Gramātica anglesa de nivell mitjā pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)
Posa els verbs entre parèntesis en la forma adequada.
En anglès, hi ha dos tipus de verbs en el passat simple: els regulars i els irregulars. Els irregulars tenen una forma predeterminada: sing
(passat simple). En la unitat 9 hi ha una llista de verbs irregulars.
Quant als verbs regulars, només cal afegir -ed
a l'infinitiu: work
(passat simple). Ara bé, cal notar el següent:
(El verb termina en -e
("Rob" té una sil·laba
i l'estructura següent: "consonant + una vocal + una consonant".)
(consonant + y
→consonant + i
no canvia perquè va precedida d'una vocal.)
Vegem ara la conjugació sencera de un verb regular i d'un altre d'irregular:
(treballar » verb regular)
(jo vaig treballar)
(cantar » verb irregular)
(jo vaig cantar)
He (live) in London until he (die)
We (play) football last Sunday.
She (come) in second because she (have) a fall. (come→came, have→ had)
He (marry) last winter.
Then, the car (stop) at the traffic lights and a woman (get) out of the car. (get→got)
2. En la negativa, posem did not (o la forma contracta didn't) entre el subjecte i el verb. El verb va sempre en l'infinitiu.
I enjoyed the party. (afirmativa » M'ho vaig passar bé a la festa.)
I did not enjoy the party/I didn't enjoy the party. (negativa » No m'ho vaig passar bé a la festa.)
a She (not want) to meet him.
b We (not believe) them.
c You (not do) your homework yesterday.
d We (not go) to the cinema last week.
e They (not impress) her.
3. En la interrogativa, col·loquem did davant del subjecte. No oblides emprar l'infinitiu.
He robbed the bank. (afirmativa » Ell va robar el banc.)
Did he rob the bank? (negativa » Va robar ell el banc?)
a You (see) the accident?
b He (love) her?
c We (invite) the Adams?
d They (tell) her the truth?
e Sir Alexander Fleming (discover) penicillin?
El passat continu o progressiu es forma amb was
+ un verb-ing
I was cooking dinner when the light went out.
(afirmativa » Jo feia el dinar quan la llum se'n va anar.)
She was not doing her homework when I arrived home.
(negativa » Ella no feia els deures quan vaig arribar a casa.)
Were they watching TV when she came in?
(interrogativa » Veien la tele quan ella hi va entrar?)
My mother (prepare) a special meal that day, as it was my birthday.
I (go) to say that, too!
They (talk) to her when you saw them?
They (not do) the proper thing when I entered the house.
We (go) to have a party that night, but my father fell ill and we had to postpone it.
No cal dir que el passat simple és el passat del present simple
, i que el passat continu és el passat del present continu. Dit d'una altra manera, el passat simple s'utilitza per a hàbits i accions completes en el passat; i el continu, per a accions incompletes:
My father was fixing the washing machine
(acció incompleta) when I arrived home.
(acció completa) (Mon pare arreglava la rentadora quan vaig arribar a casa.)
When the teacher came in,
(acció completa) the pupils stood up.
(acció completa) (Quan el mestre hi va entrar, els alumnes es van alçar / es van posar dempeus.)
While I was studying,
(acció incompleta) they were playing cards.
(acció incompleta) (Mentre jo estudiava, ells jugaven a cartes.)
Last year I usually (go) for a walk every afternoon, but now I can't, as I'm very busy.
She (put) on her best clothes because she (meet) the boy of her dreams that very same evening. She (want) to be very attractive.
When the fire (begin), we (be) in the dining room.
When I (meet) her, she (wear) a mini skirt. She (look) beautiful!
While my mum (watch) a soap opera on television, my dad (read) a comic.
6. Exercici de revisió.
She (sleep) when I (enter) her room.
As a child, I (use) to play tennis every Sunday morning.
She (win) the lottery last year and (buy) a big house.
I couldn't believe my eyes when I (see) my best friend dressed up as Cinderella.
While he (have) breakfast, she (have) a bath. When she (finish) her bath, they (go) out together, as they (have) a very important appointment.
When I (run) into Peter, he (wear) very strange clothes and green hair. I (not recognise) him at first because of his look, but when he (say) hello to me, I (tell) him, "You are beyond recognition with such clothes and hair."
It was a very special evening, since the girl of his dreams (take) him to a luxurious restaurant in half an hour.
"You (go) to the zoo yesterday?"
"No, I didn't: the weather (be) awful."
What lousy weather we (have) last week! It never (stop) raining and (be) very cold.
When they (get) home, they (sit) down and (have) a hearty lunch.
If I had known that you (come), I would have made a chocolate cake.
When we (be) children, we never (do) such things. Everything (be) stricter than now.
While she (wait) for him, it (start) to snow and she (have) to go home.
Once upon a time, there (be) a princess who (feel) very lonely because her father had departed this life and her stepmother (be) a sort of an ogre and never (let) her go out or do anything she (like).
One day she (run) away from home and (meet) an attractive peasant. She (fall) in love with him and they (get) married. They (live) happily ever after.
He never (tell) the truth, so nobody (believe) him, but one day he (need) help urgently and nobody (help) him because nobody (believe) him, as he always (lie
This time last week, we (sunbathe) on a beach, and today we are working in this horrible factory.
When the earthquake (destroy) most of the city, I (spend) some days abroad.
John Lennon (write) some of the best songs in the twentieth century.
In former times, people (think) that the sun (revolve) around the earth.
We (stay) at home that night, since it (be) very windy and chilly outside. We (light) a fire, (open) a bottle of champagne and (have) a cosy chat.
When he (enter) the place, he (hear) the sound of heavy breathing, but (not see) anybody there. He (get) frightened to death, but very soon he (notice) that a homeless man (sleep) under a table.
She couldn't attend our weekly meeting last night because some friends of hers (come) to town and she (have) to be with them.
They usually (play) cards on Friday evenings, but when Mr Blake (die), they (cease) playing cards."
"What you (do) when I (phone) you yesterday?"
"I (do) aerobics."
"You (inform) the boss of the accident you (have) on Monday morning?"
"No, I didn't, because she would have got very angry with me."