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Basic Vocabulary:
• Contents
• The Colours in English
• Months and Seasons
• The Days of the Week
• Nationality Words


English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents


Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs


English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs


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Polseguera
Vocabulary for Beginners - Basic Vocabulary



Country Catalan Castilian Adjective Noun
Singular    Plural   
Its citizens
Afghanistan Afganistan Afganistán Afghan
An Afghan, two Afghans
The Afghans
Angola Angola Angola Angolan
An Angolan, two Angolans
The Angolans
Argentina / The Argentine (L')Argentina (La) Argentina Argentinian, Argentine
An Argentinian,
An Argentine,
two Argentinians
two Argentines
The Argentinians / The Argentines
Armenia Armènia Armenia Armenian
An Armenian, two Armenians
The Armenians
Australia Austràlia Australia Australian
An Australian, two Australians
The Australians
Austria Àustria Austria Austrian
An Austrian, two Austrians
The Austrians
The Basque Country El País Basc / Euskadi El País Vasco / Euskadi Basque
A Basque, two Basques
The Basques
Belgium Bèlgica Bélgica Belgian
A Belgian, two Belgians
The Belgians
Bolivia Bolívia Bolivia Bolivian
A Bolivian, two Bolivians
The Bolivians
Brazil (El) Brasil (El) Brasil Brazilian
A Brazilian, two Brazilians
The Brazilians
Canada (El) Canadà (El) Canadá Canadian
A Canadian, two Canadians
The Canadians
Catalonia Catalunya Cataluña Catalan
A Catalan, two Catalans
The Catalans
Chile Xile Chile Chilean
A Chilean, two Chileans
The Chileans
China (La) Xina (La) China Chinese
A Chinese, two Chinese
The Chinese
Colombia Colòmbia Colombia Colombian
A Colombian, two Colombians
The Colombians
Costa Rica Costa Rica Costa Rica Costa Rican
A Costa Rican, two Costa Ricans
The Costa Ricans
Croatia Croàcia Croacia Croatian
A Croatian, two Croatians
The Croatians
Cuba Cuba Cuba Cuban
A Cuban, two Cubans
The Cubans
Czechoslovakia Txecoslovàquia Checoslovaquia Czech
A Czech, two Czechs
The Czechs
Denmark Dinamarca Dinamarca Danish
A Dane, two Danes
The Danes
Ecuador (L')Ecuador (El) Ecuador Ecuadorian
An Ecuadorian, two Ecuadorians
The Ecuadorians
Egypt Egipte Egipto Egyptian
An Egyptian, two Egyptians
The Egyptians
England Anglaterra Inglaterra English
An Englishman (male),
An Englishwoman (female),
two Englishmen
two Englishwomen
The English
Estonia Estònia Estonia Estonian
An Estonian, two Estonians
The Estonians
Findland Finlàndia Finlandia Finnish
A Finn, two Finns
The Finns
France França Francia French
A Frenchman (male),
A Frenchwoman (female),
two Frenchmen
two Frenchwomen
The French
Germany Alemanya Alemania German
A German, two Germans
The Germans
Greece Grècia Grecia Greek
A Greek, two Greeks
The Greeks
Guatemala Guatemala Guatemala Guatemalan
A Guatemalan, two Guatemalans
The Guatemalans
Holland / The Netherlands Holanda / Els Països Baixos Holanda / Los Países Bajos Dutch
A Dutchman (male),
A Dutchwoman (female),
two Dutchmen
two Dutchwomen
The Dutch
Honduras Hondures Honduras Honduran
A Honduran, two Hondurans
The Hondurans
Hungary Hongria Hungría Hungarian
A Hungarian, two Hungarians
The Hungarians
Iceland Islàndia Islandia Icelandic
An Icelander, two Icelanders
The Icelanders
India L'Índia La India Indian
An Indian, two Indians
The Indians
Iran (L')Iran El Irán Iranian
An Iranian, two Iranians
The Iranians
Iraq (L')Iraq El Irak / Iraq Iraqi
An Iraqi, two Iraqis
The Iraqis
Ireland Irlanda Irlanda Irish
An Irishman (male),
An Irishwoman (female),
two Irishmen
two Irishwomen
The Irish
Israel Israel Israel Israeli
An Israeli, two Israelis
The Israelis
Italy Itàlia Italia Italian
An Italian, two Italians
The Italians
Japan El Japó (El) Japón Japanese
A Japanese, two Japanese
The Japanese
Laos Laos Laos Loatian
A Loatian, two Loatians
The Loatians
Lithuania Lituània Lituania Lithuanian
A Lithuanian, two Lithuanians
The Lithuanians
Mexico Mèxic México / Méjico Mexican
A Mexican, two Mexicans
The Mexicans
Mongolia Mongòlia Mongolia Mongolian
A Mongolian,
A Mongol,
two Mongolians
two Mongols
The Mongolians / The Mongols
Morocco El Marroc Marruecos Moroccan
A Moroccan, two Moroccans
The Moroccans
Nepal El Nepal Nepal Nepalese / Nepali
A Nepalese,
A Nepali,
two Nepalese
two Nepalis
The Nepalese / The Nepalis
New Zealand Nova Zelanda Nueva Zelanda New Zealand
A New Zealander, two New Zealanders
The New Zealanders
Nicaragua Nicaragua Nicaragua Nicaraguan
A Nicaraguan, two Nicaraguans
The Nicaraguans
Nigeria Nigèria Nigeria Nigerian
A Nigerian, two Nigerians
The Nigerians
Norway Noruega Noruega Norwegian
A Norwegian, two Norwegians
The Norwegians
Pakistan Pakistan Pakistán / Paquistán Pakistani
A Pakistani, two Pakistanis
The Pakistanis
Panama Panamà Panamá Panamanian
A Panamanian, two Panamanians
The Panamanians
Paraguay (El) Paraguai (El) Paraguay Paraguayan
A Paraguayan, two Paraguayans
The Paraguayans
Peru (El) Perú (El) Perú Peruvian
A Peruvian, two Peruvians
The Peruvians
The Philippines Les Filipines (Las) Filipinas Filipino
A Filipino, two Filipinos
The Filipinos
Poland Polònia Polonia Polish
A Pole, two Poles
The Poles
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Puerto Rican
A Puerto Rican, two Puerto Ricans
The Puerto Ricans
Russia Rússia Rusia Russian
A Russian, two Russians
The Russians
Portugal Portugal Portugal Portuguese
A Portuguese, two Portuguese
The Portuguese
Romania / Rumania / Roumania Romania Rumanía Romanian
A Romanian, two Romanians
The Romanians
Scotland Escòcia Escocia Scottish / Scottch
A Scot(sman) (male),
A Scot(swoman) (female),
two Scots(men)
two Scots(women)
The Scots
Spain / Castile Espanya / Castella España / Castilla Spanish / Castilian*
A Spaniard / A Castilian, two Spaniards / two Castilians
The Spanish / The Castilians
Sweden Suècia Suecia Swedish
A Swede, two Swedes
The Swedes
Switzerland Suïssa Suiza Swiss
A Swiss, two Swiss
The Swiss
Thailand Tailàndia Tailandia Thai
A Thai, two Thais
The Thais
Turkey Turquia Turquía Turkish
A Turk, two Turks
The Turks
Uruguay (L')Uruguay (El) Uruguay Uruguayan
A Uruguayan, two Uruguayans
The Uruguayans
Venezuela Veneçuela Venezuela Venezuelan
A Venezuelan, two Venezuelans
The Venezuelans
Vietnam (El) Vietnam (El) Vietnam Vietnamese
A Vietnamese, two Vietnamese
The Vietnamese
Wales El País de Gal·les El País de Gales Welsh
A Welshman (male),
A Welshwoman (female),
two Welshmen
two Welshwomen
The Welsh


