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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell mitjà pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNITAT 3


   Escriu la forma escaient del verb have en els espais en blanc.


1. Have (got) significa "tenir/tindre". Got es pot ometre en un estil formal. Es conjuga de la següent manera:
   I have got (jo tinc)
   you have got (tu tens)
   he has got (ell té)
   she has got (ella té)
   it has got ("allò" té; més informació sobre it ací)
   we have got (nosaltres tenim)
   you have got (vosaltres teniu)
   they have got (ells tenen)

   En forma contracta s'escriu com indiquem tot seguit:
   I've got1
   you've got
   he's got
   she's got
   it's got
   we've got
   you've got
   they've got

a  She __________ a big house.
b  They __________ a mansion.
c  I __________ a cold.
d  We __________ a lot of homework to do.
e  You __________ my approval.


2. La negativa es fa de la manera següent:
   I have not got2
   you have not got
   he has not got
   she has not got
   it has not got
   we have not got
   you have not got
   they have got

   Vegem ara les formes contractes:
   I haven't got3
   you haven't got
   he hasn't got
   she hasn't got
   it hasn't got
   we haven't got
   you haven't got
   they haven't got

   Si prescindim de got4, tenim dues possibilitats:
   I have not/I do not5 have6
   you haven't/you don't have
   he hasn't/he doesn't have
   she hasn't/she doesn't have
   it hasn't/it doesn't have
   we haven't/we don't have
   you haven't/you don't have
   they haven't/they don't have

a  We __________ (not) all the material needed.
b  He __________ (not) enough patience to teach anybody.
c  She __________ (not) all the qualities of leadership.
d  They __________ (not) our support.
e  It __________ (not) four sides.


3. Fem un cop d'ull a l'interrogativa a continuació:
   have I got?
   have you got?
   has he got?
   has she got?
   has it got?
   have we got?
   have you got?
   have they got?

   No obstant això, si no utilitzem got, hi ha també la següent possibilitat:
   do I have?
   do you have?
   does he have?
   does she have?
   does it have?
   do we have?
   do you have?
   do they have?

a  __________ (you) everything on you?
b  __________ (he) all the courage required to go on with the plan?
c  __________ (they) three children?
d  __________ (I) enough of this?
e  __________ (it) wings?


4. En passat7 no emprem got, i solem fer la negativa i la interrogativa amb did.


   I had
   I did not have8/I didn't have
   did I have9?

   you had
   you did not have/you didn't have
   did you have?

   he had
   he did not have/he didn't have
   did he have?

   she had
   she did not have/she didn't have
   did she have?

   it had
   it did not have/it didn't have
   did it have?

   we had
   we did not have/we didn't have
   did we have?

   you had
   you did not have/you didn't have
   did you have?

   they had
   they did not have/they didn't have
   did they have?

a  They __________ a parrot, but it died last month.
b  We __________ (not) time to do it.
c  __________ (you) their address?
d  Mr Parker __________ (not) that model.
e  We __________ (not) central heating last year.


5. Quan have no significa "tenir", got és impossible, i la negativa i la interrogativa es fam amb do o does en present; en passat, amb did.
   They have a nap every afternoon. (Fan la migdiada totes les vesprades.)
   She has coffee and biscuits for breakfast from time to time. (De tant en tant, pren cafè i galetes per a esmorzar.)
   He doesn't have a shower at night. (No es dutxa de nit.)
   Do you have dinner at eight o'clock? (Sopes a les huit en punt?)
   I had breakfast early this morning. (Hui he esmorzat de bon matí.)
   He didn't have a haircut yesterday. (No es va tallar els cabells ahir.)
   Did you have a nice trip? (Us ho vau passar bé de viatge? / Vau tenir bon viatge?)

a  We __________ (not) a long walk yesterday.
b  I __________ a holiday once a year.
c  They __________ a car accident last night.
d  __________ (he) a good time in Andalusia last month?
e  __________ (you) an argument with your husband last night?


6. Exercici de revisió.10
a  I __________ a row with my wife yesterday evening.
b  Ingrid __________ a pekinese. She loves it very much.
c  We __________ (not) much time to finish our work. We must hurry.
d  He __________ a budgie long ago.
e  __________ (you) a hose? I need one to water the plants.
f  "__________ (you) a swim in the lake very often?"
   "Yes, every day. I like swimming a lot."
g  Last night he __________ toothache.
h  She usually __________ a sandwich for lunch.
i  We __________ (not) anything for supper last night. We __________ nothing in the fridge.
j  I __________ a date with the girl of my dreams this afternoon, so I'm impatient for the moment to arrive.
k  "__________ (you) any brothers or sisters?"
   "Yes, I __________ two brothers and a sister."
l  They __________ a quarrel yesterday.
m  "__________ (it) a beak?"
   "No, it __________ (not)."
   "Has __________ (it) wings?"
   "Yes, it __________11"
   "I give up! What is it?"
n  My son __________ a fight yesterday evening.
o  She __________ (not) any housework to do this afternoon, so she can go with you to the opera.
p  "__________ (you) a light?"
   "No, I __________ (not). I don't smoke."
q  __________ (he) a bath last night?
r  You __________ (not) enough eggs to make such a big omelette.
s  We __________ a cottage by the river. We love going there to spend the weekend.
t  My two daughters __________ an examination tomorrow, so they're at home studying.
u  We __________ a record by Elvis Presley, but it broke.
v  She __________ (not) a TV set. She doesn't like watching TV.
w  __________ (you) a dictionary? I must do some translation this afternoon?
x  "How much butter __________ (we)?"
   "I think we __________ enough."
y  "How many apricots __________ (she)?"
   "She __________ plenty, so don't buy any"
z  She __________ a look at it, but didn't find any mistake.


1  No hi podem llevar got per tal de reforçar les formes contractes, i evitar confusió.
   It's got a window. (It has a window. » Té una finestra.)
   It's a window (It is a window. » És una finestra.)
2  Got s'hi pot ometre en un estil més formal.
3  Got s'hi pot ometre, però no, amb la següent forma contracta: I've not got.
4  Usa do quan have expresse obligació o hàbit:
   Do you have to work today? (obligació » Has de treballar avui?)
   No, I do not have to work today because it is Sunday. (obligació » No, no haig de treballar avui perquè és diumenge.)
   He does not usually have money. He is very poor. (hàbit » Normalment no té diners. És molt pobre.)
   Veges també la unitat 4.
5  Quan contraem, do not canvia a don't, i does not, a doesn't.
6  Les formes amb do i does s'empren principalment als Estats Units d'Amèrica, encara que poc a poc van guanyant terreny al Regne Unit.
7  De fet, got només es diu en el present simple:
   He has (got) a motorcyle. (present simple » Té moto.)
   She has had that motorbike for over twenty years now. (present perfet » Ja té aqueixa moto més de vint anys.)
   He will never have the courage to do it. (futur perfet » Mai no tindrà el valor de fer-ho.)

   Quan have és un verb auxiliar, no porta ni got ni do/does/did:
   I have found the key. (He trobat la clau.)
   He has not driven a car for years. (Fa anys que no condueix un cotxe.)
   Had you ever been there? (Hi havies estat/anat mai?)
8  Had not o hadn't (forma contracta) és possible, però menys usual que l'alternativa amb did.
9  Had I?, etc., és possible, però molt menys usual.
10  Per a exercicis addicionals polsa ací.
11  Got no es posa en les respostes breus. No es pot contraure en les respostes breus en afirmativa, però en negativa, sí:
   Have you got the key?
   Yes, I have./No, I haven't.
   Do you have the key?
   Yes, I do./No, I don't.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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