work. We say in/at/to the office or in/at/to the bank,
   but in/to town (unless it is modified by another term:
   She’s gone to the town she was born in).

a  He’s been in __________ prison for over two years.
b  She often goes to __________ church. She thinks it is very
   useful to pray.
c  She entered __________ church, as she wanted to take a
   photogragh of the altar.
d  When he left __________ school, he became a millionaire.
e  ‘Go to __________ bed immediately! It’s very late to be up
   for a young girl like you.’

39 Revision exercise
a  __________ Canadians have a vast territory. Canada is
   __________ second-biggest country in __________ world.
b  Time for __________ bed , children!
c  He’s in __________ prison for theft.
d  __________ __________ apples are rotten. We’ll have to
   select __________ good ones from __________ bad ones.
e  __________ Joneses think that __________ skulduggery is
   going on here.
f  ‘I’d like to buy __________ pair of nail clippers/__________
   nail clippers.’
   ‘I’m afraid we haven’t __________/I’m afraid we have
g  __________ lottery draw will take place in __________ week.
h  I assure you that I have heard __________ strange.
i  Have you roasted __________ meat? It smells of __________
j  He gives her __________ ring __________ single evening. They
   love __________ other a lot.
k  She went to __________ prison to visit her son.
l  Mr Smith is at __________ office. He won’t come back
   __________ home till three o’clock.
m  I’d prefer to stay at __________ home rather than go out.
n  You will be taken to __________ court if you commit
   __________ offence.
o  I think people should help __________ blind and __________
   elderly to cross __________ street.
p  __________ Swiss have four official languages.
q  __________ can do this exercise. It’s as easy as __________.
r  __________ bulls bellow.
s  __________ us have a picture of you. You send us
   __________ __________ last Christmas.
t  There’s __________ in __________ house. __________ went away
   last week. I think they are on holiday.
u  __________ brother you are! You have never done me
   __________ single favour.
v  I haven’t found your petticoat __________. Where on earth
   did you leave it?
w  ‘Have you got __________ brothers or sisters?’
   ‘No, I haven’t. I’m __________ only child.’
x  Take __________ you like. Make yourself at __________ home.
y  __________ __________ single error will be allowed in your
z  How about playing __________ soccer?

40 Examples:
   If you go to Barcelona, you should visit your aunt.
   Why don’t we go to Australia next Autumn.
   She went to Catalonia to spend the rest of her life.
   Most of the Netherlands is below sea level.

   We do not use the to name cities, continents and countries
   or states, but we do with plural names of countries.

a  __________ Edinburgh is the capital of __________ Scotland.
b  She lives in __________ Manchester.
c  Filipino and English —and sometimes Castilian— are Spoken
   in __________ Philippines.
d  __________ Asia is the biggest continent on earth.
e  __________ Oregon is a state in __________ North America.

41 Examples:
   The north of Catalonia is very popular for its ski resorts.
   Southern Catalonia is very hot in summer.
   London University/The University of London was founded in
   The State of Israel is worth visiting.
   The Soviet Union/The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/The
   USSR was more powerful one or two decades ago.

   The is usually necessary when two nouns are joined by of.

a  They are travelling towards __________ Gulf of Mexico.
b  __________ Straits of Gigraltar is a natural border between
   Africa and Europe.
c  __________ United States (of America) was founded in 1776.
d  __________ Bay of Pigs is in Cuba.
e  __________ United kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern
   Ireland) consists of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland
   and Wales.

42 Examples:
   Lake Michigan is one of the largest in North America.
   The (River) Tagus flows into the Atlantic (Ocean).

   We use the with the names of rivers, seas and oceans, but we
   don’t with the names of lakes.

a  __________ Seine is in France.
b  __________ Amazon is the second-largest river in the world.
c  The north of __________ Baltic Sea is icebound in winter.
d  __________ Lake Superior is on the border between the United
   States of America and Canada.
e  We shall have to cross __________ Rhine.

43 Examples:
   The Canary Islands is one of the best spots in the world to
   go on holiday if you are looking for hot weather.
   I have never been to Majorca.
   They want to climb the Alps next summer.
   (Mount) Etna is the highest volcano in Europe. It is in

   The is used before the names of groups of islands and chains
   of mountains, but it is not before single islands and

a  __________ Apennines are situated in Italy.
b  __________ Antilles are in the West Indies.
c  __________ Pyreness mark a natural frontier between the
   Castilian and French empires.
d  __________ (Mount) Everest is the highest peak on earth.
e  ‘Have you ever been to __________ Corsica?’
   ‘No, I haven’t, but I’d like to.’

44 Revision exercise.
a  __________ Portugal is a fascinating country.
b  Let’s play __________ rugby this afternoon!
c  She’s going to __________ doctor because her head aches
d  __________ Mississipi is __________ longest river in
   __________ North America.
e  __________ Belfast is __________ capital of __________
   Northern Ireland.
f  __________ Thames flows through __________ London.
g  __________ Antipodes are made up of __________ Australia
   and __________ New Zealand.
h  __________ Arctic Ocean is frozen.
i  __________ lonely feel very miserable.
j  He’s been __________ in __________ world. He enjoys
   travelling a lot.
k  __________ creature can live in __________ Dead Sea.
l  ‘Would you like __________ beer mug?’
  ‘No, thanks.’
m  ‘Do you fancy	__________ onion soup?’
  ‘Yes, please.’
n  __________ Urals, which mark a natural border between
   __________ Asia and __________ Europe, are very rich in
o  __________ fish is in __________ freezer.
p  ‘__________ is waiting at the door.’
   ‘Please tell them I’m out.’
q  She pointed out that they had __________ money to fill up
   the tank, which was a nuisance, as they had almost run out
   of petrol.
r  ‘He toured __________ world last year. He went to
   __________ Greece, __________ Italy, __________ Hawaii,
   __________ Alaska, and so forth.
s  ‘This pair of nail scissors was __________ cheapie.’
  ‘You always buy __________ cheap things.’
t  __________ sick should be looked after at __________ home,
   when possible, of course.
u  __________ Normans arrived in __________ Britain in 1066.
v  __________ __________ saucers got broken last night. I think
   we’ll have to buy __________ new ones to replace __________
   broken ones.
w  ‘(Have you heard) __________ news from your daughter?’
  ‘I’m afraid not.’
x  She gave him __________ but sadness. She’s very
   affectionate towards __________ people.
y  He has __________ weakness for __________ large cigars.
z  I have looked __________ in the house, but I still can’t
   find __________ chestnuts that you bought yesterday. I
   wanted to roast __________.

