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Gramātica anglesa de nivell mitjā pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNITAT 1
     EL VERB "TO BE"


Ompli els espais en blanc amb la forma escaient del verb to be.


1. El verb to be significa "(és)ser o estar", i es conjuga de la següent manera en present en afirmativa:
    I am (jo sóc o estic)
    you are (tu ets o estàs)
    he is (ell és o està)
    she is (ella és o està)
    it is1 ("allò" és o està)
    we are (nosaltres som o estem)
    you are (vosaltres sou o esteu)
    they are (ells són o estan)

    Les formes que acabem de veure s'empren en un estil formal. En llenguatge col·loquial, usem les formes contractes. Per a contraure-les, lleven la vocal i posem un apòstrof ('). Vegem les formes contractes tot seguit:

a  He __________ a barman.
b  They __________ very polite people.
c  We __________ in Londow now.
d  My sister __________ taller than you.
e  You __________ my best friend.


2. En la negativa, afegim not després del verb:
    I am not
    you are not
    he is not
    she is not
    it is not
    we are not
    you are not
    they are not

    També existeixen formes contractes:
    I'm not
    you aren't/you're not
    he isn't/he's not
    she isn't/she's not
    it isn't/it's not
    we aren't/we're not
    you aren't/you're not
    they aren't/they're not

a  Mary __________ (not) a pretty girl, but she __________ very nice.
b  It __________ (not) big.
c  She __________ (not) from Barcelona.
d  They __________ (not) ill in bed.
e  I __________ (not) tired. I want to go on.


3. En la interrogativa, col·loquem el verb davant del subjecte:
    am I?
    are you?
    is he?
    is she
    is it?
    are we?
    are you?
    are they?

a  __________ you on holiday now?
b  __________ he at the bank?
c  __________ we financially ruined?
d  __________ she your girl-friend?
e  __________ I a good cook or not?


4. També hi ha la interrogativa negativa:
    am I not?
    aren't you? (informal)/are you not? (formal)
    isn't he?/is he not?
    isn't she?/is she not?
    isn't it?/is it not?
    aren't we?/are we not?
    aren't you?/are you not?
    aren't they/are they not?

a  __________ (not) they coming to see you?
b  __________ (not) he your brother?
c  __________ (not) this book yours?
d  __________ (not) you going to2 tell me your secret?
e  __________ (not) I invited?


5. Exercici de revisió.
a  She __________ (not) in hospital. She __________ at home now.
b  "__________ you feeling unwell?"
    "No, I __________ (not)."
c  "__________ he homesick?"
    "Yes, he __________3."
d  "How __________ your soup?"
    "It __________ delicious, thanks!"
e  "__________ you busy now?"
    "No, I __________ (not)."
f  "__________ they in"
    "No, they went out a moment ago"
g  I __________ afraid she __________ out. Could you ring back later?
h  This __________ a non-smoking area. So put out your cigarette.
i  He __________ a very good dancer.
j  "__________ we really going to stay here till dawn?"
    "Yes, I __________ afraid so. We can't go now!"
k  "Tom and Margaret __________ getting married in May. Didn't you know?"
    "No, I didn't."
l  "Why __________ your mother so cross with you?"
    "Because I've left my room in a complete mess."
m  __________ (not) you going to buy that house? It __________ a real bargain!
n  Our new boss __________ a dear. He __________ always trying to help us.
o  The Catalan runner __________ in the lead now! Unbelievable!
p  I __________ (not) going to follow your advice any more. I've lost a fortune because of it.
q  They __________ (not) to blame for it. It __________ your own fault.
r  "__________ (not) you going to take me to the opera tonight?"
    "I can't, darling!"
    "But you promised."
    "I __________ very sorry. We can go tomorrow if you like."
s  "Where __________ the children?"
    "They __________ playing in the garden."
t  "Who __________ it?"
    "It __________ me, darling."
u  __________ (not) he at school? It __________ the second time he has played truant this week!
v  My father __________ an avid reader of Ernest Hemingway. He loves The Old Man and the Sea.
w  "__________ we in danger here?"
    "Yes, we __________."
x  They __________ always poking their noses into my affairs. I __________ sick and tired of it.
y  She __________ in prison for theft.
z  My little daughter __________ doing her homework now. She __________ very hard-working.


