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• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words


English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents
• Introduction
• Notes
• Unit 1:  Negative and interrogative sentences
• Unit 2:  Short answers
• Unit 3:  Question tags
• Unit 4:  Questions and exclamations
• Unit 5:  So, neither, nor, either
• Unit 6:  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel
• Unit 7:  Verb tenses: forms
• Unit 8:  Irregular verbs
• Unit 9:  Verb tenses: uses
• Unit 10:  Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns
• Unit 11: The genitive case
• Unit 12: Singular and plural nouns
• Unit 13: Gender
• Unit 14: A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every
• Unit 15: Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all
• Unit 16: A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty
• Unit 17: Enough, too, so and such
• Unit 18: Comparative and superlative sentences
• Unit 19: The adjective order
• Unit 20: Relative clauses
• Unit 21: Do and make
• Unit 22: Modal verbs
• Unit 23: Infinitives, gerunds and present participles
• Unit 24: Conditional sentences
• Unit 25: Passive sentences
• Unit 26: Reported speech
• Unit 27: Purpose
• Unit 28: Word order
• Unit 29: Inversion
• Unit 30: Connectors
• Unit 31: Prepositions
• Unit 32: Phrasal verbs


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 8
     IRREGULAR VERBS


INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
abide
arise
awake
be
bear
beat
become
befall
beget
begin
behold
bend
beseech
beset
bespeak
bestride
bet
bid
bind
bite
bleed
blow
break
breed
bring
broadcast
build
burn
burst
buy
cast
catch
choose
cling
come
cost
countersink
creep
crossbreed
cut
deal
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
dwell
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fling
fly
forbear
forbid
forecast
forego
foresee
foretell
forget
forgive
forgo
forsake
forswear
freeze
get
give
go
grind
grow
hang
have
hear
heave
hide
hit
hold
hurt
inlay
interweave
keep
kneel
knit
know
lade
lay
lead
lean
leap
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lip-read
lose
make
mean
meet
miscast
misdeal
mishear
mishit
mislay
mislead
misread
misspell
misspend
mistake
misunderstand
outbid
outdo
outgrow
outrun
outsell
outshine
overbid
overcome
overdo
overdraw
overeat
overfeed
overfly
overhang
overhear
overlay
overpay
override
overrun
oversee
oversell
overshoot
oversleep
overspend
overtake
overthrow
overwind
partake
pay
prepay
proofread
put
quit
read
rebind
rebuild
recast
redo
redraw
remake
rend
repay
rerun
resell
reset
resit
retake
retell
rethink
rewind
rewrite
rid
ride
ring
rise
run
saw
say
see
seek
sell
send
set
sew
shake
shed
shine
shoe
shoot
show
shrink
shut
sing
sink
sit
slay
sleep
slide
sling
slink
slit
smell
smite
speak
speed
spell
spend
spill
spin
spit
split
spoil
spread
spring
stand
steal
stick
sting
stink
strew
stride
strike
string
strive
swear
sweep
swell
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
thrust
tread
unbend
unbind
underbid
undercut
underfeed
undergo
underlie
underpay
undersell
understand
undertake
underwrite
undo
unfreeze
unmake
unsay
unwind
uphold
upset
wake
waylay
wear
weave
wed
weep
win
wind
withdraw
withhold
withstand
wring
write
abode, abided
arose
awoke
was, were
bore
beat
became
befell
begot
began
beheld
bent
besought, beseeched
beset
bespoke
bestrode
bet, betted
bid, bade
bound
bit
bled
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
built
burnt, burned
burst
bought
cast
caught
chose
clung
came
cost, costed
countersank
crept
crossbred
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt, dreamed
drank
drove
dwelt, dwelled
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flew
forbore
forbad(e)
forecast, forecasted
forewent
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forwent
forsook
forswore
froze
got
gave
went
ground
grew
hung, hanged
had
heard
hove, heaved
hid
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
interwove
kept
knelt, kneeled
knitted, knit
knew
laded
laid
led
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lay
lit, lighted1 
lip-read
lost
made
meant
met
miscast
misdealt
misheard
mishit
mislaid
misled
misread
misspelt, misspelled
misspent
mistook
misunderstood
outbid
outdid
outgrew
outran
outsold
outshone
overbid
overcame
overdid
overdrew
overate
overfed
overflew
overhung
overheard
overlaid
overpaid
overrode
overran
oversaw
oversold
overshot
overslept
overspent
overtook
overthrew
overwound
partook
paid
prepaid
proofread
put
quit, quitted2 
read
rebound
rebuilt
recast
redid
redrew
remade
rent
repaid
reran
resold
reset
resat
retook
retold
rethought
rewound
rewrote
rid
rode
rang
rose
ran 
sawed
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shed
shone, shined
shod
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slung
slunk
slit
smelt, smelled
smote
spoke
speeded, sped
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt, spilled
spun
spat
split
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank, stunk (US)
strewed
strode
struck
strung
strove
swore
swept
swelled
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
thrust
trod
unbent
unbound
underbid
undercut
underfed
underwent
underlay
underpaid
undersold
understood
undertook
underwrote
undid
unfroze
unmade
unsaid
unwound
upheld
upset
woke
waylaid
wore
wove
wed, wedded
wept
won
wound
withdrew
withheld
withstood
wrung
wrote
abode, abided
arisen
awoken
been
borne, born
beaten
become
befallen
begotten
begun
beheld
bent
besought, beseeched
beset
bespoke(n)
bestridden
bet, betted
bid, bidden
bound
bitten
bled
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
built
burnt, burned
burst
bought
cast
caught
chosen
clung
come
cost, costed
countersunk
crept
crossbred
cut
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt, dreamed
drunk
driven
dwelt, dwelled
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flown
forborne
forbidden
forecast, forecasted
forgone
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forgone
forsaken
forsworn
frozen
got
given
gone
ground
grown
hung, hanged
had
heard
hove, heaved
hidden
hit
held
hurt
inlaid
interwoven
kept
knelt, kneeled
knitted, knit
known
laden
laid
led
leant, leaned
leapt, leaped
learnt, learned
left
lent
let
lain
lit, lighted
lip-read
lost
made
meant
met
miscast
misdealt
misheard
mishit
mislaid
misled
misread
misspelt, misspelled
misspent
mistaken
misunderstood
outbid
outdone
outgrown
outrun
outsold
outshone
overbid
overcome
overdone
overdrawn
overeaten
overfed
overflown
overhung
overheard
overlaid
overpaid
overridden
overrun
overseen
oversold
overshot
overslept
overspent
overtaken
overthrown
overwound
partaken
paid
prepaid
proofread
put
quit, quitted
read
rebound
rebuilt
recast
redone
redrawn
remade
rent
repaid
rerun
resold
reset
resat
retaken
retold
rethought
rewound
rewritten
rid
ridden
rung
risen
run
sawn
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn
shaken
shed
shone, shined
shod
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept
slid
slung
slunk
slit
smelt, smelled
smitten
spoken
speeded, sped
spelt, spelled
spent
spilt, spilled
spun
spat
split
spoilt, spoiled
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
strewn, strewed
stridden
struck
strung
striven
sworn
swept
swollen
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
thrust
trodden
unbent
unbound
underbid
undercut
underfed
undergone
underlain
underpaid
undersold
understood
undertaken
underwritten
undone
unfrozen
unmade
unsaid
unwound
upheld
upset
woken
waylaid
worn
woven
wed, wedded
wept
won
wound
withdrawn
withheld
withstood
wrung
written
   
