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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell avançat pas a pas (English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNIT 4 - Page 2

   Make questions for the answers given.

13 Examples:
   I enjoy reading romantic poets.
   What poets do you enjoy reading?
(what + a noun)
   I like this car.
   Which car do you like?
(which + a noun)
   The man with a scar on his cheek is the killer.
   Which of them is the killer?
(which of + a pronoun or a determiner + a noun→these people)

   We use what when we are talking in a general sense, and which, when we are choosing between something, although which is usually preferred to refer to people in a formal style, even when the sense is general: Which poets do you enjoy reading?

   In the last example, however, which of is the only possibility. If we do not wish to use which of, we have to use who4: Who is the killer? Yet, there is a slight difference in meaning. Who normally conveys the idea of unlimited choice, and which of, of a restricted one. Another alternative to this is to remove the preposition of and the object pronoun (or the determiner plus the noun): Which is the killer?

   It is also possible to use which one: Which one (= Which car) do you like? One is sometimes dropped:
   Which do you like?
   —I like the red one.
Compare this question with What do you like? This is an open question, that is to say, without any restriction. A possible answer to this question could be I like cars and good food. Note also that both which + a noun and what + a noun can act as subjects:
     —Which car broke down?
     —Peter's (car).
     —What name was mentioned there?
     —The name of a town, I think.

a  I love the blonde girl.
b  The girl with short hair is of humble origins.
c  I hate slow trains.
d  I want the red jumper.
e  I usually listen to rock and roll singers.

14 Revision exercise.
a  The Ebro River flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
b  BBC stands for British Broadcasting Corporation.
c  I'm heading for Rome.
d  She repeated the same thing over and over again. (Use how often.)
e  I'm very keen on having a baby.
f  No, they weren't all the time sticking their noses in.
g  Yes, I've combed my hair, mummy.
h  I got this pair of nutcrackers from your mother.
i  Everything went wrong.
j  This person is guilty.
k  These people are guilty.
l  Ants are very industrious insects.
m  I need three hours.
n  Hundreds of people are dying of hunger.
o  Our father is taller than yours.
p  My stepmother noticed the lack of water.
q  I envy Clare.
r  I'm thinking of building a hut.
s  No, we weren't snowblind.
t  She learnt the meaning of being poor when her father died.
u  Yes, this is liable to some changes.
v  It's half past twelve.
w  You'll find her at Tom's party.
x  No, it isn't ten past five.
y  We train twice a week.
z  We enjoyed the countryside.

15 Examples:
   I'm going to Cardiff by taxi.
   How are you going to Cardiff?
   I escaped from prison by climbing over the wall.
   How did you escape from prison?
   I spell it C-Y-R-I-L.
   How do you spell your name?

a  I always travel by plane.
b  She convinced her father by telling him a pack of lies.
c  I'm going in Tom's car.
d  They made it with great efforts.
e  She came here on foot.

16 Examples:
   She is very well.
   How is she?
   She is tall and pretty.
   What is she like?/What does she look like?
(physical characteristics)
   She is very friendly.
   What is she like?
(behavioural characteristics)
   Life is very hard (for me nowadays).
   How is life?
(temporal situations)
   The play was very boring. (I did not like it.)
   How was the play?
   This play is very good.
(People say that it is very good.)
   What is the play like?
   It is very cold today.
   What is the weather like? (How is the weather? is possible, but probably less usual.)

a  My great-grandfather is very ill.
b  He's not getting on very well at school.
c  The novel is terrible (although many critics say that it is very good).
d  The theatre is very old.
e  My girl-friend is very attractive.

17 Revision exercise.
a  She's looking at Charles.
b  His mother is very nice.
c  It happened without even being aware of the danger.
d  They are eighteen years old.
e  They came here on their bikes.
f  The room is eighty metres wide.
g  That cabbage patch is quite big.
h  It was very hot here yesterday.
i  He is very ugly.
j  He's writing a letter.
k  Yes, her clothes are weird.
l  No, I can't go on with our relationship.
m  I want to become a pop star.
n  Yes, she uncovered her face.
o  I'm waiting for Martha.
p  No, that stain won't come out.
q  They are going to take him home.
r  I bribed the jury with a million pounds.
s  I'm leaving at noon.
t  Yes, he likes almonds.
u  Molly is in a bad mood today.
v  No, he didn't lose his temper.
w  There are two armchairs left.
x  I like that colour.
y  All of us kept our word.
z  He found her at the water's edge.

18 Examples:
   I know that because I've seen it with my own eyes.
   How do you know that?
   He's sad because she doesn't want to see him any more.
   Why is he sad?

a  I can't go out with you any longer because my parents don't allow me to see you again.
b  We failed our examinations because we didn't study.
c  I can remember all the words she said because I wrote them down, and learnt them by heart afterwards.
d  They stood up because their teacher entered the classroom.
e  He smashed the car into a wall because he was driving too fast.