6. Vegem el verb to be en passat en afirmativa a continuació:
    I was (jo era o estava)
    you were (tu eres o estaves)
    he was
    she was
    it was
    we were
    you were
    they were

a  They __________ very friendly people.
b  She __________ on cloud nine when he asked her to marry him.
c  I __________ frustrated when they rejected my book.
d  We __________ very happy there.
e  You __________ an idiot to let them in, as you knew they would cause us a lot of trouble.


7. En la negativa, posem not darrere del verb:
    I was not
    you were not
    he was not
    she was not
    it was not
    we were not
    you were not
    they were not

    Així mateix, podem fer una negativa contracta:
    I wasn't
    you weren't
    he wasn't
    she wasn't
    it wasn't
    we weren't
    you weren't
    they weren't

a  Don't blame me for it. It __________ (not) my fault.
b  He __________ (not) at the party.
c  We __________ (not) very glad to see them there.
d  I __________ (not) very well yesterday. I had a headache.
e  She __________ (not) very polite to the Adams last night.


8. En la interrogativa, posem el verb davant del subjecte:
    was I?
    were you?
    was he?
    was she?
    was it?
    were we?
    were you?
    were they?

a  __________ they having dinner when you got there?
b  __________ you really going to tell them?
c  __________ he angry?
d  __________ she up when you went to visit her?
e  __________ I to be trusted?


9. També hi ha la interrogativa negativa:
    wasn't I? (col·loquial)/was I not? (formal)
    weren't you?/were you not?
    wasn't he?/was he not?
    wasn't she?/was she not?
    wasn't it?/was it not?
    weren't we?/were we not?
    weren't you?/were you not?
    weren't they?/were they not?

a  __________ (not) he elected chairman?
b  __________ (not) she the person in charge of the whole affair?
c  __________ (not) they siblings?
d  __________ (not) we going to your mother's house this afternoon?
e  __________ (not) you at the cinema yesterday evening?


10. Observa l'estructura següent:4
     there is + un nom en singular o incontable (present)
     there are + un substantiu plural (present)
     there was + singular o incontable (passat)
     there were + plural (passat)

     There is a cat. (Hi ha un gat.)
     There are two cats. (Hi ha dos gats.)
     There was a cat. (Hi havia un gat.)
     There were two cats. (Hi havia dos gats.)

     Per a fer la negativa, inserim not darrere del verb. Per a la interrogativa, posem el verb abans de there:
     There is not a cat/There isn't a cat/There's not a cat.
     Is there a cat?
     There are not two cats/There aren't two cats.
     Are there two cats?
     There was not a cat/There wasn't a cat.
     Was there a cat?
     There were not two cats/There weren't two cats.
     Were there two cats?

a   There __________ a lot of milk in the fridge yesterday, but today there __________ (not) any.
b   There __________ lots of people at the funeral yesterday evening.
c   There __________ an old woman sitting in a rocking chair on the veranda. She was knitting a pullover.
d   __________ there a lof of traffic last night?
e   There __________ hundreds of mosquitoes last summer.


11. Exercici de revisió.
a   "My mother __________ a housewife. My father __________ a farmer. What do your parents do?"
     "They don't work at the moment. They __________ on the dole."
b   They __________ exhausted when they reached the peak.
c   They __________ (not) watching TV when we arrived home. They __________ already in bed.
d   There __________ somebody at the door. Go and see who it __________.
e   After the fire, there __________ nothing left. We had to start again.
f   __________ you really going to give them a hand with their work? They don't deserve it.
g   __________ (not) they going to come to the party tomorrow? They told me they would.
h   He __________ (not) studying now. He __________ playing a football match with some friends.
i   "__________ they teachers?"
     "Yes, they __________. They teach history."
j   "How many apples __________ there?"
     "There __________ a lot. We don't have to buy any."
k   "Where __________ your aunt going?"
     "She __________ going to see the doctor."
     "What __________ the matter with her?"
     "It __________ her back. She's got a terrible pain in her back."
l   "There __________ some tomato sauce in the refrigerator. Would you like some?"
     "No, thanks. I don't like tomato sauce."
m   My sister and I __________ in the middle of nowhere when we ran out of petrol.
n   "When __________ you born?"
     "I __________ born a hundred years ago."
o   "__________ she a good student when she __________at school?"
     "To tell you the truth, I rarely saw her studying."
p   "__________ (not) he your father?"
     "No, he __________ my uncle."
q   "Why __________ you so annoyed?"
     "Because my boy-friend has forgotten to phone me once again."
r   __________ (not) you upset when you realised what __________ going on?
s   He __________ away on holiday for a fortnight. Can I take a message?
t   I couldn't speak to her, as she __________ in a meeting with Mr Green.
u   "__________ there anything I can do for you?"
     "No, I __________ afraid there __________ (not)."
v   "There __________ no way out. We __________ trapped."
     "Oh, dear! What __________ we going to do now?"
w   He __________ in love with the girl next door. They want to live together in the near future.
x   "We __________ taken prisoners!"
     "What did you do then? __________ you frightened?"
y   She __________ (not) there when the building went up in flames.
z   Once upon a time, there __________ a princess who __________ looking for a prince to marry, but couldn't find one, since she__________ very evil.