45 Examples:
   We are going to the Sahara (Desert) next spring.
   In order to cross the (English) Channel, you can do it by
   going to Dover or Calais, and taking a ferry.
   The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic and the Pacific
   Oceans across Panama.
   The French Riviera is very famous for its holiday resorts.

   We do not leave out the article the before the names of
   deserts, channels or canals and regions9.

a  __________ Goby (Desert), which is situated in central Asia,
   is one of the largest in the world.
b  __________ Suez Canal links the Mediterranean and the Read
c  ‘Where’s __________Kalahari (Desert)?’
   ‘In South Africa.’
d  She’s going to spend her summer holidays in __________ Middle
e  __________ Celedonian Canal is in Scotland.

46 Examples:
   Hyde park is in central London.
   Fifth Avenue is well-known worldwide.
   I’d like to go shopping to Oxford Street10.
   This is Victoria Station.

   The must normally be dropped before the names of parks,
   avenues, streets, stations, and so forth. ‘Bristol Road’,
   refers to a street; but ‘the Bristol road’, to a road
   that goes to Bristol.

a  She arrived at __________ Heathrow at a quarter to seven.
b  Take __________ Madison Avenue.
c  __________ Convent Garden used to be a fruit and vegetable
d  I’d like to go to __________ Buckingham Palace to see the
   Changing of the Guard.
e  __________ Broadway is declining popularity nowadays.

47 Examples:
   If you go to London, you should visit the British Museum.
   He’s staying at the Meliá Hotel.
   They’re showing a good film at the Odeon/on (the) television.
   She reads The Sun.
   Let’s go to Macdonalds/MacDonalds/MacDonald’s.

   The should not be omitted with the names of museums,
   hotels, cinemas, newspapers, and so on. However, if
   the genitive case11 is used with these nouns, they
   do not take the, as in the last example above.

a  __________ Colosseum is an amphitheatre built in Rome
   nineteen centuries ago.
b  __________ Prado is a museum in Madrid.
c  __________ Tate Gallery opened in 1897. It is in London.
d  __________ London Palladium is a theatre famous for its
   musicals and variety shows.
e  She reads __________ Daily Mirror because it is left-wing.

48 Revision exercise.
a  Dublin is __________ capital of __________ Republic of
b  ‘If I ever go to __________ Asia, I’ll go to __________ Far
   ‘Me too. I’d like to visit __________ Hong Kong, __________
   Beijin and __________ Tokyo.’
c  You need __________ visa to enter __________ North America.
d  __________ Nile is __________ longest river on earth.
e  __________ (Mount) Kilimanjaro has two peaks.
f  ‘Which is the largest river in __________ South America.
   ‘__________ Amazon.’
g  __________ living should respect __________ dead.
h  We went to the gunsmith’s to buy __________ powder, but they
   didn’t have __________ left/...but they had __________ left.
i  __________ Piccadilly Circus is __________ very famous square
   in central London.
j  There aren’t __________ trade unions in this area.
k  She can’t afford to buy __________ those silver spoons.
l  __________ Beatles was one of the most popular bands in
   __________ world.
m  This time next month, we’ll be sunbathing and looking at
   __________ beautiful girls in __________ Hawaiian Islands.
n  If you want to learn about __________ history of __________
   London, you should go to __________ Museum of London.
o  __________ North Pole, which is covered with ice, was first
   reached by Robert E. Peary in 1909.
p  She works in __________ Victoria Street.
q  __________ Arizona has __________ desert climate.
r  They don’t believe in __________ fortune-tellers.
s  We don’t like __________ these bookcases. Have you got
   them in __________ other colours?
t  __________ Persian Gulf is in __________ Indian Ocean.
u  __________ National Portrait Gallery is in __________ London.
v  __________ moral values of__________ Catalonia of __________
   18th century are not the same as __________ moral values of
w  It was __________ very cold winter night, and she was in
   __________ the middle of __________ with __________ water or
   food. Thankfully, she found __________ to spend __________
   night: __________ deserted old house.
x  __________ London Bridge, __________ only one across
   __________ Thames until __________ year 1747, was bought by
   __________ United States of America in 1968.
y  __________ Earth is blue, and __________ Mars, red.
z  He despises __________ Perkins.

7  Observe the following:
     She’s watching television/TV.
     Is there anything good on (the) television? (The article
     is normally dropped.)
     She’s on the telephone.
     He tried to contact her by telephone, but the line
     was engaged all the time.
8  Instead of the another determiner is sometimes found: They
   stayed at/in Sebastian’s home/his home.
9  Note the following: Patagonia is a region in/of Argentina
   and Chile.
10  Compare it with the following sentence: He lives in the
   high street. ‘The high street’ is the main street in a town. 
11  See footnote 6 in unit 11. 
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2, 3 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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