Rewrite the sentences below using to
, in order not to
, so that
I sent her a bunch of flowers because I wanted to make it up with her.
I sent her a bunch of flowers to make it up with her.
can be used to express purpose. In order to
and so as to
may replace to
, but are more emphatic and formal: In order to/So as to be there on time, I had to hire a taxi
. See also unit 23, section 11.
I entered Mr Green's office because I wished to talk to him.
We came in the house because we wanted to put out the lights.
I came back because I had to take care of my parents.
She winked at me because she wanted to let me know that she was joking.
I have come because I'd like to give you a piece of advice.
He took off his shoes because he did not want his parents to hear him.
He took off his shoes in order not to/so as not to be heard by his parents.
In the negative, we use in order not to
or so as not to
He felt very miserable, so he looked for someone to share his life with.
I didn't drop in at your home last night because I didn't want to disturb you.
I won't light my Havana because it might bother her.
He destroyed all proof against him because he did not want to be discovered.
I was very cold, so I put on the stove.
) We carve meat with this knife.
This knife is for carving meat (with).
) I'll give you ten pounds because you have washed my car.
I'll give you ten pounds for washing/having washed my car.
) This food is not fit to be eaten.
This food is not fit for eating.
For + a gerund
indicates the function of something. (1
) It can also indicate the reason why we do something. (2
) It can have a passive meaning, too. (3
) See also unit 23, section 20.
The reason why he went to prison was that he held up a chemist's.
You grow plants in a flowerpot.
These pictures are not to be sold.
You read with a book.
You have not done your homework. So you'll be punished.
4 Revision exercise.
She's studying because she wants to become a very important person in life.
The reason that I was so happy was that I had finished my studies.
I didn't want to see them, so I didn't open the door.
You remove your pencil marks with a rubber.
We went on with the deal because we didn't want to leave them high and dry at the last minute.
I would like to take tomorrow off, as I want to accompany my husband to the doctor.
They went on a hunger strike because they wanted to get better conditions in gaol.
They bought a country pad because they wished to have some peace and quiet.
I've just bought a CD player, since I want to give it to my daughter for her birthday.
I have bought some clothes-pegs because I want to hang the washing out.
He did not want to worry her, so he did not tell her what happened.
If we want to get there before dark, we must leave now.
She was very friendly to him because she wanted to nick his wallet.
They wanted to swipe his walkman, so they mugged him.
She was taken to the police station because she had lifted some records from the shop next door.
We filled the car up because we didn't want to run out of petrol.
I did not want to hear what they were talking about, which is why I put the music louder.
I had no intention of talking to him, so I didn't answer the phone.
I shut up because I did not want to interfere in matters which had nothing to do with me.
He married her because he wanted to spend the rest of his life with her.
I find it necessary to test you on your French, so you must take an exam tomorrow.
She hid a tiny microphone in his house because she wanted to spy upon him.
I put out the central heating because I did not want to waste fuel.
The reason I bought my son an ice-cream wafer was that he had been a good boy.
You got full marks in your history paper, so I'll buy you the bike I promised.
She set off for Paris before sunrise because she wanted to be there by midday.
She waters her plants twice a week. She does not want them to wither.
She waters her plants twice a week so that they will not/do not wither.
I'll correct all the mistakes in your composition. I hope you
will not/do not make them again.
I'll correct all the mistakes in your composition so that you will not/do not make them again.
He told Mary his feelings last night because he wanted her to know that he loves her.
He told Mary his feelings last night so that she would know that he loves her.
We must leave now if we don't want to arrive late.
We must leave now so that we won't/don't arrive late/We must leave now in order not to/so as not to arrive late.
We use so that
(or more formally, in order that
) + a subject + a verb
. Observe the following as well:
|present or future
might (very formal)
She wants him to go with her on holiday, so she's helping him with his project.
These brave men and women gave their lives because they wanted the humankind to have a better world.
I'll give you some money because you will have to pay for the bus.
He did not send her any letter, phone her or write to her. He did not want her to know he was alive.
We are leaving early in the morning. We want to arrive there by noon.
He took off his shoes in order not to/so as not to be heard by
his parents/He took off his shoes so that his parents would not hear him.
He took off his shoes to prevent his parents (from) hearing him/to avoid being heard by his parents.
We must leave now so that we won't arrive late/We must leave now in order not to/so as not to arrive late.
We must leave now to avoid arriving late.
She waters her plants twice a week so that they won't/don't wither.
