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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
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• Nationality Words


English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 22 - Page 3
     MODAL VERBS


   Insert the appropriate modal verb in the spaces provided.
   When there is a verb in brackets, put it into the correct
   form. 

27 Examples:
   You must come to the opera tonight. You’ll love it.

   Must can express strong advice. Should and ought to37 are
   possible instead of must, but the advice is not so strong.
   Compare these sentences:
     You mustn’t smoke. You’ve got lung cancer. (strong advice
     or prohibition)
     You shouldn’t/oughtn’t to smoke. It’s not good for
     your health.

a  You __________ take one of these pills before going to bed.
b  We __________ give our son a birthday party.
c  You __________ go on a diet: you’re putting on weight.
d  We __________ set up some scarecrows to prevent birds from
   eating our crops.
e  We __________ buy her a rag doll for her birthday. It’ll make
   her happy.


28 Revision exercise.
a  She __________ have been adamant in her refusal, but she is
   always willing to help.
b  ‘__________ you clear the dishes away, darling?’
   ‘Sure!’
c  They __________ have paid him off, otherwise he would have
   squealed on them to the police.
d  Someone __________ have slept in this bed recently, as it
   is unmade. We made it the last time we came here.
e  The government (not) __________ undercut spending power.
   (I am totally against it.)
f  ‘__________ you tell me if there is a cashpoint near here?’
   ‘I’m afraid there isn’t one near here.’
g  The stable is in ruins. We __________ repair it straight away.
h  ‘The FBI knows everything.’
   ‘It (not) __________ have found everything out!’
   ‘Our telephone __________ have been bugged.’
   ‘Oh, shit!’
i  Department stores (not) __________ undercut small shops. I
   don’t think this is just.
j  You __________ grasp the nettle and tell her that you are
   going out with another girl.
k  You (not) __________ panic. There’s nothing to be afraid
   of. Everything’s under control.
l  We (not) __________ afford further delay; we __________ act
   at once.
m  From now on, you __________ work to earn your own living. I
   think it’s about time you found a job, got married and settled
   down.
n  Only two people __________ enter that place without being
   seen, namely you two. So you have no choice.
o  We __________ rove the country next summer. Everything will
   depend on the money we __________ get by then.
p  You (not) __________ wash your hands of the whole matter.
   You’re heavily involved in it.
q  ‘You (not) __________ have prepared anything for dinner.
   We’re going out to dinner with the Kings.’
   ‘You __________ have told me earlier!’
r  She (not) __________ make anything for lunch, as we were going
   out to a restaurant.
s  ‘__________ I ask Sophie over to my birthday party?’
   ‘Yes, you must, love.’
t  You (not) __________ play with matches, darling. You
   __________ burn yourself.
u  Guests (not) __________ take the key with them when they go
   out.
   It __________ be left at the reception.
v  ‘__________ they will play a dirty trick on us?’
   ‘I hope not.’
w  ‘You (not) __________ bring this stray dog home, sweetie. It’s
   got fleas all over.’
   ‘Please, mummy, let me have it.’
x  She (not) __________ study a lot to pass an exam. She’s
   incredibly brainy. As a matter of fact, she’s doing
   two degree courses at the same time.
y  They __________ give him the boot because he was becoming a
   real problem for them.
z  My finals were very hard, but I __________ pass them.


29 Examples:
   You might/could38 study. You’ve got an exam tomorrow.

   Might and could suggest that you are not doing the proper
   thing. Should (or ought to) would also be possible here,
   but it would sound more like a bit of advice than a
   critical remark.

a  You __________ do the chores instead of lying on the
   settee watching TV all day.
b  You __________ take exercise; you need to lose weight.
c  You __________ practise for your next perfomance. You’re
   still a little green.
d  They __________ scold their child for mocking at people.
   He is running wild.
e  You __________ at least be frank with me!


30 Examples:
   There’s nobody in. We should/ought to39 have called to tell
   them we were coming. 
   We shouldn’t/oughtn’t to have given him the money.