12. Exercici de revisió. (Passa les oracions següents a negativa i a interrogativa.)
a   There are a lot of trees.
b   There's a spider on the table.
c   There were many soldiers.
d   There was a dictionary on the bedside table.
e   He's listening to music.
f   They're writing to their parents.
g   She's a publican.
h   They were overseas last week.
i   You're very clever.
j   They are very intelligent.
k   He's resting now.
l   You're a lawyer.
m   We are free.
n   It's a glow-warm.
o   They're brave.
p   He is a fool.
q   The birds were singing.
r   The house was empty.
s   The concert was a roaring success.
t   There was a fly on the cake.
u   He was a good suitor.
v   My car is in its last legs.
w   His leg was in plaster.
x   John and his sister are over there.
y   Tim was content with his pay.
z   The house was on fire.


13. El gerundi i el participi de present es formen afegint -ing al verb:
     I love being at home. (M'encanta ésser a casa.)
     She enjoys being with her plants. (Li agrada estar amb les seues plantes.)
     Being a beggar is very hard. (Ser mendicant és molt dur.)
     Those sheep are being shorn. (Traducció literal: Aqueixes ovelles estan essent esquilades. Traducció aconsellable: Estan esquilant aqueixes ovelles.)

     En les tres primeres frases, being és gerundi en anglès, i en la última, participi de present. Tanmateix, la distinció ací no és important. Només cal recordar que totes dues es formen amb l'infinitiu sense "to" més -ing.

a   You're __________ stupid today. What's wrong with you? You're always so nice.
b   The grass is __________ cut.
c   I'm looking forward to __________ with you. I miss you so much.
d   __________ so rich must be great. You can buy anything you want, and you don't have to work.
e   I hate __________ here.


14. L'infinitiu és (to) be. Hi ha vegades que to s'omet.
     I want to be an actress. (Vull ser actriu. Want + infinitiu amb "to")
     You could be promoted. (Podries ser ascendit. Could + infinitiu sense "to")
     Be there tonight, and don't be late. (Vés-hi, i no arribes tard. Imperatius, és a dir, no mencionem el subjecte.)

a   I may __________ old, but I'm not stupid.
b   He needs __________ with her.
c   She wishes __________ given a rise.
d   Will you __________ so nice as to wait here?
e   Please __________ a good boy. Don't __________ naughty.


15. El participi de passat és been, i va precedit de have, has o had.
     We have never been to the USA. (Mai no hem estat/anat als Estats Units d'Amèrica.)
     There must have been a mistake. (Deu haver estat un error.)
     She has been expelled from school. (L'han expulsada del col·legi. Traducció literal: Ha estat expulsada del col·legi)
     He had been ill. (Havia estat malalt.)
     It was the first time that they had been there. (Era la primera vegada que hi eren/anaven.)

a   It has __________ raining all day.
b   He had never __________ so happy.
c   There has __________ an accident.
d   She hasn't __________ at home for two days.
e   They may have __________ very busy.