   Remarks:

a  The verb be has two forms in the simple past tense:
   I, he, she, it→was; you, we, they→were. For further
   information, see unit unit 6, part 1, section 2.

b  The past participle of get is got in British English,
   but gotten in American English.

c  A verb such undergo has two elements under + go.
   In this case, we form the simple past and the past
   participle in the same way as the verb go without under:
          go          went          gone
          undergo     underwent     undergone
	
   An exception to this rule is get:
          get         got           got
          forget      forgot        forgotten
   But in America, people say gotten, as we have already
   seen above.

d  Burn, dream, dwell, kneel, lean, leap, learn, smell,
   spell, spill and spoil can be regular or irregular.
   In British English, we usually prefer the irregular form
   (burnt, dreamt, and so forth). Americans use the regular
   ones, that is to say, the ones with -ed. As we have seen
   above, a verb such as misspell should be treated as spell,
   that is, Americans would say misspelled; but British
   people, misspelt.
 
   They are also pronounced differently:
          dreamt          /dremt/
          dreamed         /dri:md/
   (Also kneel, lean and leap. Since leap ends in a voiceless
   sound, -ed is pronounced /t/: leaped (/li:pt/),
   but leapt (/lept/).)
          spelt           /spelt/
          spelled         /speld/
   (Also burn, dwell, learn, smell, spill and spoil.)

e  Abide, cost, hang, heave, knit, shine, speed, and a few
   other verbs, can be regular or irregular, according to the
   sense we use them. Bid has two forms; each of them with
   different meanings. If you are in doubt about which form
   to use, look the verb up in a dictionary.

f  Lie is regular when it means ‘not to tell the truth’, but
   it is irregular when its meaning is ‘to be in or put your
   body into a horizontal position’:
     She lied to me. (= She didn’t tell me the truth.)
     She lay down a bit, as she felt sick. (= She put her
     body into a horizontal position.)

g  The infinitive of the verb read is pronounced /ri:d/;
   the simple past and the past participle, /red/.

h  Note that the past participle of bear in be born: He was
   born in 1920, that is, He was brought into the world
   in 1920.

i  Modal verbs are not included in this list because they
   are defective, that is, they have not all the forms.
   For instance, we may say I can play football (present
   ability), or I could play football (past ability);
   but we may not say I have could play football since I
   was a child; we have to say I have been able to play
   football since I was a child. For further information
   about these verbs, see unit 22.

____________________
1  In British English, the simple past and the past
   participle is usually lit. Lighted is used before
   nouns: a lighted cigarette.
2  Especially in British English.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez


   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)


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