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English Grammar Step by Step

 

     UNIT 12 - Page 2
     SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS



   Change the singular words given in the exercises below into plural.

13 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)
   alumnus→alumni10
   bacillus→bacilli
   cactus→cacti/cactuses
(The Latin language took it from Greek.)
   crocus→croci/crocuses
   focus→foci/focuses
   fungus→fungi/funguses
   hippocampus→hippocampi
   hippopotamus→hippopotami/hippopotamuses
   locus→loci
   nucleus→nuclei
   octopus→octopi/octopuses/octopodes
(Greek origin)
   radius→radii/radiuses
   stimulus→stimuli
   syllabus→syllabi/syllabuses
   thesaurus→thesauri/thesauruses
(The Latin language took it from Greek.)
   terminus→termini/terminuses


a  nucleus
b  octopus
c  radius
d  syllabus
e  terminus


14 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns11)
   alga→algae12
   alumna→alumnae
   antenna→antennae (part of an insect), antennas (of a radio)
   formula→formulae/formulas
   lacuna→lacunae/lacunas
   larva→larvae
   nebula→nebulae/nebulas
   persona→personae/personas
   pupa→pupae/pupas
   vertebra→vertebrae/vertebras
   vulva→vulvae/vulvas
   vagina→vaginae/vaginas


a  nebula
b  antenna
c  alga
d  formula
e  larva


15 Revision exercise.
a  six
b  torpedo
c  crocus
d  loaf
e  knapsack
f  fife
g  trigger
h  double dealer
i  bookcase
j  sofa
k  boxing ring
l  beetle
m  feline
n  view
o  puppy
p  stimulus
q  bypass
r  impediment
s  analysis
t  lady
u  day
v  tile
w  focus
x  goose
y  nanny
z  electricity meter


16 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)
   addendum→addenda13
   aquarium→aquaria/aquariums
   corrigendum→corrigenda
   curriculum→curricula/curriculums
   datum14→data
   erratum→errata
   fulcrum→fulcra/fulcrums
   medium→media/mediums
   memorandum→memoranda/memorandums
   millennium→millenia/millenniums
   ovum→ova
   scrotum→scrota/scrotums
   spectrum→spectra/spectrums
   stadium→stadia/stadiums
   stratum→strata/stratums


a  memorandum
b  erratum
c  addendum
d  datum
e  stratum


17 Revision exercise.
a  sailor
b  turban
c  doll
d  season
e  porch
f  radio
g  family
h  bush
i  solo
j  brooch
k  pea
l  saucepan
m  piano
n  studio
o  flamingo
p  quota
q  alumna
r  crab
s  aquarium
t  motto
u  ovum
v  toy
w  corpus
x  chain
y  zoo
z  reveller


18 Example: (Greek-origin substantives)
   criterion→criteria15

a  ganglion16
b  automaton
c  phenomenon
d  demon
e  proton


19 Examples: (French-origin nouns)
   chateau (or château)→chateaux/chateaus
   adieu→adieux/adieus


a  bureau
b  plateau
c  trousseau
d  portmanteau
e  gâteau


20 Revision exercise.
a  nappy
b  sex
c  parenthesis
d  half
e  lacuna
f  mischief
g  stadium
h  tableau
i  vignette
j  wheelchair
k  spoonful
l  curriculum
m  hole
n  branch
o  alibi
p  deity
q  valley
r  codex
s  peach
t  means
u  trout
v  neurosis
w  album
x  millennium
y  tusk
z  pumpkin


21 Examples: (plural words17)
   advances
   alms
   amends
   annals
   the Antipodes
   archives
   arms
   arrears
   ashes
   auspieces
   banns
   bellows
   binoculars
   bowels
   braces
   brains
   breeches
   callipers
   cattle
   clothes
   contents
   crow"s feet
   customs
   damages
   dividers
   dregs
   dungarees
   earnings
   entrails
   fireworks
   flannels
   funds
   genitals, genitalia
   glasses
   goggles
   goings-on
   goods
   greens
   grounds
   guts
   handcuffs
   hindquarters
   holidays
   jeans
   jodhpurs
   knickers
   leads
   leggings
   listings
   lists
   lodgings
   looks
   makings
   manners
   the Middle Ages
   minutes
   noes
   odds
   outskirts
   pains
   pan-pipes
   panties
   pants
   particulars
   parts
   pincers
   pliers
   police
   possessions
   premises
   proceeds
   pyjamas
   quarters
   regards
   reinforcements
   reins
   remains
   riches
   road works
   roots
   savings
   scales
   scissors
   shears
   shorts
   spectacles
   spirits
   stairs
   stalls
   statistics
   suds
   surroundings
   suspenders
   takings
   terms
   thanks
   tights
   togs
   toilitries
   toils
   tongs
   travels
   trousers
   trunks
   tweezers
   underpants
   valuables
   values
   vermin
   wares
   the wings
   winnings


a  binoculars
b  clothes
c  fireworks
d  spectacles
e  police


22 Examples:
   a German→two Germans
   a Portuguese→two Portuguese
   a Swiss→two Swiss
   an Englishman→two Englishmen
   an Englishwoman→two Englishwomen


a  Japanese
b  American
c  Chinese
d  Australian
e  Irishman


23 Revision exercise.
a  bacillus
b  campus
c  splash
d  monkey
e  pony
f  Dutchwoman
g  spectrum
h  vermin
i  Nepalese
j  cell
k  rope
l  witness
m  bulldozer
n  pepper pot
o  letter box
p  handful
q  veto
r  paradox
s  Russian
t  locus
u  ostrich
v  lighthouse
w  fungus
x  series
y  elf
z  hippopotamus


____________________
10  But bonus→bonuses, campus→campuses, chorus→choruses (the Lating language took it from Greek), circus→circuses, genius→geniuses, since they have completely adapted. Notice also corpus→corpora/corpuses; genus→genera.
11  Some words have only regular plurals because they have adapted totally: area→areas, quota→quotas. Panorama→panoramas and idea→ideas come from Greek. Others have the Latin form only: alumna→alumnae.
12  The singular form is seldom used in modern English. The plural form algae occurs in scientific contexts, and is sometimes treated as an uncountable noun. In spoken English, weed or seaweed replaces algae.
13  But we say album→albums, ie this word is entirely adapted to the English language. As for asylum→asylums, bacterium→bacteria, gymnasium→gymnasiums/gymnasia, museum→museums and stadium→stadiums/stadia, the English language took them from Latin; and the Latin one, from Greek. As a general rule, we use irregular plurals when the meaning is specialized, and regular ones when it is not. Note also candelabrum/candelabra→candelabra/candelabras.
14  Its plural form is sometimes treated as an uncountable noun. The singular form "datum" is not used in modern English.
15  But demon→demons, electron→electrons, neutron→neutrons (Latin origin), proton→protons, as they have already adapted to the English language.
16  "Ganglions", "automatons" and "phenomenons" are also possible.
17  Some words have the appearance of a plural word, but they are uncountable: darts, linguistics, mathematics, measles, news, and so on and so forth. In general, collective nouns may be treated as singular words or as plural words: The team is/are playing very well tonight. Phrases referring to distances, liquids, money and time are often considered singular: Two litres of petrol isn"t enough. There are also some expressions which are regarded as one unit. They are therefore singular:
     Bacon and eggs is her favourite breakfast.
     The United States of America is a very interesting country to visit.
     Niagara Falls is on the border between North America and Canada.


Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents

   Introduction

   Notes

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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