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English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 10

   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

1  Examples: (personal subject pronouns)
   I can't throw this cough off.
   You shouldn't hold back your feelings.
   He has turned down my application.
   She is literate in Portuguese.
   It runs every four hours.
   We have just turned off the heater.
   You (two) have committed an offence.
   They were cut off from civilization.

   Personal subject pronouns are placed before the verb. Note that the auxiliary comes first in questions1:
     Has he turned down my application?
     Does it run every four hours?

a  "Have __________ read the report __________ handed over to you yesterday morning?"
   "No, __________ am afraid __________ haven't had the time to do it yet."
b  "Where are __________ three going?"
   "__________ are going to walk along the coast."
   "Can I go with you?"
   "Of course __________ can."
c  Betty fell off her horse. __________ is in hospital now.
d  Eve and Erica learnt about your marriage second-hand. __________ are very cross with you because of this.
e  "What's this?"
   "__________ is a Castilian sword. __________ was made in the seventeenth century."

2  Examples: (personal object pronouns)
   She told me her name.
   I sent you a postcard.
   She met him in Paris.
   He loves her.
   They made it themselves.
   They came with us.
   I gave you both what I owed you.
   It's for them.

   Personal object pronouns are put after a verb or a preposition.

a  "Did Helen and Tony ring Oscar up?"
   "No, he rang __________ up."
b  She often catches __________ on the hop. I have told __________ a hundred times to call __________ before she comes to visit __________, but she never does. The worst of all is that she generally finds my house in a complete mess.
c  "Where did you find this carrier pigeon?"
   "I found __________ in the garden."
d  "I think governments should ban the selling of tobacco."
   "Why do you think they should ban __________?"
   "In the first place, __________ can cause lung cancer. In the second, it is a silly habit."
   "Well, I think they get a lot of money from __________ through taxes, so it's not very likely that they will ban __________.
e  "I'd like __________ to come with __________."
   "I'm afraid I can't come with you."

3  Examples: (possessive adjectives)
   In my view, we shouldn't play out of doors.
   I think you have learnt your lesson.
   He blotted his copybook when they found him drunk.
   She says that your remarks are an insult to her intelligence.
   A cat licks its paws in order to wash them.
   We did our share.
   You didn't finish your housework.
   They shaved their beards off yesterday.

   A possessive adjective is always followed by a noun.

a  He's lost __________ wallet.
b  We're looking for __________ dog. Have you seen it anywhere?
c  I've finished __________ homework. Can I play with
   __________ friends, mummy?
d  "I saw a UFO last night"
   "What was it like?"
   "Well, I only saw a bright light; and heard such a grating sound that I had to cover __________ ears."
e  I've got a dog, and this is __________ lead.

4  Examples: (possessive pronouns)
   Can I borrow your typewriter? Mine is broken.
   This is my book, and that is yours.
   My generation was more responsible than his.
   Lisa forgot her swim-suit at home, but Dolly didn't forget hers.
   You may have their forgiveness, but you won't have ours.
   This tea strainer is not Paul's, but yours.
   Here's yours. Theirs is not yet available.

   A possessive pronoun is not followed by a noun.

a  "Is this __________?" (= Does this belong to me?)
   "No, it isn't. It's __________. I bought it yesterday."
b  This isn't the Smiths' squeezer. It's __________. I bought one yesterday afternoon, darling.
c  "This isn't your maths book!"
   "Where's __________?"
   "I don't know."
d  "Whose car is that?"
   "I think it's Peter and Barbara's."
   "No, I don't think it's __________. They detest cars."
e  "Who does the house belong to?"
   "It belongs to Mr González."
   "It can't be __________. He's too poor to have a house like that."