   The first sentence means that it was silly not to give them a
   ring; the second, that it was foolish to give them the money.
   Both should (not) + have + a past participle and ought (not)
   to + have + a past participle are used to regret something we,
   or other people, did or did not do.

a  I (not) __________ have nodded off in his class, but I hadn’t
   got a wink of sleep the previous night, and felt very tired.
b  You (not) __________ have driven so fast. You could have
   had an accident.
c  ‘What the devil are you doing here? You __________ be at home.
   It’s almost midnight.’
d  You (not) __________ have hatched a plot to murder the
   ambassador: it was a crazy idea.
e  ‘What in thunder did you give her?’
   ‘A beer!’
   ‘You stupid fool! You (not) __________ have given her a beer.
   She’s only a child.’


31 Examples:
   I ought to give up smoking, but I love it, so I don’t think I
   will.

   Ought to carries the idea of objectiveness; and should,
   of subjectiveness. The above sentence means that this
   would be the right thing to do, that is, it does not
   depend on my opinion. Still, this difference is not
   normally very important, and either of them is usually
   possible.

a  I don’t understand. He __________ be walking on thin air,
   as you don’t win the lottery every day.
b  We (not) __________ have lost to Mexico by four goals: we were
   much better than them.
c  I __________ do these exercises every morning, but I
   detest exercising, so I never do them.
d  Your feelings (not) __________ have been pent up for so long.
e  You __________ be more optimistic about the situation. Things
   will look up.


32 Examples:
   What should/shall40 I wear? (Could you advise me what to wear?)
   Should we buy her a present? (Do you think it would be a good
   thing to buy her a present?)
   Shall we buy her a present? (How about buying her a present?)
   How should I know that? (How the blazes do you expect me to
   know that?)
   I don’t see (any reason) why you should think I’m lazy. (I
   think there is no reason to believe that.)
   I should/would say he’ll come. (This is my opinion.)
   Whom should I come across on my last holidays, but my
   parents-in-law! (I would never have expected to find them
   there.)

a  Why __________ I tell you that?
b  We went to a nudist beach thinking nobody knew us, and
   who __________ come to say hullo to us, but our neighbours.
c  I __________ think so too.
d  I can’t think why he __________ have lied to me.
e  What __________ we do now?


33 Examples:
   He should/ought to have arrived here an hour ago. (He
   generally arrives at seven o’clock, and it is already
   eight o’clock. He will be here any minute now, I think.)
   He should/ought to be here any minute now. (He always
   gets home at six o’clock, and it is ten past already,
   so I expect him to be here any minute now.)

a  They __________ be Stella’s place by now. They arranged to
   meet there at half past nine, and it is ten o’clock.
b  They __________ have got there by now. Why don’t you ring
   them up now?
c  He __________ have finished his work by now; I’ll go and see
   if he has.
d  She __________ come back in less than no time.
e  She __________ be ready in a jiffy.


34 Revision exercise.
a  ‘We __________ arrange a big party on Saturday evening.
   If so, would you like to come?.’
   ‘We (not) __________ tell you for sure now, as we __________
   go skiing next weekend. If we stay here and you decide to
   celebrate your party, we would be very pleased to attend.’
b  ‘You __________ say grace tonight!’ (a suggestion)
   ‘Me! I’m a confirmed atheist!’
c  You __________ learn from your mistakes, otherwise you’ll
   never become a wise person. (a piece of advice)
d  You (not) __________ leave anything unsaid. (= You had better
   tell us everything.)
e  She (not) __________ have indicated right, or I’d have noticed
   it.
f  This suit __________ be ironed inside out. (= We advise you to
   iron this suit inside out.)
g  He father told her that he (not) __________ give her a ride on
   his shoulders, as they ached terribly.
h  They (not) __________ be telling the truth! They __________
   be kidding us!
i  You __________ be right, but if you don’t ask you don’t get.
j  You (not) __________ play with your catapult. It’s very
   dangerous.
k  I have no money, so I __________ make a reversed-charge call.
l  ‘I told her to get out of my way, as I didn’t have x-ray
   vision, and she got angry with me.’
   ‘You (not) __________ have said that to her. She’s very
   sensitive, you know.’
   ‘Well, I know, but she was just in front of the television,
   and I (not) __________ watch anything.’
   ‘Anyhow, there are many ways to tell people things.’
   ‘OK! OK! I won’t do it again.’
m  What in heaven’s name did you tell them? You __________ have
   kept your mouth shut!
n  They __________ only do two things, viz wait or continue.
   They agreed to take the second alternative.
o  He __________ be here in no time at all. He just went round
   the corner.
p  He said that they (not) __________ have nicked my scooter,
   since they had been with him the whole afternoon.
q  If you have no head for heights, you (not) __________ go
   climbing tomorrow.
r  Why __________ I help you? You’ve never done anything for me.
s  You (not) __________ overtake now. There’s an unbroken line.
t  I reckon you’ve gone too far. You (not) __________ have
   shouted at me.
u  ‘__________ we shack up or get married?’
   ‘Well, this is up to you.’
v  You (not) __________ pay me back now. You __________ do
   it tomorrow.
w  ‘__________ I go to school today, mum? I’m not feeling very
   well.’
   ‘No, you needn’t, darling.’
x  We __________ go jogging every morning, but we always get up
   late; so we don’t have time to do it.’
y  There __________ be mice in the outbuilding. Some corn-cobs
   have been nibbled.
z  You (not) __________ invest in that firm, as your account
   would be overdrawn by ten thousand pounds.


