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Polseguera
Vocabulary for Beginners - Basic Vocabulary

 

Country

Catalan

Castilian

Adjective

Noun

Singular   

Plural   

Its citizens

 

Afghanistan

Afganistan

Afganistán

Afghan

An Afghan,

two Afghans

The Afghans

 

Angola

Angola

Angola

Angolan

An Angolan,

two Angolans

The Angolans

 

Argentina / The Argentine

(L')Argentina

(La) Argentina

Argentinian, Argentine

An Argentinian,
An Argentine,

two Argentinians
two Argentines

The Argentinians / The Argentines

 

Armenia

Armènia

Armenia

Armenian

An Armenian,

two Armenians

The Armenians

 

Australia

Austràlia

Australia

Australian

An Australian,

two Australians

The Australians

 

Austria

Àustria

Austria

Austrian

An Austrian,

two Austrians

The Austrians

 

The Basque Country

El País Basc / Euskadi

El País Vasco / Euskadi

Basque

A Basque,

two Basques

The Basques

 

Belgium

Bèlgica

Bélgica

Belgian

A Belgian,

two Belgians

The Belgians

 

Bolivia

Bolívia

Bolivia

Bolivian

A Bolivian,

two Bolivians

The Bolivians

 

Brazil

(El) Brasil

(El) Brasil

Brazilian

A Brazilian,

two Brazilians

The Brazilians

 

Canada

(El) Canadà

(El) Canadá

Canadian

A Canadian,

two Canadians

The Canadians

 

Catalonia

Catalunya

Cataluña

Catalan

A Catalan,

two Catalans

The Catalans

 

Chile

Xile

Chile

Chilean

A Chilean,

two Chileans

The Chileans

 

China

(La) Xina

(La) China

Chinese

A Chinese,

two Chinese

The Chinese

 

Colombia

Colòmbia

Colombia

Colombian

A Colombian,

two Colombians

The Colombians

 

Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Costa Rica

Costa Rican

A Costa Rican,

two Costa Ricans

The Costa Ricans

 

Croatia

Croàcia

Croacia

Croatian

A Croatian,

two Croatians

The Croatians

 

Cuba

Cuba

Cuba

Cuban

A Cuban,

two Cubans

The Cubans

 

Czechoslovakia

Txecoslovàquia

Checoslovaquia

Czech

A Czech,

two Czechs

The Czechs

 

Denmark

Dinamarca

Dinamarca

Danish

A Dane,

two Danes

The Danes

 

Ecuador

(L')Ecuador

(El) Ecuador

Ecuadorian

An Ecuadorian,

two Ecuadorians

The Ecuadorians

 

Egypt

Egipte

Egipto

Egyptian

An Egyptian,

two Egyptians

The Egyptians

 

England

Anglaterra

Inglaterra

English

An Englishman (male),
An Englishwoman (female),

two Englishmen
two Englishwomen

The English

 

Estonia

Estònia

Estonia

Estonian

An Estonian,

two Estonians

The Estonians

 

Findland

Finlàndia

Finlandia

Finnish

A Finn,

two Finns

The Finns

 

France

França

Francia

French

A Frenchman (male),
A Frenchwoman (female),

two Frenchmen
two Frenchwomen

The French

 

Germany

Alemanya

Alemania

German

A German,

two Germans

The Germans

 

Greece

Grècia

Grecia

Greek

A Greek,

two Greeks

The Greeks

 

Guatemala

Guatemala

Guatemala

Guatemalan

A Guatemalan,

two Guatemalans

The Guatemalans

 

Holland / The Netherlands

Holanda / Els Països Baixos

Holanda / Los Países Bajos

Dutch

A Dutchman (male),
A Dutchwoman (female),

two Dutchmen
two Dutchwomen

The Dutch

 

Honduras

Hondures

Honduras

Honduran

A Honduran,

two Hondurans

The Hondurans

 

Hungary

Hongria

Hungría

Hungarian

A Hungarian,

two Hungarians

The Hungarians

 

Iceland

Islàndia

Islandia

Icelandic

An Icelander,

two Icelanders

The Icelanders

 

India

L'Índia

La India

Indian

An Indian,

two Indians

The Indians

 

Iran

(L')Iran

El Irán

Iranian

An Iranian,

two Iranians

The Iranians

 

Iraq

(L')Iraq

El Irak / Iraq

Iraqi

An Iraqi,

two Iraqis

The Iraqis

 

Ireland

Irlanda

Irlanda

Irish

An Irishman (male),
An Irishwoman (female),

two Irishmen
two Irishwomen

The Irish

 

Israel

Israel

Israel

Israeli

An Israeli,

two Israelis

The Israelis

 

Italy

Itàlia

Italia

Italian

An Italian,

two Italians

The Italians

 

Japan

El Japó

(El) Japón

Japanese

A Japanese,

two Japanese

The Japanese

 

Laos

Laos

Laos

Loatian

A Loatian,

two Loatians

The Loatians

 

Lithuania

Lituània

Lituania

Lithuanian

A Lithuanian,

two Lithuanians

The Lithuanians

 

Mexico

Mèxic

México / Méjico

Mexican

A Mexican,

two Mexicans

The Mexicans

 

Mongolia

Mongòlia

Mongolia

Mongolian

A Mongolian,
A Mongol,

two Mongolians
two Mongols

The Mongolians / The Mongols

 

Morocco

El Marroc

Marruecos

Moroccan

A Moroccan,

two Moroccans

The Moroccans

 

Nepal

El Nepal

Nepal

Nepalese / Nepali

A Nepalese,
A Nepali,

two Nepalese
two Nepalis

The Nepalese / The Nepalis

 