19 Examples:
   This pen is mine.
   Whose is this pen?
   This is my pen.
   Whose pen is this?

   The above questions mean the same.

a  I borrowed my father's car.
b  I brought Pamela's stick.
c  That is his.
d  These are my keys.
e  This umbrella is hers.

20 Revision exercise.
a  There is plenty of wool.
b  There were plenty of rocks.
c  No, I don't want to stick to these rules.
d  I got rid of those old shoes because I was sick and tired of them.
e  Yes, I realised it at once.
f  These coats are theirs.
g  Yes, these coats are theirs.
h  It was Peter's fault.
i  No, it wasn't Peter's fault.
j  I feel awful today.
k  I can sing very well.
l  He is ten.
m  Yes, their children are running wild.
n  John wasn't invited to the fashion parade.
o  This manure is for the tomato plants.
p  I've got an English class at five o'clock.
q  Yes, you should opt for taking swimming lessons.
r  You have to select a candidate.
s  He beat me by playing dirty tricks.
t  They are fine, thank you.
u  He is slim and short.
v  I know it straight from the horse's mouth.
w  I like this hat best.
x  My motorbike is very fast.
y  He went out with Caroline yesterday evening.
z  They imposed a curfew.

21 Examples:
   How ever did you find my house? (= How on earth did you find my house?)
   Who ever did you go out with? (= Who on earth did you go out with?)

   Ever is an emphatic word added to some wh- question words. It tells us the speaker's reaction to something.

a  I failed my literature paper because I got very nervous. (how)
b  They will repair the oven tomorrow. (when)
c  I have come here because I feel very miserable. (why)
d  Mary has hidden under the bed. (where)
e  I've seen a monster. (what)

22 Exclamations:
   Exclamations express strong emotions. An exclamation can be formed by only a noun, a verb, or any other word or words that may be able to show our reaction to something:
     Damn! I've lost her for good.
     Slowly! You're going to break it!
     Not on your nelly!
     Come on! Get moving!
     How dare you say that to me!
     Go to hell!
     Lucky you!/How lucky (you are)!
     Blow it! They've already left.
     Oh, blast (it)! I've forgotten to give her a ring.
     "Women are more intelligent than men."
     "That's all rubbish! Men and women have the same intelligence."
     Ugh! What's this!
     My Goodness!/Goodness me!
     Good(ness) gracious!/Gracious me!
     Get lost!
     Go away!
     Shame on you!
     You've brought shame/disgrace on our family!/You've shamed our family!
     Cease fire!

     How tall (she is)! (how + adjective)
     How fast (she runs)! (how + adverb)
     What5 a beautiful horse! (what + a singular noun)
     What lovely music! (what + an uncoutable noun)
     What handsome boys! (what + a plural noun)

   Add an exclamation to each of these situations.

a  You see a very pretty girl or a good-looking boy.
b  We are expecting a baby.
c  I have finished my studies.
d  I want to kiss you.
e  Your daughter's room is in a terrible mess.
f  You can no longer stand your boy-friend/girl-friend. He/She has done something you detest, which is the last straw that breaks the camel's back.
g  Your brother has run your car into a shop window.
h  Your fifteen-year-old daughter tells you that she is pregnant.
i  A friend of yours tells you that he/she has won one thousand pounds in a raffle.
j  You have just brought a bottle of a very expensive wine home, but you forgot to buy a corkscrew.
k  You have lost your wallet/purse.
l  A boy/girl insults you.
m  You pinch your forefinger in a door.
n  Somebody pricks you with a pin.
o  You are a sergeant and your soldiers are very slow.
p  You try some soup that tastes awful.
q  What do you say to a person you do not want to see?
r  What do you say when you see some beautiful countryside?
s  What do you tell someone who is talking a lot of crap?
t  You see a lorry and a train colliding with each other.
u  You have failed your driving-test.
v  Somebody tells you that men are superior to women.
w  You see a very ugly person.
x  Your workmate asks you to work on Sundays, but you do not want to. What do you say to him?
y  Your daughter does something that you think is very disgraceful.
z  What does a captain say when he orders his men to stop shooting?

4  Compare the following:
     The Turners live in this house.
     Who lives in this house?
     Patrick's children are in hospital.
     Which children are in hospital?
     Who is in hospital?
     Romantic writers were fascinated by the supernatural.
     What/Which writers were fascinated by the supernatural?
     This is her notebook.
     Which notebook is hers?/Which is her notebook?

5  See unit 17, section 7.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

Potser t'interessarà rebre un arxiu pdf amb les unitats d'aquesta secció perquè pugues estudiar sempre que vulgues. En aquest cas, te'l podem fer arribar per correu electrònic a canvi d'una contribució de 25 euros.





1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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