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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell mitjà pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNITAT 6


   Posa els verbs entre parèntesis en la forma adequada.


1. En anglès, hi ha dos tipus de verbs en el passat simple: els regulars i els irregulars. Els irregulars tenen una forma predeterminada: sing (infinitiu)→sang (passat simple). En la unitat 9 hi ha una llista de verbs irregulars.

   Quant als verbs regulars, només cal afegir -ed a l'infinitiu: work (infinitiu)→worked (passat simple). Ara bé, cal notar el següent:
   live→lived (El verb termina en -e.)
   rob→robbed ("Rob" té una sil·laba2 i l'estructura següent: "consonant + una vocal + una consonant".)
   marry→married (consonant + y + ed→consonant + i + ed)
   enjoy→enjoyed (La y no canvia perquè va precedida d'una vocal.)

   Vegem ara la conjugació sencera de un verb regular i d'un altre d'irregular:
   work (treballar » verb regular)
   I worked (jo vaig treballar)
   you worked
   he worked
   she worked
   it worked
   we worked
   you worked
   they worked

   sing (cantar » verb irregular)
   I sang (jo vaig cantar)
   you sang
   he sang
   she sang
   it sang
   we sang
   you sang
   they sang

a  He (live) in London until he (die)
b  We (play) football last Sunday.
c  She (come) in second because she (have) a fall. (come→came, have→ had)
d  He (marry) last winter.
e  Then, the car (stop) at the traffic lights and a woman (get) out of the car. (get→got)


2. En la negativa, posem did not (o la forma contracta didn't) entre el subjecte i el verb. El verb va sempre en l'infinitiu.
   I enjoyed the party. (afirmativa » M'ho vaig passar bé a la festa.)
   I did not enjoy the party/I didn't enjoy the party. (negativa » No m'ho vaig passar bé a la festa.)

a  She (not want) to meet him.
b  We (not believe) them.
c  You (not do) your homework yesterday.
d  We (not go) to the cinema last week.
e  They (not impress) her.


3. En la interrogativa, col·loquem did davant del subjecte. No oblides emprar l'infinitiu.
   He robbed the bank. (afirmativa » Ell va robar el banc.)
   Did he rob the bank? (negativa » Va robar ell el banc?)

a  You (see) the accident?
b  He (love) her?
c  We (invite) the Adams?
d  They (tell) her the truth?
e  Sir Alexander Fleming (discover) penicillin?


4. El passat continu o progressiu es forma amb was o were3 + un verb-ing4:
   I was cooking dinner when the light went out. (afirmativa » Jo feia el dinar quan la llum se'n va anar.)
   She was not doing her homework when I arrived home. (negativa » Ella no feia els deures quan vaig arribar a casa.)
   Were they watching TV when she came in? (interrogativa » Veien la tele quan ella hi va entrar?)

a  My mother (prepare) a special meal that day, as it was my birthday.
b  I (go) to say that, too!
c  They (talk) to her when you saw them?
d  They (not do) the proper thing when I entered the house.
e  We (go) to have a party that night, but my father fell ill and we had to postpone it.


5. No cal dir que el passat simple és el passat del present simple5, i que el passat continu és el passat del present continu. Dit d'una altra manera, el passat simple s'utilitza per a hàbits i accions completes en el passat; i el continu, per a accions incompletes:
   My father was fixing the washing machine (acció incompleta) when I arrived home. (acció completa) (Mon pare arreglava la rentadora quan vaig arribar a casa.)
   When the teacher came in, (acció completa) the pupils stood up. (acció completa) (Quan el mestre hi va entrar, els alumnes es van alçar / es van posar dempeus.)
   While I was studying, (acció incompleta) they were playing cards. (acció incompleta) (Mentre jo estudiava, ells jugaven a cartes.)

a  Last year I usually (go) for a walk every afternoon, but now I can't, as I'm very busy.
b  She (put) on her best clothes because she (meet) the boy of her dreams that very same evening. She (want) to be very attractive.
c  When the fire (begin), we (be) in the dining room.
d  When I (meet) her, she (wear) a mini skirt. She (look) beautiful!
e  While my mum (watch) a soap opera on television, my dad (read) a comic.


6. Exercici de revisió.
a  She (sleep) when I (enter) her room.
b  As a child, I (use) to play tennis every Sunday morning.
c  She (win) the lottery last year and (buy) a big house.
d  I couldn't believe my eyes when I (see) my best friend dressed up as Cinderella.
e  While he (have) breakfast, she (have) a bath. When she (finish) her bath, they (go) out together, as they (have) a very important appointment.
f  When I (run) into Peter, he (wear) very strange clothes and green hair. I (not recognise) him at first because of his look, but when he (say) hello to me, I (tell) him, "You are beyond recognition with such clothes and hair."
g  It was a very special evening, since the girl of his dreams (take) him to a luxurious restaurant in half an hour.
h  "You (go) to the zoo yesterday?"
   "No, I didn't: the weather (be) awful."
i  What lousy weather we (have) last week! It never (stop) raining and (be) very cold.
j  When they (get) home, they (sit) down and (have) a hearty lunch.
k  If I had known that you (come), I would have made a chocolate cake.
l  When we (be) children, we never (do) such things. Everything (be) stricter than now.
m  While she (wait) for him, it (start) to snow and she (have) to go home.
n  Once upon a time, there (be) a princess who (feel) very lonely because her father had departed this life and her stepmother (be) a sort of an ogre and never (let) her go out or do anything she (like).
o  One day she (run) away from home and (meet) an attractive peasant. She (fall) in love with him and they (get) married. They (live) happily ever after.
p  He never (tell) the truth, so nobody (believe) him, but one day he (need) help urgently and nobody (help) him because nobody (believe) him, as he always (lie6).
q  This time last week, we (sunbathe) on a beach, and today we are working in this horrible factory.
r  When the earthquake (destroy) most of the city, I (spend) some days abroad.
s  John Lennon (write) some of the best songs in the twentieth century.
t  In former times, people (think) that the sun (revolve) around the earth.
u  We (stay) at home that night, since it (be) very windy and chilly outside. We (light) a fire, (open) a bottle of champagne and (have) a cosy chat.
v  When he (enter) the place, he (hear) the sound of heavy breathing, but (not see) anybody there. He (get) frightened to death, but very soon he (notice) that a homeless man (sleep) under a table.
w  She couldn't attend our weekly meeting last night because some friends of hers (come) to town and she (have) to be with them.
x  They usually (play) cards on Friday evenings, but when Mr Blake (die), they (cease) playing cards."
y  "What you (do) when I (phone) you yesterday?"
   "I (do) aerobics."
z  "You (inform) the boss of the accident you (have) on Monday morning?"
   "No, I didn't, because she would have got very angry with me."


1  El passat continu s'anomena també "passat progressiu".
2  Veges la nota a peu de pàgina de la unitat 5, secció 4.
3  Veges la unitat 1.
4  Veges la unitat 5, secció 4 per a més informació sobre els verbs acabats en -ing.
5  Veges la unitat 5.
6  Ací cal fer ús del passat continu per indicar que desaprovem el fet que sempre mentira.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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