5  Complete the following table.

6  Revison exercise.
a  He loved Liza a lot, but she didn't love __________.
b  Mr Evan poked __________ nose into __________ affairs. I detest curiosity.
c  "My motto is not to leave for tomorrow what I can do today."
   "What's __________?"
   "I don't have a motto."
d  I know she doesn't speak Finnish very well —it's not __________ mother-tongue!
e  "Thank you very much."
   "_________ pleasure.' (or "The pleasure is __________")
f  I think he'll change __________ mind.
g  This has nothing to do with __________. So, please don't interfere in __________ own affairs. Mind __________ own business.
h  Before I said anything, I cleared __________ throat.
i  When I was twelve, I had a crush on __________ history teacher.
j  Most of Miss Thackeray's pupils have a pash on __________. __________ is really beautiful.
k  "Where's __________ blue blouse, mum?"
   "_________ is in the top drawer."
l  When they told me that __________ favourite rock 'n' roll singer was coming to __________ hometown, __________ heart missed a beat.
m  "Who's that girl?"
   "A friend of __________. I met __________ in a carnival last year."
   "Are __________ in love with __________?"
   "Yes, __________ am."
n  Mum, I'd like to introduce __________ to __________ friend Jane and __________ mother.
o  She says that she wants a sledge of __________ own.
p  Don't give any money to her, as __________ burns a hole in __________ pocket.
q  __________ was a wintry morning and the birds were singing. My wife had already got up and had a glass of cold milk and some buns for breakfast. She had also prepared __________ a hearty breakfast, as usual.
r  I said that because __________ wasn't aware of my brother. If __________ had known __________ was there, __________ wouldn't have said __________.
s  They knew everything about the matter from __________ sister.
   After all, she's __________ own flesh and blood.
t  This employee is a very real problem for us. Why don't we give __________ the push?
u  "If this report should come across __________ desk, please make sure __________ is destroyed."
   "Don't worry. __________ will destroy __________ if __________ see __________ on my desk."
v  "Whose is this?"
   "__________ is __________. __________ is a present from her fiancé."
w  "Is this Dora's pram?"
   "No, it isn't __________."
x  He says that __________ would love to live on __________ own.
y  My niece is a lawyer. Why don't we bring __________ in. __________ might be a great help.
z  I know she's very surly. It's a defect in __________ character.

7  Examples:
   "Which of you went overseas last year?"
   "He did."
(formal)/"Him2.' (informal)
   She is as gross as he is3 (formal)/as him. (informal)
   She gained more prestige than he did (formal)/than him. (informal)

   As a general rule, we can say that personal subject pronouns are followed by a verb. If there is no verb, we normally use personal object pronouns, which is informal.

a  You are taller than __________, but you should consider the fact that you are four years older than __________. In four or five years' time, I would be as tall as
b  "Who lives here?"
   "__________. I bought this house two months ago. Didn't you know?'
   "No, I didn't."
c  My son has been working harder than your sister. So he's more tired than __________.
d  "Who has scattered these toys all over the room?"
   "__________. I saw him playing here a moment ago."
e  My mother-in-law is very unfriendly, but my father-in-law isn't. Consequently, she is less friendly than __________.

8  Examples:
   "Who is it?"
   "It is I/me."
   It was he/him who tackled everything.
   Nobody but4 he/him declared5 the existence of a traitor amongst the members of the assembly.

   Personal object pronouns sound more natural in an informal style. More formally, personal subject pronouns should be used.

a  —Who is it?
   — It's __________, your husband.
b  Nobody but __________ adapts so easily to the circumstances.
   He is a dear.
c  Everybody except __________ complained about the food.
   She is extremely polite.
d  Peter's children are very spoilt. I think it was __________ who walked on the grass. I have told them to keep off the grass hundreds of times, but they seem to take no notice to what people tell them not to do.
e  "My girl-friend is coming home for lunch today."
   "The bell!"
   "It must be __________. Go and open the door, will you, mum?
   I must tidy myself up a bit.

9  Examples:
   Everybody loves this couch, don't they?6
   Nobody should contradict her, or else they will be chucked out.
   A person should never be replaced with a machine. They feel and think, but a machine doesn't.
   If anyone phones while I'm out, tell them I've gone away and will be back tomorrow.