35 Examples:
   It is annoying that he should never include me on the list
   of players.
   It is annoying that he never includes me on the list of
   players.
   It is vital that he should sign this document right away.
   It is vital that he sign this document right away41.
   It is vital for him to sign this document right away.
   It is vital that he signs this document right away.
   It was better that she should take a bus than walk.
   It was better that she take a bus than walk42.
   It was better for her to take a bus than (to) walk.

   In the first sentence ‘annoying’ is an adjective that expresses
   how we feel about something. In this case, both should (formal)
   or a present or a past tense (It was annoying that he never
   included me on the lists of players) are possible. As regards
   adjectives like ‘vital’, they call for immediate action (as we
   think that it is necessary to do something about it); they can
   also indicate that we consider something the rightest or wisest
   thing to do (‘better’). Here, we have three alternatives: to
   use should, to omit it (subjunctive43) or to use an infinitive
   construction. For may be replaced with to when they are not
   followed by an infinitive: Water is vital/essential to/for
   life. Adjectives such as ‘vital’ and ‘essential’ may also
   take a present or past tense: It was vital/essential that
   they kept everything under control.

a  It is a shame44 that you __________ arrive always late to
   your appointments.
b  It’s essential that any proof __________ be destroyed
   straight away.
c  It’s strange that she __________ say that.
d  It is advisable that she ___________ be here by noon.
e  I’m surprised that you __________ like soap operas/It’s
   surprising that you __________ like soap operas.


36 Examples45:
   They suggested that he should spend the night there.
   They insisted that she should stay with them.
   I have just recommended that he should drink less.
   They decided that they should tell everything to the
   authorities concerned.

   A verb + that + a subject + should indicates that it would
   be a sensible or necessary thing to do.

a  The lieutenant ordered that the sergeant __________ train his
   men every day.
b  Mr Perkins advised that I __________ read more often.
c  He proposed that we __________ clear the dishes away while he
   did the washing-up.
d  We urged that he __________ study for a degree.
e  He demanded that the meeting __________ be postponed, as not
   all the members were present.


37 Examples:
   If you should46 need further details, do not hesitate to
   contact us.
   In case47 you should have a breakdown, telephone this number.
   He did not dare to go out lest48/in case her pursuer should
   find her.
   He didn’t tell her so that/in order that49 she should not ask
   any questions about it.

a  He had a crib in case he __________ need it in the examination.
b  He didn’t blab to the press lest they __________ take
   reprisals.
c  If it __________ hail tomorrow, please take my flowerpots in.
d  __________ you require any of our latest models, please let
   us know.
e  He brought some balloons home so that his children __________
   play with them.


