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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell mitjà pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNITAT 2


   Escriu la forma correcta de can o may en els espais en blanc.


1. Can expressa habilitat en el present, i no canvia mai de forma. En passat, emprem could.
   She can drive a lorry. (Ella sap conduir un camió.)
   They could swim like a fish when they were kids. (Sabien nedar molt bé de petits.)

   Amb els altres temps verbals, fem servir be able to, perquè can és un verb defectiu1, és a dir, li manquen formes verbals.
   I have been able to drive since I was eighteen (years old). (present perfet » Sé conduir des dels 18 anys.)
   She will be able to lend you a hand when she comes. (futur » PodrÓ donar-te un cop de mÓ quan vinga.)

   La negativa es fa amb can't (forma contracta) o cannot (forma sense contraure). Nota que cannot s'escriu junt. Per a la interrogativa, posem can davant del subjecte.
   He can't/cannot play the guitar. (No sap tocar la guitarra.)
   Can he play the guitar? (Sap tocar la guitarra?)

   Quant a could, la negativa és could not; i per a la interrogativa, col·loquem could davant del subjecte.
   She could not/couldn't play chess as a girl. (No sabia jugar als escacs de petita.)
   Could she play chess as a girl? (Sabia jugar als escacs de petita?)

a  They __________ (not) sing at all, so they will not __________ sing in the school choir.
b  I __________ learn languages very easily when I was at school.
c  "__________ you speak French?"
   "I __________ speak it as a child, but I _____(not) now."
d  We will not __________ help you if you don't tell us the truth.
e  She hasn't __________ speak since her accident.


2. Could únicament és possible per a habilitat general en el passat, en la negativa o amb verbs com ara "see" o "hear", és a dir, amb verbs de percepció. Si ens referim a una ocasió específica, utilitzem was/were able to.
   As a child, I could2 run and jump all day without getting tired. (habilitat general » De xiquet, podia córrer i saltar tot el dia sense cansar-me.)
   When she entered the house, she could smell gas. ("Smell" és un verb de percepció » Quan va entrar en la casa, va notar que feia olor a gas.)
   I lost my wallet in the street, but I was able to find. [en una ocasió en particular o específica » Vaig perdre la cartera al carrer, per˛ la vaig (poder) trobar.]
   I lost my wallet in the street, but I couldn't find it. [negativa » Vaig perdre la cartera al carrer, per˛ no la vaig (poder) trobar.]

a  As she entered her room, she __________ perceive an unpleasant odour. Her dog had done its business on the carpet.
b  Almost everybody failed the exam, but my son __________ pass it.
c  He __________ (not) do anything to save them: they had already drowned when he got there.
d  When I was at university, I __________ spend a lot of time reading, but now I can't.
e  Last year, he __________ break the world record for javeling throwing.


3. Per a demanar permís, usem can (o més formalment, could o may); per a donar-lo, can o may (formal). Vegem els exemples següents:
   "Can/Could/May I go to the loo?" (Puc anar al vàter?)
   "Yes, of course!" (Sí, és clar!)
   You can/may go to the cinema with your friend, but don't come home late. (Pots anar al cinema amb el teu amic, però no arribes a casa tard.)

   Can i may no tenen totes les formes verbals. Per tant, recorrem a la perífrasi be allowed to quan can o may no siguen possibles. Observa els exemples següents:
   We have been allowed to use this swimming-pool since we moved into this house. (Ens ha estat permès usar aquesta piscina des que ens vam mudar a aquesta casa.)
   She used to be allowed to arrive home after midnight. (La deixaven arribar a casa després de mitjanit.)
   From next week on, you will not be allowed to smoke/you can't smoke in your bedrooms. (A partir de la setmana vinent, no podreu fumar/no estarÓ permès fumar en les habitacions.)
   He could/was allowed to3 stay up until midnight when he was twelve. (Li permitien no gitar-se fins a mitjanit quan tenia dotze anys.)

a  "__________ I sit down?"
   "Yes, please do."
b  You've been a good boy, so you __________ telly tonight.
c  We haven't __________ park in this street since last year.
d  She __________ do what she wanted when she was living with her grandparents.
e  "__________ I go with you, daddy?"
   "Yes, sweetheart!"


4. May també pot significar "és possible que" o "pot ser que":
   We may visit her this afternoon. (Pot ser que/És possible que la visitem aquesta vesprada.)

   La negativa es fa amb not darrere de may, i normalment sense contraure:
   She may not4 come tomorrow. (Potser no vindrÓ demÓ.)