   If we want to replace a singular word referring to people with a pronoun, they (or them, their, theirs) is usually preferred to he (or him, his), at least informally. This is due to the fact that many people consider the usage of he sexist. He or she7 is another alternative to this. It is even possible to write (s)he, s/he, or he/she.

a  If anybody asks you where I am, tell __________ that you haven't seen me for the last six months.
b  Any human being should be treated equally. If __________ (be)8 not treated equally, __________ should go to court to defend __________ rights.
c  If anybody should change lanes without looking in the rear-view mirror and in the wing mirror, __________ may be involved in a collision with another car.
d  Somebody locked the door, didn't __________?
e  A person who turns to crime should be given another chance to rebuild __________ life (or __________ lives), but if __________ transgresses (or __________ transgress) the law again, __________ should be put behind bars for a long time.

10 Revision exercise.
a  Nobody but __________ has told you the whole truth. __________ shouldn't be so annoyed with him. He's the only one who has been true to you.
b  "Who has read King Lear?"
   "__________. I read __________ last year."
   "Did you like __________?'
   "Not, not much.'
c  "Who has brought these homemade pastries?"
   "__________. I made __________ this morning. By the way, how do you know __________ are homemade?"
   "Well, by __________ flavour. __________ taste delicious."
d  "I need another track suit. The one I have now is completely worn out.
   "__________ too, but I have no money to buy another one."
e  I wish you wouldn't burst into __________ bedroom without knocking at the door. I need to have some privacy.
f  "He always says that __________ is much better the devil you know than the one __________ don't know."
   "I think __________ is right."
g  I don't like your aunt at all. __________ is always toadying to the boss.
h  My son love birds. He says __________ are beautiful. We have a couple of owls in __________ garden, and __________ whiles away the hours watching them through __________ binoculars.
i  "What do you want these nappies for?"
   "__________ are for my niece. Didn't you know that my daughter has just had a baby?"
   "No, __________ didn't. Congratulations!"
   "Thank you!"
j  All the candidates must take out __________ pencils and a piece of paper. If anyone tries to cheat, __________ will fail automatically. __________ exam/__________ exams will, therefore, not even be corrected.
k  Admission tickets should be prepaid. If you buy __________ at the door, they will charge __________ twice as much.
l  If you do this for __________ own benefit, __________ are a selfish cretin. __________ won't get __________ own way.
m  "I'm not in a hurry!"
   "__________ neither. If __________ want, we can have a snack in the sandwich bar round the corner."
   "__________ would love to."
n  Will you take down your jeans a bit, please? We have to take an x-ray of __________ lower spine.
o  These bodyguards were thought to have murdered an old lady. __________ exclaimed, "Whew!' when the judge said that __________ were not guilty.
p  They're not weaker than __________. He's the least strong person I have ever met.
q  Now you said that __________ don't want to see me again, but one day __________ will fall on __________ knees, and ask __________ to forgive you.
r  Laura is the most unscrupulous person in the whole world. __________ will always put the blame on somebody else. __________ will not even care if __________ destroys __________ life (or __________ lives).
s  My father can't come today, so __________ have come on __________ behalf.
t  She felt very excited when they put the crown on __________ head.
u  "This present is for __________, mummy"
   "A pair of goggles! Thank __________ so much, sweetheart."
v  She said that Philip was as ugly as sin in front of __________ nose, which was very rude of __________.
w  I could be __________ father, Diana. __________ have got a daughter about __________ age.
x  Alexander was released on bail of a thousand pounds yesterday. __________ was very lucky , because nobody but __________ has been granted on bail from this prison for the last three years.
y  This guy is very shy and diffident, but __________ sister isn't. __________ is more confident in herself than __________.
z  If anybody sucks up to the boss, we'll knock the living daylights out of __________.

1  See units 1, 4 and 7.
2  See also unit 2, section 18.
3  It is possible to drop the verb in comparative sentences, but it is not advisable:
     She is as gross as he.
     She gained more prestige than he.

   See units 2 (section 19) and 18 (section 12).
4  Except can be used instead of but.
5  Note also: "Who(m) do you trust?' "(I trust) everybody but/except him.' The subject pronoun must be followed by a verb.
6  See unit 3, section l2.
7  Him or her, his or her, his or hers.
8  Put this verb into the correct form.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

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1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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