Please note that nationality words are spelt with initial capital letters in English, but not in Catalan or Castilian:

(The) Italians eat a lot of pasta.
Els italians mengen molta pasta. (Catalan)
Los italianos comen mucha pasta. (Castilian)


As we have seen in the previous example, the definite article (the) may be omitted with plurals ending in s. Compare the following sentences:

I am going to study Catalan because I like the Catalans.
I am going to study Catalan because I like Catalans.
Tinc pensat estudiar català perquè els catalans em cauen bé. (Catalan)
Voy a estudiar catalán porque los catalanes me caen bien. (Castilian)

The Chinese grow a lot of rice. (The article the cannot be left out.)
Els Chinesos cultiven molt d'arròs. (Catalan)
Los chinos cultivan mucho arroz. (Castilian)

The Swiss make very tasty chocolates. (The article the cannot be removed, as no s has been added to make the plural form.)
Els suïssos fan bombons molt saborosos. (Catalan)
Los suizos hacen bombones muy ricos. (Castilian)


The sentences below mean the same:

(The) Germans are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.
German people are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.
Els alemanys estan acostumats al fred. Fa molt de fred a Alemanya a l'hivern. (Catalan)
Los alemanes están acostumbrados al frío. Hace mucho frío en Alemania en invierno. (Castilian)


More examples:

Japanese girls are beautiful.
Les noies japoneses són molt boniques. (Catalan)
Las chicas japonesas son preciosas. (Castilian)

(The) Canadians speak English and French.
Els canadencs parlen anglès i francès. (Catalan)
Los canadienses hablan inglés y francés. (Castilian)

We like Chinese food, so we ate at a Chinese restaurant.
Ens agrada el menjar xinès, i per això vam menjar en un restaurant xinès. (Catalan)
Nos gusta la comida china, así que comimos en un restaurante chino. (Castilian)

A person who comes from Poland is Polish / A person who comes from Poland is a Pole.
Una persona que procedeix de Polònia és polonesa. (Catalan)
Una persona que procede de Polonia es polaca. (Castilian)

Two people who come from Poland are Polish / Two people who come from Poland are Poles.
Dues persones de Polònia són poloneses. (Catalan)
Dos personas de Polonia son polacas. (Castilian)


*Please note that the words Spain and Spanish are imperialist or colonialist. Castilian should be used to refer to the language of Castile:
He speaks Castilian.
(Ell) parla castellà. (Catalan)
(Él) habla castellano. (Castilian)
However, if you are taking an examination, your teacher may prefer "Spanish". When in doubt, ask him or her.




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