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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell mitjà pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)

 

     UNITAT 8
     LA PERÍFRASI VERBAL "BE GOING TO", EL PRESENT CONTINU1 i EL FUTUR SIMPLE

 

   Posa els verbs entre parèntesis en la forma adequada.

 

1. La perífrasi verbal be + going to + infinitiu significa "anar a + infinitiu". No obstant això, nota que en català aquesta perífrasi es pot confondre amb el pretèrit perfect perifràstic quan ens referim a una acció immediata. Compara "ho vaig a fer" amb "ho vaig fer". En aquest cas, és millor dir "ara mateix ho faré", o quelcom semblant, adient. Si no hi ha ambigüitat, podem emprar-la sense cap problema: Anava a fer-ho, però vaig pensar que potser no t'agradaria. He posat les traduccions literals als exemples d'aquesta unitat per evitar embolicar les coses.
   I am going to dance. (Vaig a ballar.)
   You are going to fall. (Vas a caure.)
   He is not going to sing. (No va a cantar.)
   She is going to break it. (Va a trencar-lo.)
   Is it going to rain? (Va a ploure?)
   We aren't going to lend you the car. (No anem a deixar-te el cotxe.)
   Are you going to arrange a party? (Aneu a organitzar una festa?)
   They're going to buy the house. (Van a comprar la casa.)

a  She (resign).
b  We (not allow) that here.
c  They really (rent) the house?
d  It (take) us a long time.
e  You (study) this year?

 

2. El futur simple es forma amb will + infinitiu, o si contraem, amb 'll + infinitiu. La forma contracta de will not és won't.
   I will help them. (Els ajudaré.)
   You'll be late. (Arribaràs tard.)
   He will not pass. (No aprovarà.)
   She won't forgive you. (No et perdonarà.)
   Will it snow? (Nevarà?)
   We'll finish in time. (No acabarem a temps.)
   You will not fail. (No suspendreu.)
   They won't do it. (No ho faran.)
   Will they arrive late? (Arribaran tard?)

a  I think she (not turn) up.
b  I hope they (pay) us a visit.
c  If it isn't foggy, I (take) you there.
d  Help me and I (repay) you.
e  It (do) us any good if we take next week off?

 

3. Quant al present continu, ja el vam veure a la unitat 5. Es fa amb el verb to be + verb-ing.
   I'm taking my wife to the theatre this afternoon. (He quedat d'anar al teatre amb la meua muller aquesta vesprada.)
   She isn't going out tonight. She has an exam tomorrow. (No surt aquesta nit. Té un examen demà.)
   We are having a party tomorrow evening. Would you like to come? (Demà al vespre farem una festa. Vols venir?)

a  I (sit) for an exam tomorrow morning.
b  We (have) a child next month.
c  He (not go) there tonight. He has many things to do.
d  They (come) round this evening?
e  He (sell) the cottage in two days.

 

4. Be going to + infinitiu, will + infinitiu i el present continu s'empren per a expressar futur, però amb matisos diferents. Vegem-los tot seguit:
   I'm playing tennis with Paul this afternoon. (He quedat a jugar al tennis amb Paul aquesta vesprada. » Nota que ací la traducció no és literal, sinó que s'ha traduït la idea.)
   I'm going to play tennis with Paul this afternoon. (Vaig a jugar al tennis amb Paul aquesta vesprada. » Ací diem que jo tinc la intenció de jugar al tennis amb Paul, però ell potser no ho sap.)
   I'm staying/I'm going to stay at home tonight. (En aquest cas, es neutralitzen ambdós significats.)
   This machine is going to break down. (Aquesta màquina va a trencar-se. » És a dir, hi ha indicis d'açò.)
   This machine is breaking down. (Aquesta màquina està trencant-se. » O siga, ara.)
   "We need more garlic!" (Necessitem més alls.)
   "OK! I'll bring some." (D'acord! En duré uns quants. » Ço és, ho acabe de decidir.)
   He's bought a paintbrush. He's going to paint the sitting-room. (Ha comprat una brotxa. Va a pintar la sala d'estar. » Això és, ja ho havia decidit en el moment de parlar.)
   I think they will help us. (Crec que ens ajudaran. » O sia, aquesta és la meua opinió.)
   If the weather is good, we will go for a swim. (Si fa bon temps, anirem a nadar / nedar. » Oració condicional del primer tipus2: if [present], [will + infinitiu]).
   I'm going (to go) there this evening. (Vaig a anar-hi aquest vespre. » To go es pot ometre.)
   I'm going to come / I'm coming here this evening. (Vaig a venir aquest vespre.)
   Will you help me, please? (Vols ajudar-me, si et plau / per favor? » Will you? ací significa "vols?".)

a  I think he (tell) the truth, but I'm not sure about it.
b  Eliza's enrolled for a Catalan course. She (study) Catalan next month.
c  This evening, he (come) to the opera as well. He loves opera.
d  He is driving too fast. He has been drinking a lot and is zigzagging. He (crash).
e  "Didn't you know that the Evans have come back?"
   "No, I didn't. I (pay) them a visit tomorrow."

 

5. Exercici de revisió.
a  I've taken the car because I (go) to town tonight. If you like, you can come.
b  "Daddy, I've failed my maths exam."
   "Then you (not watch) the telly tonight."
c  I've got a date this evening. I (meet) the girl of my dreams. She (wait) for me at the pub round the corner at seven.
d  We are saving up because we (get) married in October.
e  If we don't sell now, we (make) big money.
f  I've run out of money. Can you lend me five pounds? I (pay) you back tomorrow.
g  "You (read) this for me, please? I've left my glasses at home!"
   "Yes sure!"
h  "Did you know that I (make) a party on Friday evening?"
   "No, I didn't, but I (go), if you want me to go."
i  My big sister (take) me to the circus at six, so I can't play with you then.
j  I'm not sure, but I think it (snow) tomorrow. If I were you, I wouldn't go camping tomorrow.
k  "What do you want that adjustable spanner for?"
   "I (mend) my bike."
l  "I've forgotten to water the plants!"
   "Don't worry. I (water) them for you later."
m  "I (invest) some money in this project. Tomorrow we (sign) the contract."
   "Really! I didn't know you had the intention of investing there."
   "Well, I'm almost sure that it (make) a handsome profit."
n  "I've decided that Paul won't go."
   "You (not invite) him? Why?"
   "Well, I'd better keep it to myself."
o  —Look at that woman over there! What she (do)?
   —She has a stone in her hand, and (throw) it at that car.
   —Hey, that's my car!
p  They (climb) the Alps next summer. I hope nothing wrong (happen) to them.
q  "You (prepare) another delicious green salad, please?"
   "Yes, of course."
r  "I haven't got a hairdryer."
   "No, problem" I (lend) you mine."
s  "I have a crick in my neck!"
   "Okay! I (massage) it for you."
t  "I can't go to your party!"
   "But Sylvia (go) too."
   "Then, I (go)."
u  "What are your plans?"
   "We (play) a joke on them."
v  I (buy) a bunch of red roses for my wife this afternoon, as it is our silver wedding anniversary, but please don't tell her anything, because it must be a surprise.
w  She (open) another shop near here in two weeks. Would you like to have a look at it?
x  They (have) to arrest him, I think.
y  "He needs a teacher of English. His English is poor."
   "I (tell) my boyfriend to teach him English."
z  Remember this: "If you don't respect yourself, nobody (do) it for you."

 

____________________
1  El present continu s'anomena també "present progressiu".
2  Per a més informació sobre aquestes oracions, veges la unitat 10.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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