New Zealand

Nova Zelanda

Nueva Zelanda

New Zealand

A New Zealander,

two New Zealanders

The New Zealanders

 

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaragua

Nicaraguan

A Nicaraguan,

two Nicaraguans

The Nicaraguans

 

Nigeria

Nigèria

Nigeria

Nigerian

A Nigerian,

two Nigerians

The Nigerians

 

Norway

Noruega

Noruega

Norwegian

A Norwegian,

two Norwegians

The Norwegians

 

Pakistan

Pakistan

Pakistán / Paquistán

Pakistani

A Pakistani,

two Pakistanis

The Pakistanis

 

Panama

Panamà

Panamá

Panamanian

A Panamanian,

two Panamanians

The Panamanians

 

Paraguay

(El) Paraguai

(El) Paraguay

Paraguayan

A Paraguayan,

two Paraguayans

The Paraguayans

 

Peru

(El) Perú

(El) Perú

Peruvian

A Peruvian,

two Peruvians

The Peruvians

 

The Philippines

Les Filipines

(Las) Filipinas

Filipino

A Filipino,

two Filipinos

The Filipinos

 

Poland

Polònia

Polonia

Polish

A Pole,

two Poles

The Poles

 

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rican

A Puerto Rican,

two Puerto Ricans

The Puerto Ricans

 

Russia

Rússia

Rusia

Russian

A Russian,

two Russians

The Russians

 

Portugal

Portugal

Portugal

Portuguese

A Portuguese,

two Portuguese

The Portuguese

 

Romania / Rumania / Roumania

Romania

Rumanía

Romanian

A Romanian,

two Romanians

The Romanians

 

Scotland

Escòcia

Escocia

Scottish / Scotch

A Scot(sman) (male),
A Scot(swoman) (female),

two Scots(men)
two Scots(women)

The Scots

 

Spain / Castile

Espanya / Castella

España / Castilla

Spanish / Castilian*

A Spaniard / A Castilian,

two Spaniards / two Castilians

The Spanish / The Castilians

 

Sweden

Suècia

Suecia

Swedish

A Swede,

two Swedes

The Swedes

 

Switzerland

Suïssa

Suiza

Swiss

A Swiss,

two Swiss

The Swiss

 

Thailand

Tailàndia

Tailandia

Thai

A Thai,

two Thais

The Thais

 

Turkey

Turquia

Turquía

Turkish

A Turk,

two Turks

The Turks

 

Uruguay

(L')Uruguay

(El) Uruguay

Uruguayan

A Uruguayan,

two Uruguayans

The Uruguayans

 

Venezuela

Veneçuela

Venezuela

Venezuelan

A Venezuelan,

two Venezuelans

The Venezuelans

 

Vietnam

(El) Vietnam

(El) Vietnam

Vietnamese

A Vietnamese,

two Vietnamese

The Vietnamese

 

Wales

El País de Gal·les

El País de Gales

Welsh

A Welshman (male),
A Welshwoman (female),

two Welshmen
two Welshwomen

The Welsh

 

Please note that nationality words are spelt with initial capital letters in English, but not in Catalan or Castilian:

(The) Italians eat a lot of pasta.

Els italians mengen molta pasta. (Catalan)

Los italianos comen mucha pasta. (Castilian)

 

As we have seen in the previous example, the definite article (the) may be omitted with plurals ending in s. Compare the following sentences:

I am going to study Catalan because I like the Catalans.

I am going to study Catalan because I like Catalans.

Tinc pensat estudiar català perquè els catalans em cauen bé. (Catalan)

Voy a estudiar catalán porque los catalanes me caen bien. (Castilian)

The Chinese grow a lot of rice. (The article the cannot be left out.)

Els Chinesos cultiven molt d'arròs. (Catalan)

Los chinos cultivan mucho arroz. (Castilian)

The Swiss make very tasty chocolates. (The article the cannot be removed, as no s has been added to make the plural form.)

Els suïssos fan bombons molt saborosos. (Catalan)

Los suizos hacen bombones muy ricos. (Castilian)

 

The sentences below mean the same:

(The) Germans are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.

German people are used to the cold. It freezes in Germany in the winter.

Els alemanys estan acostumats al fred. Fa molt de fred a Alemanya a l'hivern. (Catalan)

Los alemanes están acostumbrados al frío. Hace mucho frío en Alemania en invierno. (Castilian)

 

More examples:

Japanese girls are beautiful.

Les noies japoneses són molt boniques. (Catalan)

Las chicas japonesas son preciosas. (Castilian)

(The) Canadians speak English and French.

Els canadencs parlen anglès i francès. (Catalan)

Los canadienses hablan inglés y francés. (Castilian)

We like Chinese food, so we ate at a Chinese restaurant.

Ens agrada el menjar xinès, i per això vam menjar en un restaurant xinès. (Catalan)

Nos gusta la comida china, así que comimos en un restaurante chino. (Castilian)

A person who comes from Poland is Polish / A person who comes from Poland is a Pole.

Una persona que procedeix de Polònia és polonesa. (Catalan)

Una persona que procede de Polonia es polaca. (Castilian)

Two people who come from Poland are Polish / Two people who come from Poland are Poles.

Dues persones de Polònia són poloneses. (Catalan)

Dos personas de Polonia son polacas. (Castilian)

 

*Please note that the words Spain and Spanish are imperialist or colonialist. Castilian should be used to refer to the language of Castile:

He speaks Castilian.

(Ell) parla castellà. (Catalan)

(Él) habla castellano. (Castilian)

However, if you are taking an examination, your teacher may prefer "Spanish". When in doubt, ask him or her.

 

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