   En la interrogativa, utilitzem do you think...?:
   Do you think (that) she will come tomorrow? (Creus que vindrà demà?)

   Si ens referim a una possibilitat general, usem can; en el passat, could:
   The sea can often be dangerous. (La mar sovint pot ser perillosa.)
   When she was a child, she could be very naughty at times. (De xiqueta/Cuando era petita, podia ser molt entremaliada de vegades.)

   Could i might indiquen que la possibilitat és més remota o improbable:
   She could/might do it. (Pot ésser que ho faša, però no ho crec molt probable.)

a  We __________ go swimming this afternoon. If so, would you like to come?
b  "He hasn't studied at all."
   "Well, still, he __________ pass."
   "If you say so!"
c  The bite of this snake __________ often be fatal.
d  "I __________ (not) tell them. I don't know what to do. Shall I tell them?"
   "Well, this is up to you!"
e  "__________ it will rain this afternoon?"
   "I really don't know!"


5. Nota que un verbo modal + have + participi de passat es refereix al passat:
   She may/might have had an accident. (Potser ha tingut un accident.)
   You could have told me that he was not going to come! (M'hagueres pogut dir que no hi venia!)
   She can't/couldn't have done5 such a thing. (És impossible que ella fera una cosa així/Això no ho ha pogut fer ella.)

a  "The Smiths were coming to the barbecue, but haven't arrived yet, and it's getting very late."
   "They __________ have forgotten to come."
   "I don't think so. They love barbecues. They __________ have had a puncture."
   "A puncture _____(not) have delayed them so much!"
   "Let's phone them to see what has happened to them."
b  You __________ have told me that the exam was postponed. I spent all night long studying!
c  They __________ (not) have talked to him last night: he's abroad!
d  He __________ (not) have bought a Rolls-Royce. He's as poor as a church mouse.
e  You __________ have taken a taxi! Why didn't you take a taxi?


6. Exercici de revisió.
a  "__________ you dance a walts?"
   "No, I'm afraid I _____(not)."
b  That year I __________ get the gold medal. It was the happiest day of my life.
c  We __________ tour the world next summer, but still don't know for sure.
d  Sometimes he __________ be very sweet, but he used to be very strict.
e  That place __________ be very dangerous. So I don't want you to go there again.
f  He __________ fail, but I think he'll pass.
g  You __________ (not) pick your nose in front of everybody. It's not appropriate for a young lady.
h  "__________ they'll let you down?"
   "No, I don't think so."
i  They __________ (not) have read the book, or they would know the plot.
j  "I __________ play draughts very well. Shall we have a game now?"
   "I'm very sorry, but I ş_____(not) play draughts. What about a game of cards, instead?"
k  "__________ I go to tonight's concert, daddy?"
   "Yes, you __________ as long as you don't get home very late."
l  I __________ see that something fishy was going on, so I decided to leave at once.
m  She used to __________ cheer us up in no time at all. We miss her a lot.
n  "__________ I speak, sir?"
   "Yes, go ahead."
o  I'm afraid to tell you that Mr Turner won't __________ attend the meeting. He's got a terrible cold.
p  Well, they __________ help you, but this is very unlikely.
q  He hasn't __________ see her since she was in hospital. He's been very busy lately.
r  We had better6 stay here, as it __________ rain this afternoon.
s  There __________ be another strike next week, so we'd better cancel our flight.
t  You __________ stay here as long as you don't interfere.
u  "__________ I help you, madam?"
   "Yes, I'm looking for a yellow pair of shoes."
v  He __________ be very ugly, but he's so sweet and intelligent. I'm in love with him.
w  When I was at school, I __________ do square roots very easily, but I _____(not) now.
x  You _____(not) do that. It's very impolite.
y  You _____(not) take a day off. We have a lot of work at the office these days.
z  You __________ have waited for me. I'm very cross that you didn't.


1  Més informació del verbs defectius ací.
2  En aquest sentit, was/were able to és possible, però menys usual.
   As a child, I was able to run and jump all day without getting tired.
3  En passat, fem servir was/were allowed to per a referir-nos a una situació concreta o específica. Veges la secció 2 d'aquesta unitat.
   He was allowed to stay up all night yersterday, as it was Christmas Eve. (Ahir li van permetre no gitar-se en tota la nit perquè era la nit de Nadal.)
4  Compara aquesta oració amb la següent:
   She can't come tomorrow. (No hi pot venir demà.)
5  Veges també la unitat 4, secció 7.
6  Had better significa "és millor que" o "val més que".
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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