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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words

English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs

Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs

English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs

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English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 26 - The key

1 a The man said (that) the train left in ten minutes b He said (that) that evening they played at home, but (that) the following/next week1 they played away c They said (that) it was no use investing more money in the company d She said (that) she was astounded to hear such remarks e She said (that) stress underlay many diseases of modern times

2 a He said to me/He told me (that) they were going from bad to worse b She said that things were looking up c He said to them/He told them (that) they were always moaning and groaning d He said (that) she was wearing a pair of blue jeans and a black blouse e She said (that) she was having an important appointment in fifteen minutes

3 a She told me/She said to me (that) she had purchased a mansion b They answered (that) they had run ten kilometres so far c She said (that) she hadn’t finished reading the book yet d He told Mrs Smith/He said to Mrs Smith (that) her daughter had not come to class that day e He added that it was the second time she hadn’t come to class that week

4 a He remarked that they had been trafficking in stolen good for over ten years b They said (that) they had been walking for two hours without stopping c His mother said (that) he had been learning Arabic for two years d He said (that) it had been snowing for the last two hours e She said angrily that they had been pulling her leg since they (had) arrived there

5 a She said (that) that morning she had been late because she had got stuck in heavy traffic b He said (that) they had suffered a defeat against Germany, since/as/because Germany had won by two goals to one c They said (that) he had set his vicious dog on them d They admitted (that) they had learnt a sharp lesson from the/that experience e He declared that he hadn’t committed the crime

6 a He said (that) she was sitting on a bench when he saw her b He said (that) he was sunbathing when it started to cloud over c He said (that) he had gone/went out of the cinema before the film had been/was over, as/since/because he hadn’t liked the film at all d They said (that) the reason why they hadn’t bought the house was because it was in ruins e They added that it was also too far from the city centre

7 a He said (that) he had never done such a thing in his life b They said (that) they had always known that/it c I said (that) I had just left them at home d He said that he had always wanted a car like that e She said (that) they had always longed for a house of their own

8 a They said (that) they had been picking apples for over a month b He said that somebody had been eating his homemade pastries c Their mother said (that) they had been taking driving recently d The colonel said that somebody had been giving secret information to the enemy e She said (that) she had been teaching French for a long time

9 a My employer said (that) I could take the day off b He admmitted (that) I might be right c They promised (that) they wouldn’t do it again d The old man said angrily that they would pay for it e He told his wife (that) he couldn’t live without her

10 a She said (that) she wouldn’t have left her car unlocked b She said (that) I might have been hurt c His mother said (that) they ought to have phoned them up d He said (that) they could have got lost e They said (that) they used to play truant

11 a He added that we are a past result b He said (that) he had broken my beer glass c She said (that) she couldn’t abide him, as/since/because he was so/very selfish d He said (that) it was no good talking about the/that issue e We told John/We said to John (that) we would go with him f Her husband said (that) after taking two glasses of whisky, she (had) unbent a little g He said (that) he had had a hunch that she would come with him h She said (that) it/that would create a precedent i I assure you that what I have just done will establish a precedent j He remarked that he had been thinking of getting rid of his cottage, but that he (had) changed his mind when he realised that it would double its value in a few years k He said that when he mentioned his boss that he was very left, it was like a red rag to a bull, as/since/because he is/was a right-wing extremist l He pointed out that it was getting late m He told me (that) he was of humble birth, but (that) his girl-friend was of noble birth n I said to John/I told John (that) the previous year/the year before I was still at the high school o He remarked that it had gone ten p She said (that) she was sorry, but (that) she would be on duty then q He said (that) she would like to cash some traveller’s cheques r He said (that) he had switched on the ignition, but (that) the car wouldn’t start s She said (that) she would have to go to Germany the next/following summer to polish up her German t She said (that) she had bought it in a DIY shop the previous week/the week before u They said (that) they had never seen the sea before v They said (that) they couldn’t come then/at that moment, as/since/because they were very busy w She said (that) they had no time to lose, as/since/because time was pressing x She said (that) she had had a terrible backache the previous night/the night before, but (that) she had rubbed some medicinal oil that she had just bought into her back, and (that) then/at that moment the pain had worn off y He said (that) his heart was/had been in his mouth when he received their letter, as/since/because he had been waiting for an answer to his application for the job z I said to him/I told him (that) I had taken his by mistake

12 a She asked (me) what was wrong with me/She wanted to know2 what was wrong with me b They asked (me) if/whether I had ever been to Alaska c He enquired/asked where I had picked up that bit of information d She asked (me) if/whether I had seen her eyeliner anywhere e She asked who lived next door

13 a They asked (us) what we were talking about b We answered (that) we were talking about politics c She said (that) the death penalty should be abolished everywhere d He inquired/asked what the purpose of our stay there was e I asked (her) when she was going to tell him f She said (that) her dog had been run over by a lorry the night before/the previous night g He asked his secretary if/whether she could bring him the files he needed h They said (that) they used to live in a large house when they were in Glasgow i He said that when he entered the house, he found her tied up in the kitchen, so he unbound her j She said (that) they might have heard me k They asked us if/whether we could direct them to Piccadilly Circus l They asked if/whether there was a bank near there m He asked where Park Lane was n He wondered if/whether there was any use his explaining everything to them o She said (that) asking her father to give you money was like trying to get blood out of a stone p He asked what the use of insulting them was, as/since/ because it would only make things worse q She asked (me) what had happened to me two days before r He wondered how many hours of hard work would be needed s He inquired/asked how many cans of beer she had bought t She answered that twenty u She said (that) she had just got cramp in her leg/She said (that) she had got cramp in her leg a moment before v He said (that) his foot had gone to sleep w He asked what time it was/He asked the time x He told Delia/He said to Delia (that) they couldn’t do without her the following/next day y He asked (me) how I had got away with the money z He said angrily that they had been playing that horrendous music for hours on end, and (that) he wished they would stop playing it

