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• Contents
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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 12 - Page 2
     SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS


   Change the singular words given in the exercises below into
   plural.

13 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)
   alumnus→alumni10 
   bacillus→bacilli
   cactus→cacti/cactuses (The Latin language took it from Greek.)
   crocus→croci/crocuses
   focus→foci/focuses
   fungus→fungi/funguses
   hippocampus→hippocampi
   hippopotamus→hippopotami/hippopotamuses
   locus→loci
   nucleus→nuclei
   octopus→octopi/octopuses/octopodes (Greek origin)
   radius→radii/radiuses
   stimulus→stimuli
   syllabus→syllabi/syllabuses
   thesaurus→thesauri/thesauruses (The Latin language took it
   from Greek.)
   terminus→termini/terminuses

a  nucleus
b  octopus
c  radius
d  syllabus
e  terminus


14 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns11)
   alga→algae12 
   alumna→alumnae
   antenna→antennae (part of an insect), antennas (of a radio)
   formula→formulae/formulas
   lacuna→lacunae/lacunas
   larva→larvae
   nebula→nebulae/nebulas
   persona→personae/personas
   pupa→pupae/pupas
   vertebra→vertebrae/vertebras
   vulva→vulvae/vulvas
   vagina→vaginae/vaginas

a  nebula
b  antenna
c  alga
d  formula
e  larva


15 Revision exercise.
a  six
b  torpedo
c  crocus
d  loaf
e  knapsack
f  fife
g  trigger
h  double dealer
i  bookcase
j  sofa
k  boxing ring
l  beetle
m  feline
n  view
o  puppy
p  stimulus
q  bypass
r  impediment
s  analysis
t  lady
u  day
v  tile
w  focus
x  goose
y  nanny
z  electricity meter


16 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)
   addendum→addenda13
   aquarium→aquaria/aquariums
   corrigendum→corrigenda
   curriculum→curricula/curriculums
   datum14→data
   erratum→errata
   fulcrum→fulcra/fulcrums
   medium→media/mediums
   memorandum→memoranda/memorandums
   millennium→millenia/millenniums
   ovum→ova
   scrotum→scrota/scrotums
   spectrum→spectra/spectrums
   stadium→stadia/stadiums
   stratum→strata/stratums

a  memorandum
b  erratum
c  addendum
d  datum
e  stratum


17 Revision exercise.
a  sailor
b  turban
c  doll
d  season
e  porch
f  radio
g  family
h  bush
i  solo
j  brooch
k  pea
l  saucepan
m  piano
n  studio
o  flamingo
p  quota
q  alumna
r  crab
s  aquarium
t  motto
u  ovum
v  toy
w  corpus
x  chain
y  zoo
z  reveller


18 Example: (Greek-origin substantives)
   criterion→criteria15 

a  ganglion16 
b  automaton
c  phenomenon
d  demon
e  proton


19 Examples: (French-origin nouns)
   chateau (or château)→chateaux/chateaus
   adieu→adieux/adieus

a  bureau
b  plateau
c  trousseau
d  portmanteau
e  gâteau


20 Revision exercise.
a  nappy
b  sex
c  parenthesis
d  half
e  lacuna
f  mischief
g  stadium
h  tableau
i  vignette
j  wheelchair
k  spoonful
l  curriculum
m  hole
n  branch
o  alibi
p  deity
q  valley
r  codex
s  peach
t  means
u  trout
v  neurosis
w  album
x  millennium
y  tusk
z  pumpkin


21 Examples: (plural words17)
   advances
   alms
   amends
   annals
   the Antipodes
   archives
   arms
   arrears
   ashes
   auspieces
   banns
   bellows
   binoculars
   bowels
   braces
   brains
   breeches
   callipers
   cattle
   clothes
   contents
   crow’s feet
   customs
   damages
   dividers
   dregs
   dungarees
   earnings
   entrails
   fireworks
   flannels
   funds
   genitals, genitalia
   glasses
   goggles
   goings-on
   goods
   greens
   grounds
   guts
   handcuffs
   hindquarters
   holidays
   jeans
   jodhpurs
   knickers
   leads
   leggings
   listings
   lists
   lodgings
   looks
   makings
   manners
   the Middle Ages
   minutes
   noes
   odds
   outskirts
   pains
   pan-pipes
   panties
   pants
   particulars
   parts
   pincers
   pliers
   police
   possessions
   premises
   proceeds
   pyjamas
   quarters
   regards
   reinforcements
   reins
   remains
   riches
   road works
   roots
   savings
   scales
   scissors
   shears
   shorts
   spectacles
   spirits
   stairs
   stalls
   statistics
   suds
   surroundings
   suspenders
   takings
   terms
   thanks
   tights
   togs
   toilitries
   toils
   tongs
   travels
   trousers
   trunks
   tweezers
   underpants
   valuables
   values
   vermin
   wares
   the wings
   winnings		

a  binoculars
b  clothes
c  fireworks
d  spectacles
e  police


22 Examples:
   a German→two Germans
   a Portuguese→two Portuguese
   a Swiss→two Swiss
   an Englishman→two Englishmen
   an Englishwoman→two Englishwomen

a  Japanese
b  American
c  Chinese
d  Australian
e  Irishman


23 Revision exercise.
a  bacillus
b  campus
c  splash
d  monkey
e  pony
f  Dutchwoman
g  spectrum
h  vermin
i  Nepalese
j  cell
k  rope
l  witness
m  bulldozer
n  pepper pot
o  letter box
p  handful
q  veto
r  paradox
s  Russian
t  locus
u  ostrich
v  lighthouse
w  fungus
x  series
y  elf
z  hippopotamus


____________________
10  But bonus→bonuses, campus→campuses, chorus→choruses (the
   Lating language took it from Greek), circus→circuses,
   genius→geniuses, since they have completely adapted.
   Notice also corpus→corpora/corpuses; genus→genera.
11  Some words have only regular plurals because they have
   adapted totally: area→areas, quota→quotas. Panorama→
   panoramas and idea→ideas come from Greek. Others have
   the Latin form only: alumna→alumnae.	
12  The singular form is seldom used in modern English. The
   plural form algae occurs in scientific contexts, and is
   sometimes treated as an uncountable noun. In spoken
   English, weed or seaweed replaces algae.	
13  But we say album→albums, ie this word is entirely adapted
   to the English language. As for asylum→asylums, bacterium→
   bacteria, gymnasium→gymnasiums/gymnasia, museum→museums and
   stadium→stadiums/stadia, the English language took them from
   Latin; and the Latin one, from Greek. As a general rule, we
   use irregular plurals when the meaning is specialized, and
   regular ones when it is not. Note also candelabrum/
   candelabra→candelabra/candelabras.
14  Its plural form is sometimes treated as an uncountable noun.
   The singular form ‘datum’ is not used in modern English.
15  But demon→demons, electron→electrons, neutron→neutrons (Latin
   origin), proton→protons, as they have already adapted to
   the English language.
16  ‘Ganglions’, ‘automatons’ and ‘phenomenons’ are also
   possible.
17  Some words have the appearance of a plural word, but they
   are uncountable: darts, linguistics, mathematics, measles,
   news, and so on and so forth. In general, collective nouns
   may be treated as singular words or as plural words: The team
   is/are playing very well tonight. Phrases referring to
   distances, liquids, money and time are often considered
   singular: Two litres of petrol isn’t enough. There are also
   some expressions which are regarded as one unit. They are
   therefore singular: 
     Bacon and eggs is her favourite breakfast.
     The United States of America is a very interesting
     country to visit.
     Niagara Falls is on the border between North America
     and Canada.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)
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