16. Exercici de revisió.
a   He had __________ in love with her all his life, but he __________ too shy to tell her. They could have __________ happy together.
b   She used __________ very rich, but now she __________ very poor.
c   There __________ (not) any garlic. Please go and buy some.
d   The car __________ __________ towed to the garage. It needs __________ fixed.
e   We avoided __________ told what to do.
f   There __________ some flowers on the table. I have just bought them.
g   "__________ (not) you aware of the situation?"
     "No, I __________. Nobody told me."
h   I think she __________ going __________ a very good doctor. Beside, she __________ so charming.
i   " How __________ they going there?"
     "I don't know. Their car __________ __________ serviced."
j   " __________ (not) it lovely?"
     "No, it __________ (not). It __________ awful. I don't like it at all."
k   He __________ so tired that he fell asleep.
l   Do you think I __________ born yesterday? You __________ (not) going to fool me.
m   "Have you seen my glasses anywhere?"
     "Yes, I have. They __________ on the table."
n   Always __________ ready.
o   "Waiter! There __________ some flies in my soup?"
     "Sorry, sir. They should __________ in the salad."
     "I beg your pardon!"
     "It __________ a joke, sir."
p   You may __________ right, but I __________ (not) going to invite them.
q   Stop __________ a nuisance, will you? I __________ trying to concentrate.
r   "__________ (not) you at home now?"
     "No, I __________ . I __________ shopping for a new computer. The old one __________ broken."
s   When we arrived there, the house seemed __________ empty. There __________ (not) any lights on, and everything looked deserted.
t   Don't do that again! You could have __________ killed!
u   I __________ advised __________ here before dark, and here I __________.
v   "What __________ you doing here? You ought not __________ here. This place __________ very dangerous."
     "I __________ looking for you. There has __________ a military coup, and we must leave the country immediately. There __________ no time to lose."
w   If this becomes known, you will __________ in a very awkward situation, and __________ forced to resign.
x   I __________ afraid she __________ out, but will __________ here any minute now. She must have forgotten that you __________ coming. She __________ so forgetful.
y   There __________ people who __________ suffering a lot because food __________ scarce.
z   Please __________ quiet. This __________ a library.


17. Exercici de revisió. (Tradueix les oracions següents a l'anglès.)
a   Tinc vint anys, i sóc alt.
b   No hi havia aigua, però hi havia uns carrassos de raïm.
c   M'encanta estar ací. La vista és preciosa.
d   Mai no tingues por.
e   Deu haver estat el vent.
f   Estan pintant la tanca. (= La tanca està essent pintada.)
g   Porten ací tota la vida. (= Han estat ací tota la vida.)
h   Hi ha hagut una fuga d'aigua.
i   Regava les plantes quan vas arribar a casa.
j   "ŋNo em fas un petó a la galta?" (= ŋNo tens la intenció de fer-me un petó a la galta?)
    "No, no te'l faig. Estic molt enutjada amb tu."
k   Estaven malalts ahir, però no hui.
l   Hi havia hagut un terratrèmol.
m   Potser estiga prenyada.
n   Crec que va ser ahir, però no n'estic segur. Pot haver estat despús-ahir.
o   ŋNo estàs cansat de fer tots els dies el mateix?
p   "ŋHi ha cervesa?"
    "No, no n'hi ha, però hi ha una mica de vi."
q   No ballaven. Cantaven.
r   Vam tenir molta sort de trobar aigua potable.
s   ŋEm perd alguna cosa?
t   No pot ser veritat. Ha de ser mentida.
u   No teníem fred. Teníem calor, i molta set.
v   Porta cura! És molt fràgil.
w   Hui és dimecres.
x   Tens raó. Tenim pressa.
y   "ŋQuin temps fa avui?"
    "Neva i fa molt de fred."
z   Ets escocès, ŋveritat?


1  Per a més informació, veges Els pronoms personals i els adjectius i pronoms possessius.
2  Nota que be going to significa "anar a": They are going to resign. (Tenen pensat dimitir / Aviat dimitiran / Volen dimitir / Tenen la intenció de dimitir / Literal: Van a dimitir.) Per a més informació sobre be going to, vés a la unitat 8.
3  En les respostes breus, no es contrau en afirmativa. Vegem el següent exemple:
    Are they your cousins?
    Yes, they are. (No podem dir "Yes, they're", car és una resposta breu.)
    No, they are not/No, they aren't/No, they're not. (És una resposta breu, però està en negativa.)
    Yes, they're my cousins/Yes, they are my cousins. (És una resposta llarga.)
4  Per a exercicis addicionals polsa ací.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
Polsa ací per a veure les respostes


1.  El verb "to be" (la clau)

2.  Els verbs modals "can" i "may" (la clau)

3.  El verb "have"

4.  Have to, must, need not, cannot i should

5.  El present simple i el present continu (o progressiu)

6.  El passat simple y el passat continu (o progressiu)

7.  El present perfect simple, el passat simple, el present perfect continu, el passat perfect simple i el passat perfect continu

8.  La perífrasi "be going to", el present continu i el futur simple

9.  Verbs irregulars

10.  Subordinades condicionals

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