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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words

English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs

Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs

English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs

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English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 12 - Page 2

   Change the singular words given in the exercises below into

13 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)
   cactus→cacti/cactuses (The Latin language took it from Greek.)
   octopus→octopi/octopuses/octopodes (Greek origin)
   thesaurus→thesauri/thesauruses (The Latin language took it
   from Greek.)

a  nucleus
b  octopus
c  radius
d  syllabus
e  terminus

14 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns11)
   antenna→antennae (part of an insect), antennas (of a radio)

a  nebula
b  antenna
c  alga
d  formula
e  larva

15 Revision exercise.
a  six
b  torpedo
c  crocus
d  loaf
e  knapsack
f  fife
g  trigger
h  double dealer
i  bookcase
j  sofa
k  boxing ring
l  beetle
m  feline
n  view
o  puppy
p  stimulus
q  bypass
r  impediment
s  analysis
t  lady
u  day
v  tile
w  focus
x  goose
y  nanny
z  electricity meter

16 Examples: (Latin-origin nouns)

a  memorandum
b  erratum
c  addendum
d  datum
e  stratum

17 Revision exercise.
a  sailor
b  turban
c  doll
d  season
e  porch
f  radio
g  family
h  bush
i  solo
j  brooch
k  pea
l  saucepan
m  piano
n  studio
o  flamingo
p  quota
q  alumna
r  crab
s  aquarium
t  motto
u  ovum
v  toy
w  corpus
x  chain
y  zoo
z  reveller

18 Example: (Greek-origin substantives)

a  ganglion16 
b  automaton
c  phenomenon
d  demon
e  proton

19 Examples: (French-origin nouns)
   chateau (or château)→chateaux/chateaus

a  bureau
b  plateau
c  trousseau
d  portmanteau
e  gâteau

20 Revision exercise.
a  nappy
b  sex
c  parenthesis
d  half
e  lacuna
f  mischief
g  stadium
h  tableau
i  vignette
j  wheelchair
k  spoonful
l  curriculum
m  hole
n  branch
o  alibi
p  deity
q  valley
r  codex
s  peach
t  means
u  trout
v  neurosis
w  album
x  millennium
y  tusk
z  pumpkin

21 Examples: (plural words17)
   the Antipodes
   crow’s feet
   genitals, genitalia
   the Middle Ages
   road works
   the wings

a  binoculars
b  clothes
c  fireworks
d  spectacles
e  police

22 Examples:
   a German→two Germans
   a Portuguese→two Portuguese
   a Swiss→two Swiss
   an Englishman→two Englishmen
   an Englishwoman→two Englishwomen

a  Japanese
b  American
c  Chinese
d  Australian
e  Irishman

23 Revision exercise.
a  bacillus
b  campus
c  splash
d  monkey
e  pony
f  Dutchwoman
g  spectrum
h  vermin
i  Nepalese
j  cell
k  rope
l  witness
m  bulldozer
n  pepper pot
o  letter box
p  handful
q  veto
r  paradox
s  Russian
t  locus
u  ostrich
v  lighthouse
w  fungus
x  series
y  elf
z  hippopotamus

10  But bonus→bonuses, campus→campuses, chorus→choruses (the
   Lating language took it from Greek), circus→circuses,
   genius→geniuses, since they have completely adapted.
   Notice also corpus→corpora/corpuses; genus→genera.
11  Some words have only regular plurals because they have
   adapted totally: area→areas, quota→quotas. Panorama→
   panoramas and idea→ideas come from Greek. Others have
   the Latin form only: alumna→alumnae.	
12  The singular form is seldom used in modern English. The
   plural form algae occurs in scientific contexts, and is
   sometimes treated as an uncountable noun. In spoken
   English, weed or seaweed replaces algae.	
13  But we say album→albums, ie this word is entirely adapted
   to the English language. As for asylum→asylums, bacterium→
   bacteria, gymnasium→gymnasiums/gymnasia, museum→museums and
   stadium→stadiums/stadia, the English language took them from
   Latin; and the Latin one, from Greek. As a general rule, we
   use irregular plurals when the meaning is specialized, and
   regular ones when it is not. Note also candelabrum/
14  Its plural form is sometimes treated as an uncountable noun.
   The singular form ‘datum’ is not used in modern English.
15  But demon→demons, electron→electrons, neutron→neutrons (Latin
   origin), proton→protons, as they have already adapted to
   the English language.
16  ‘Ganglions’, ‘automatons’ and ‘phenomenons’ are also
17  Some words have the appearance of a plural word, but they
   are uncountable: darts, linguistics, mathematics, measles,
   news, and so on and so forth. In general, collective nouns
   may be treated as singular words or as plural words: The team
   is/are playing very well tonight. Phrases referring to
   distances, liquids, money and time are often considered
   singular: Two litres of petrol isn’t enough. There are also
   some expressions which are regarded as one unit. They are
   therefore singular: 
     Bacon and eggs is her favourite breakfast.
     The United States of America is a very interesting
     country to visit.
     Niagara Falls is on the border between North America
     and Canada.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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