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Polseguera
English Grammar Step by Step

 

     UNIT 8
     IRREGULAR VERBS

 

   For a more compact version, click here.

INFINITIVE SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
abide abode, abided abode, abided
arise arose arisen
awake awoke awoken
be was, were been
bear bore borne, born
beat beat beaten
become became become
befall befell befallen
beget begot begotten
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
beseech besought, beseeched besought, beseeched
beset beset beset
bespeak bespoke bespoke(n)
bestride bestrode bestridden
bet bet, betted bet, betted
bid bid, bade bid, bidden
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cling clung clung
come came come
cost cost, costed cost, costed
countersink countersank countersunk
creep crept crept
crossbreed crossbred crossbred
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbear forbore forborne
forbid forbad(e) forbidden
forecast forecast, forecasted forecast, forecasted
forego forewent forgone
foresee foresaw foreseen
foretell foretold foretold
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forgo forwent forgone
forsake forsook forsaken
forswear forswore forsworn
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
heave hove, heaved hove, heaved
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
inlay inlaid inlaid
interweave interwove interwoven
keep kept kept
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled
knit knitted, knit knitted, knit
know knew known
lade laded laden
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned
leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit, lighted1 lit, lighted
lip-read lip-read lip-read
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
miscast miscast miscast
misdeal misdealt misdealt
mishear misheard misheard
mishit mishit mishit
mislay mislaid mislaid
mislead misled misled
misread misread misread
misspell misspelt, misspelled misspelt, misspelled
misspend misspent misspent
mistake mistook mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
outbid outbid outbid
outdo outdid outdone
outgrow outgrew outgrown
outrun outran outrun
outsell outsold outsold
outshine outshone outshone
overbid overbid overbid
overcome overcame overcome
overdo overdid overdone
overdraw overdrew overdrawn
overeat overate overeaten
overfeed overfed overfed
overfly overflew overflown
overhang overhung overhung
overhear overheard overheard
overlay overlaid overlaid
overpay overpaid overpaid
override overrode overridden
overrun overran overrun
oversee oversaw overseen
oversell oversold oversold
overshoot overshot overshot
oversleep overslept overslept
overspend overspent overspent
overtake overtook overtaken
overthrow overthrew overthrown
overwind overwound overwound
partake partook partaken
pay paid paid
prepay prepaid prepaid
proofread proofread proofread
put put put
quit quit, quitted2 quit, quitted
read read read
rebind rebound rebound
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
recast recast recast
redo redid redone
redraw redrew redrawn
remake remade remade
rend rent rent
repay repaid repaid
rerun reran rerun
resell resold resold
reset reset reset
resit resat resat
retake retook retaken
retell retold retold
rethink rethought rethought
rewind rewound rewound
rewrite rewrote rewritten
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
saw sawed sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shed shed shed
shine shone, shined shone, shined
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled
smite smote smitten
speak spoke spoken
speed speeded, sped speeded, sped
spell spelt, spelled spelt, spelled
spend spent spent
spill spilt, spilled spilt, spilled
spin spun spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank, stunk (US) stunk
strew strewed strewn, strewed
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden
unbend unbent unbent
unbind unbound unbound
underbid underbid underbid
undercut undercut undercut
underfeed underfed underfed
undergo underwent undergone
underlie underlay underlain
underpay underpaid underpaid
undersell undersold undersold
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undo undid undone
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen
unmake unmade unmade
unsay unsaid unsaid
unwind unwound unwound
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
wed wed, wedded wed, wedded
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written
   Remarks:

a  The verb be has two forms in the simple past tense: I, he, she, it→was; you, we, they→were. For further information, see unit unit 6, part 1, section 2.

b  The past participle of get is got in British English, but gotten in American English.

c  A verb such undergo has two elements under + go. In this case, we form the simple past and the past participle in the same way as the verb go without under:
go→went→gone
undergo→underwent→undergone

   An exception to this rule is get:

get→got→got
forget→forgot→forgotten
But in America, people say gotten, as we have already seen above.

d  Burn, dream, dwell, kneel, lean, leap, learn, smell, spell, spill and spoil can be regular or irregular. In British English, we usually prefer the irregular form (burnt, dreamt, and so forth). Americans use the regular ones, that is to say, the ones with -ed. As we have seen above, a verb such as misspell should be treated as spell, that is, Americans would say misspelled; but British people, misspelt.

   They are also pronounced differently:

   dreamt   /dremt/
   dreamed   /dri:md/
   (Also kneel, lean and leap. Since leap ends in a voiceless sound, -ed is pronounced /t/: leaped (/li:pt/), but leapt (/lept/).)
   spelt   /spelt/
   spelled   /speld/
   (Also burn, dwell, learn, smell, spill and spoil.)

e  Abide, cost, hang, heave, knit, shine, speed, and a few other verbs, can be regular or irregular, according to the sense we use them. Bid has two forms; each of them with different meanings. If you are in doubt about which form to use, look the verb up in a dictionary.

f  Lie is regular when it means "not to tell the truth", but it is irregular when its meaning is "to be in or put your body into a horizontal position":
     She lied to me. (= She didn't tell me the truth.)
     She lay down a bit, as she felt sick. (= She put her body into a horizontal position.)

g  The infinitive of the verb read is pronounced /ri:d/; the simple past and the past participle, /red/.

h  Note that the past participle of bear in be born: He was born in 1920, that is, He was brought into the world in 1920.

i  Modal verbs are not included in this list because they are defective, that is, they have not all the forms. For instance, we may say I can play football (present ability), or I could play football (past ability); but we may not say I have could play football since I was a child; we have to say I have been able to play football since I was a child. For further information about these verbs, see unit 22.

____________________

1  In British English, the simple past and the past participle is usually lit. Lighted is used before nouns: a lighted cigarette.

2  Especially in British English.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

   Contents

   Introduction

   Notes

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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