She waters her plants twice a week to prevent them (from) withering.
Instead of so that
(or in order that
) + a subject + a negative verb
, we can use to prevent + an object
) + a gerund
. In order not to
(or so as not to
) may be replaced by to avoid + a gerund
He went to live abroad so that he wouldn't have to pay maintenance to his wife for his four children.
He did all his homework so that his teacher would not tell him off.
He disguised as a woman in order not to be recognised.
He hid behind a bush so as not to be seen by his pursuers.
He did not report the incident to his superiors in order that they should not think that he was to blame for it.
I did not take my father's car because he might have become angry.
I did not take my father's car lest he (should) become/in case he became (or should become) angry.
(This was a possibility.)
I'll wait for him, as he might come.
I'll wait for him in case he comes/should come.
I did not tell them a word of it, since they could have thought I was reponsible for it.
I did not tell them a word of it in case they thought/should think I was responsible for it.
I did not tell them a word of it lest they (should) think I was responsible for it.
If we have a present or future tense in the main clause, we use a present tense after in case
; if we have a past tense, in case
is followed by a past tense. In case + a subject + should + infinitive
is another alternative to in case + a subject + a present or past tense
, but it suggests a smaller possibility. As regards lest
, it is followed by should
or by a subjunctive
, and is very formal.
I'll leave him a message in the answering machine because he might go home this afternoon.
He wanted to kiss her, but he did not, as he thought that she could reject him.
I didn't tell my parents that I had failed my literature paper because they might have punished me by making me stay at home in the evenings for a fortnight.
She did not ask him to go to the opera with her because she thought he could turn down her invitation.
He went to the same place they met for the first time because he thought she could be there.
8 Revision exercise:
We put the lights off, as we didn't want anybody to know that we were in.
The bank has employed some security guards because they do not want to be held up again.
They didn't make out an invoice because they did not want us to pay VAT.
She left her purse at home because she was afraid that somebody might steal it.
She wanted him to know she was at home, so she put on some music.
I hailed a cab because I didn't want to be late.
I've phoned them because I want to have my flat furnished.
He kept still for almost an hour because he was afraid that the enemy could see him.
I tore them off a strip because I did not want it to happen again.
I brought the electric drill because I wanted to hang a picture here.
We listen to music with a cassette player.
He settled the bill at once because he didn't want to be surcharged for late payment.
They infringed the law, so they were taken to the police station.
They walled the swimming-pool because they did not want their children to fall into it and drown.
I don't want you to forget me, so I'll give you a photograph of me.
They didn't want to go hungry, so they took a lot of food with them.
She vaccinated her children against smallpox because she did not want them to catch it.
I went to live in the country because I did not want anybody to disturb me.
She did not want anyone to beat her children, so she taught them self-defence.
I read a lot of German books because I want to improve my German.
They shot him dead because they wanted to make sure that he could not betray them.
He did not want anybody to know his real identity, so he gave them a false name.
We need a tennis ball. We want to play with it.
He read her one of his poems because he wanted to impress her.
He didn't want them to bully him, so he stood up to them.
They may still come, so I'll wait for them.
can be replaced with expressions such as with the aim of, with a view to, with/for the purpose of, the purpose of, someone's purpose in
I sent her some flowers with the aim of making it up with her.
I sent her some flowers with a view to making it up with her.
I sent her some flowers with/for the purpose of making it up with her.
The purpose of my flowers/of my sending her some flowers was to make it up with her.
My purpose in sending her some flowers was to make it up with her.
Compare these two sentences:
She put her children to bed in order to/so as to relax a bit.
(= She put her children to bed because she wanted to relax a bit.)
She put her children to bed to relax a bit.
(= She wanted her children to relax a bit.)
You have washed my car; as a result, I'll give you ten pounds/You have washed my car; I'll give you ten pounds as a result.
The reason why I give you ten pounds is that you have washed my car.
See unit 22, section 37.
I have given her a key so that she can/may enter the house whenever she wants.
He did not answer the phone so that noboby would/should know that he was at home.
The government is going to build new schools in order that our children may have a better education.
The authorities were doing further research in order that the murderers might/should be arrested and judged.
I translated the letter into English so that everybody could/would/should understand what it said.
The subject must be different from the one in the main clause to follow this rule.
See units 22 (section 37)
and 24 (section 16)
may also be followed by a present or past tense: I didn't take my father's car lest he became angry
. However, the other alternatives given are much better. See also unit 22, section 37.