Gramātica anglesa de nivell mitjā pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)
Ompli els espais en blanc segons escaiga.
1. Els verbs have to i must expressen obligació. Must suggereix que l'obligació prové del parlant; have to, d'una autoritat externa o de les circumstàncies. No obstant això, de vegades s'empra must en comptes de have to per indicar que, tot i que l'autoritat és externa, el parlant hi està d'acord. Vegem uns exemples tot seguit:
You must be at home before it gets dark. (Has de ser a casa abans que es faįa de nit, és a dir, sóc ton pare o ta mare i vull que m'obeïsques.)
I have to get up at five o'clock in the morning to go to work. (Haig d'aixecar-me a les cinc del matí per anar a treballar. » La idea de matinar no em fa gens de gràcia, però he de guanyar-me la vida.)
You must/have to follow the doctor's advice. (Cal que seguesques / Has de seguir el consell del metge. » Have to implica que jo no ho impose; must, que, encara que la decisió no és meua, compartesc l'opinió del metge.)
a I __________ go home on foot: no means of transport can take me there.
b He __________ work twelve hours a day to maintain his family.
c We __________ leave now. We've got lots of things to do.
d She __________ be here by midnight, or else I'll punish her.
e You __________ give up smoking. You're always coughing!
El contrari de must
és need not
; de have to
, do not have to
. Tanmateix, també es pot utilitzar do not have to
en lloc de need not
You needn't/don't have to read all the book. The first two chapters will be enough.
(No cal que llegiu tot el llibre. Amb els dos primers capítols hi ha prou.)
I don't have to get up early tomorrow, as it is Sunday.
(No he de matinar demà perquè és diumenge.)
He __________ (not) work. His wife is very rich.
You __________ (not) take me there. My mother can do it.
You __________ (not) buy us a present. You're very short of money.
You __________ (not) take your car. You can go in mine.
They __________ (not) come if they don't want to.
3. Must i need not no tenen totes les formes verbals, per la qual cosa usem have to i not have to, respectivament, quan must i need not no són possibles.
We must hurry: it is getting late. (present » Hem d'afanyar-nos: es fa tard.)
We must visit our parents tomorrow. (futur » Hem de visitar els nostres pares demà.)
We will have to visit our parents tomorrow. (futur » autoritat externa » Haurem de visitar els nostres pares demà.)
We had to hurry, as it was getting late. (passat » Vam haver d'afanyar-nos, car es feia tard.)
He needn't pay me for that. (present » No cal que em pague per això.)
She needn't come tomorrow. (futur » No cal que vinga demà.)
He didn't have to pay me for that. (passat » No calia que em pagara per això.)
She didn't have to come the next day. (passat » No calia que vinguera l'endemà.)
a I know that yesterday you __________ be at home before it got dark.
b We __________ (not) go to school yesterday, so we went for a picnic.
c I __________ study all night long yesterday because I wanted to get top marks.
d We __________ (not) ask their advice, since Martha was there and helped us.
e Our troops __________ retreat. Our soldiers are falling like flies.
4. Must not
indica que és millor no fer alguna cosa perquè està prohibit, o perquè les consequències serien dolentes:
You mustn't eat all that. It's very spicy and hot.
(No pots menjar-te tot això / No et menges tot això. Es troba molt condimentat i és molt picant.)
You must not overtake. There is a continuous line here.
(No passes/avances els altres vehicles / No has de passar/avanįar els altres vehicles / No s'ha de passar/avanįar els altres vehicles / Cal que no passes/avances els altres vehicles. Hi ha línia contínua ací.)
You __________ (not) drive so fast. This road is very dangerous.
You __________ (not) drink more. You have to drive.
You __________ (not) arrive late for your interview.
They __________ (not) make any comments about this.
She __________ (not) forget to switch the light off when she leaves.
significa "hauries de", i s'empra per a donar consells. Must
és possible en compte de should
quan el consell és emfàtic.
You should cut down your expenses.
(Hauríeu de reduir les despeses.)
You must visit Barcelona. It's the best city in the world.
(consell emfàtic » Has de visitar Barcelona. És la millor ciutat del món.)
You __________ see this film. It's extremely good.
You __________ tell them what happened.
He __________ take evening classes. They will do him some good.
You __________ listen to this record. You'll love it.
You __________ come to the party with us. You'll enjoy it very much.
6. Need not have + participi de passat
s'usa per a indicar que vam fer quelcom innecessari:
You needn't have taken a bus. You could have gone in my car.
(No calia que hagueres agafat un autobús. Podries haver anat amb el meu cotxe.)
You __________ (not) have brought anything. There is plenty of food in the house.
We __________ (not) have sent them a letter. They will be here tomorrow.
He __________ (not) have paid for the ticket. I have one spare ticket.
She __________ (not) have bought that book. I could have lent her mine.
They __________ (not) have read the whole novel. They only had to read the first three chapters.
Quan hi ha prou indicis per a pensar que quelcom és cert, usem must
. El contrari de must
They must be filthy rich because they have their private jet.
(Deuen ser molt/massa rics porquè tenen un jet/avió privat.)
They cannot/can't have a Rolls-Royce. They are very poor.
(És impossible que tinguen un Rolls-Royce. Són molt pobres.)
You must have had a great time in Eivissa.
(Has d'haver-t'ho passat d'allò més bé a Eivissa.)
You cannot/can't/could not/couldn't have seen a vampire last night. Vampires don't exist!
(És impossible que veiesses un vampir anit. Els vampirs no existeixen!)
There __________ be a mistake in the bill. It __________ (not) cost so much. You told me it was very cheap.
They __________ (not) have fired him. He's been working for them for over twenty years.
You __________ (not) be serious! You __________ be joking!
You __________ (not) have seen him smoking. He detests it.
If you haven't eaten anything since yesterday, you __________ be very hungry.
8. Ejercicio de revisión.
My father __________ work overtime to support us when we were children.
We __________ help our parents when they were ill.
You __________ (not) have bought any roses. There are lots in the garden.
You __________ (not) worry about this illness. It's under control.
He __________ come last night. We needed him.
You __________ (not) swim in this river. Its water is heavily polluted.
We arrived here so late that we __________ take a taxi.
I know that you __________ stay at home helping your mother yesterday, but you could have phoned me
to tell me you weren't coming.
We __________ leave at once, or else we'll get there late.
She __________ (not) have failed her exam. She studied very hard.
What they say __________ (not) be true. They __________ be wrong.
You __________ (not) park the car in the car park. I'll be using it this afternoon.
You __________ (not) have gone all that way on foot. You could have caught a bus!
I'm afraid to tell you that you __________ repeat the year. You've got the poorest marks in the class.
We __________ (not) make the beds. The maid will make them.
You __________ (not) drink and drive. It's a very dangerous combination.
She __________ (not) come to work yesterday, so she stayed at home.
I __________ take that train, otherwise I won't get there in time for the meeting.
She __________ pay us a visit the next time she comes to town. We insist on it.
You __________ take some exercise. You're putting on weight.
This plant __________ be watered every evening, or it'll wither.
We had an accident, so we __________ call a breakdown truck.
You __________ (not) ring up the police, or we'll be put away for theft.
You __________ slow down. Your health is very poor. Nevertheless, it is up to you.
You __________ (not) help us. We don't need any help.
We got a puncture and __________ change the wheel.