14 a The priest told his parishioner to say five Hail Marys and two Our Fathers for his/her sins b The dying man warned us to beware of vampires c The captain ordered his men to cease fire d She advised/told me not to give up e He pleaded with her not to kill him

15 a She ordered me to take them there at once b He said (that) he hadn’t slept a wink the previous night/the night before, as/since/because he had had an awful stomack-ache the whole night c He begged/told me not to put on the TV, as/since/because he had a terrible headache d She told Peter/She said to Peter that his shoelace had come lose, and advised him to do it up before he had an accident e He inquired/asked how much milk was produced there f She warned him not to go there all on his own g He asked (me) if/whether I could tell him where the post office was h He said to them/He told them (that) she had snuffed it the previous year/the year before, and (that) they should have come to see her as soon as they received her letter, as/since/because she would have like to talk to them before kicking the bucket i She said (that) she had lost the top of her pen, and asked (me) if/whether I had seen it anywhere j She begged her mother to sit down k He told/advised me not to drink any more l My mother told/advised me to stop eating chocolates, as/since/because I was putting on weight m He asked them how long they had been in New York n She said (that) her husband had been knocked over by a van two days before, but (that), fortunately, he hadn’t been seriously hurt o He inquired/asked how many people came/went to the/that place every day p They asked her if/whether she was attending evening classes q She asked him to stop nosing around in her room r He said (that) he could smell of burning, and asked if/whether there was anything on the stove s They said (that) she had miracously vanished when they looked for her/They said that when they looked for her, she had miracously vanished t He warned/told me not wash the/that beige blouse in hot water, as/since/because it would fade u She responded that it was easier said than done v They said (that) their car had seen better days, but (that) they hadn’t/didn’t have enough money to buy a new one, so they would have to do with it w She begged/asked/told me to bring/take her some water x He said (that) they wouldn’t be coming the following/next morning, as/since/because their father was terribly ill y They told me not to pry into their affairs z He asked whose the/that lighter was/whose lighter it/that was

16 a She asked me my age b His father reminded him to phone them when he arrived c She invited me to come to the theatre with her d She suggested going to the zoo/She suggested that we should go to the zoo e He advised her not to take sleeping pills

17 a He said (that) it was time they went home b They said to/told her (that) they would rather she stayed there c They said (that) she behaved as if she were going to win the beauty constest d He said (that) he wished he could change her mind e She said (that) she wished they hadn’t closed the/that street

18 a She said to/She told them (that) if she had had the money, she would have lent it to them b She said (that) if they gave her the grant, she would lend me the money I needed c He said (that) if she were put behind bars, he would wait for her d He said (that) if he hadn’t had such a bad cough, he wouldn’t have stayed in bed e They asked her what she would do if she were to win the lottery

19 a The sergeant said (that) they had to/must/would have to reatreat as their men were falling like flies b She asked her mother if/whether she was to do/had to do the shopping c The teacher said that I was not to skip/must not skip any classes from then on/The teacher told me not to skip any classes from then on d He said (that) I needn’t have washed the dishes, as/since/because the dishwasher could have done it e Her grandmother said that when her father came, she was to/must/would have to tell him what she had just told her

20 a He thanked me (effusively) b She suggested going for a swim in the sea/She suggested that they should go for a swim in the sea c She asked Paul for a cigarette/She asked Paul if he could give her a cigarette, as/since/because she had run out d She said to/She told her pupils (that) they needn’t do/didn’t need to do/didn’t have to do all the exercises for the following/next day e They said (that) their morale was fading away as they were getting further ahead f She advised them to take things easy/She said to them/She told them that they ought to take things easy g She reminded them (that) the/that street had been blocked off that afternoon h She said (that) I looked as if a monster had attacked me i She asked a man in the street (if he had) the time j She said (that) she wished she could stop time, as/since/because it went by too quickly k She said (that) her husband ate like a horse and drank like a fish, and advised me not to invite him for dinner at that restaurant, as/since/because it would cost me a fortune l His mother reminded him to meet her at the airport m She pointed out that she would like to find out what lay behind all the/that matter n She whispered in her girlfriend’s ear that he was really good-looking o She said (that) she would marry him if he asked her to/She said that if she asked her to marry, she would, as/since/because she was head over heels in love with him p She offered me a coke q He asked (her) for advice/He asked her advice r She asked her father if she had to/was to do the cooking that night s He wanted me/He asked me to give him another chance, but I said (that) I couldn’t, as/since/because it was already too late t Her doctor advised her not to overeat/Her doctor said that she must not/was not to overeat, as/since/because she needed to lose weight urgently u He advised her to go to university/He said to her/He told her that if he were in her shoes, he would go to university v Alan said that if she did not turn up soon, they would have to/must continue without her w He said (that) I needn’t/didn’t have to/didn’t need to answer him that day, as/since/because I could do it the following/next day x He said (that) his wife’s physical beauty might have faded, but not her inner beauty, as/since/because she would always be the most beautiful person on earth y They told him not to be such a wimp z She said (that) it was time she gave them a piece of her mind

1  When there are many alternatives, I shall only mention one or two in this key so as to save space, since this does not present any difficulty: you just have to look at the table for the other ones.
2  We can replace ‘ask’ with ‘want to know’. So as to save space, I will only use ‘ask’, which is the commoner of the two.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2, and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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