38 Revision exercise.
a  You __________ look on the bright side of things. (a piece
   of advice)
b  The weather forecaster said this morning that it __________
   snow in some nothern parts of the country.
c  ‘Where’s he?’
   ‘He __________ have slunk away when we were not looking! Let’s
   go and look for him.’
   ‘I guess you’re right!’
d  Now you (not) __________ unsay what you have just said. A deal
   is a deal.
e  ‘I __________ take a laxative, as I’ve got awful constipation.’
   ‘It’s not surprising that you __________ be constipated, you
   never eat fibre or fruit.’
f  __________ I put the rubbish bin out now, mum? I’m finishing
   my homework. (not) __________ I do it later?
g  You __________ do as your heart tells you. (a bit of advice)
h  ‘We’ve brought a tray of cakes.’
   ‘You __________ have brought anything. We bought plenty of
   sweets this morning, but thanks anyway.’
i  You __________ do it this way. (This is the way I want it.)
j  Why __________ it run aground? I think everything will go
   according to plan.
k  It’s important that she __________ be kept at bay. She
   __________ ruin our plans.
l  He didn’t go there lest he __________ be discovered.
m  This __________ be subject to some changes. (possibility)
n  You __________ learn this off right away. (= I reckon that
   it is imperative that you __________ learn this off right
   away.)
o  ‘Why __________ we start afresh?’
   ‘Because we need to forget everything.’
p  She __________ have been strangled with a scarf. (= There is
   enough evidence to believe this.)
q  I __________ burn the midnight oil if I want to finish
   it by tomorrow morning.
r  ‘Your hair’s sticking up. You __________ comb it this minute.’
   ‘Yes, mummy.’
s  She __________ be fortysomething, as I’m forty and she is
   older than me.
t  You (not) __________ jump the queue. You __________ join it
   as everybody else.
u  You (not) __________ stroke our neighbour’s cat. It
   __________ scratch you, as it __________ be vicious at times.
v  It’s ridiculous that you __________ think that I have a love
   affair with my secretary.
w  The colonel commanded that the fifth company __________ go
   on manoeuvres.
x  This meat __________ have gone off; it’s giving off a bad
   smell.
y  He said that he (not) __________ get her out of his mind. (= It
   was impossible for him to get her out of his mind.)
z  The king directed that the armed forces __________ be put on
   full alert in case a war __________ break out.


____________________
37  Had better has a similar meaning: We’d better leave for London
   very early in the morning. There’s a long way to go. See unit
   6, part 4, section 10. 
38  See section 17 in this unit.
39  The perfect simple and progressive infinitives refer to the
   past; the simple and progressive infinitives, to the present
   or future: You should be helping your mother. (= You are not
   doing the proper thing.)
40  See unit 9, section 51.
41  This structure is not very common in British English.
42  See the previous footnote.
43  Notice that the subjunctive does not have -s or -es or a past
   form. Observe the subjunctive of the verb be: It is vital
   that he (should) be here before the sun sets.
44  Note that ‘shame’ is a noun, not an adjective.
45  Other alternatives to the examples given in this section:
     They suggested that he spent the night there.
     They suggested that he spend the night there. (Observe
     the use of the subjunctive here. See the previous section.)
     They suggested his spending the night there. (If we
     remove the possessive adjective, we would probably
     include the speaker as well: They suggested that they
     should spend the night there/They suggested spending
     the night there.)
     They insisted that she stayed with them.
     They insisted that she stay with them. (subjunctive)
     They insisted on/upon her staying with them.
     I have just recommended that he drink less. (subjunctive)
     I have just recommended his drinking less. (I have just
     said that he should drink less.)
     I have just recommended him to drink less. (I have just
     told him to drink less.)
     They decided to tell everything to the
     authorities concerned.
46  Should here conveys the idea that something is not very
   probable. Should can also precede the subject, and if is,
   then, removed: Should you need further details, do not
   hesitate to contact us. This is slightly more formal
   than the construction with if. See also unit 24,
   sections 11 and 14.
47  In case is normally followed by a present or a past tense,
   but should is an alternative to this when we want to
   suggest that something is not very likely. See units 24
   (section 16) and 27 (section 7).
48  Might sometimes occurs instead of should: He did not dare to
   go out lest her pursuer might find her. It is also possible to
   omit the modal verb (subjunctive) or to use a present or past
   tense: He did not dare to go out lest her pursuer (might/
   should) find/found her. See unit 27, section 7.
49  Should sometimes occurs after so that or in order that,
   although other modal verbs are often used instead: He
   didn’t tell her so that/in order that she would not/
   could not ask any questions. Might is also possible in
   very formal contexts: The government approved a new
   law so that/in order that we might have a better
   quality of life. If the verb in the main clause is in
   a present or future tense, we use may, can or will:
   I’ll ring them up so that/in order that they may/can/
   will know when my train arrives. See unit 27, section 5.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2, 3 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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