Gramātica anglesa de nivell mitjā pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)
Posa els verbs entre parèntesis en la forma adequada.
El present perfect simple es forma amb have + participi de passat
. En la tercera persona del singular emprem has
en comptes de have
. Pel que fa al participi de passat, si el verb és regular, afegim -ed
; però, si és irregular, cal estudiar-se la llista de la unitat 9
Vegem ara la conjugació sencera de un verb regular i d'un altre d'irregular:
I have worked
you have worked
he has worked
she has worked
it has worked
we have worked
you have worked
they have worked
I have sung
you have sung
he has sung
she has sung
it has sung
we have sung
you have sung
they have sung
Per a contraure les formes de més amunt només cal canviar ha
per un apòstrof:
En la negativa, posem not
. En la interrogativa, have/has
va davant el subjecte.
He has worked today.
(afirmativa » Ha treballat avui.)
He has not worked today./He hasn't worked today.
Has he worked today?
We have sung two songs.
(afirmativa » Hem cantat dues cançons.)
We have not sung two songs./We haven't sung two songs.
Have we sung two songs?
She (be) here twice this year.
We (lose) our money.
They (live) here since 1990.
It (not stop) raining.
He (pass) his exams?
2. El passat simple
es va estudiar en la unitat anterior. Vegem els exemples següents de repàs:
They failed their examinations.
(afirmativa » Van suspendre els exàmens.)
They did not fail their examinations.
(negativa » No van suspendre els exàmens.)
Did they fail their examinations?
(interrogativa » ŋVan suspendre els exàmens?)
She went home late last night.
(afirmativa » Ella va arribar a casa tard anit.)
She didn't go home late last night.
(negativa » No va arribar a casa tard anit.)
Did she go home late last night?
(interrogativa » ŋVa arribar a casa tard anit?)
You (see) an enormous horse?
He (come) here on foot?
"Where you (meet) her?"
"I (meet) her on a beach last summer."
I (not know) you were getting married next month!
He (give) up smoking last year, but he (find) it very hard.
3. El present perfect simple s'usa per a accions que van començar en el passat i que es remunten fins al present. El present perfect simple es troba connectat amb el present, però el passat simple no hi té cap connexió. Exemples:
She studied Catalan last year. (Va estudiar català l'any passat. » Aquesta oració implica que ja no l'estudia. No té cap relació amb el present.)
She has studied Catalan since she was six. (Estudia/Porta estudiant/Ha estudiat català des dels 6 anys. » Encara l'estudia.)
a She (live) in London all her life, so if you go to London, don't forget to visit her.
b She (live) in London for a year, but (find) a job in Barcelona and (move) there.
c My father (use) to smoke like a chimney, but last year he (give) it up.
d My parents (smoke) since they were teenagers. I'd like them to stop smoking.
e "What do you do?"
"I'm a teacher. I (teach) maths for ten years."
4. L'estructura have just + participi de passat significa "acabar de":
She has just gone out. (Acaba de sortir / Acaba d'anar-se'n.)
They have just been expelled from the committee. (Els acaben d'expulsar del comitè./Acaben d'ésser expulsats del comitè.)
a We just (finish) supper, so we're not hungry.
b He just (phone) them. You don't have to ring them again.
c They just (tell) us that they won't come.
d It just (stop) snowing. Let's go out and make a snowman.
e I just (have) a puncture, but I don't have a spare wheel.
5. Utilitzem el present perfect per a indicar que quelcom no ha passat mai, quan no sabem si va ocórrer o no, o quan no s'especifica quan va succeir.
I have never drunk tequila. (No he begut mai tequila.)
Haven't we seen each other before?/Have we not seen each other before? (ŋNo ens hem vist abans?)
We have read this book. (Hem llegit aquest llibre.)
a We never (be) overseas, but we're planning to go to Africa next summer.
b He (write) an essay on medieval history.
c There (be) another earthquake in Mexico.
d "You (invite) her to your wedding?"
"Of course I have!"
e "Where you (be)?"
"I (be) at home the whole afternoon!"
6. Already, ever, lately, since, so far, up to now i yet solen anar en temps perfects. És bastant comú també amb la preposició for.
I haven't ridden a horse since I was a kid. (No he muntat a cavall des de petit.)
She hasn't talked to him lately. (No ha parlat amb ell darrerament.)
He hasn't had a romantic date for two years. (present perfect → for » Fa dos anys que no té cap cita romàntica.)
We stayed in Valencia for a week, and then went to Barcelona. (passat simple → for » Ens vam quedar una setmana a València, i després vam anar a Barcelona.)
a "You ever (meet) a famous person?"
"No, I haven't. And you?"
b We (sell) ten magazines so far."
c "You (do) your homework already?"
"Yes, I have."
"But ten minutes ago you had not even started!"
d Up to now he (not do) any mischief."
e "She (buy) that record yet?"
"No, not yet!"
7. Exercici de revisió.
a Her father (die) when she was at university. She (love) him a lot and (find) it very hard to get used to the idea of his death.
b The Beatles (make) many youngsters thrill.
c Mary (get) divorced and (marry) again in 1995. She (be) very unhappy with her former husband.
d I (not do) my homework yet, so I must go home now to do it.
e Amanda (be) connected to the Internet since early this morning. Please tell her to come downstairs and have lunch.
f "You (see) Mary today?"
"No, I (not see) her today. I (see) her yesterday."
g "You (not read) the newspaper yet?"
"No, I (not read) it. I (forget) to buy it this morning. When I went to the newsagent's this afternoon, there (be) none left."
h He (know) her for a long time. They're very close friends.
i Two of the murderers (be) caught so far.
j They (be) to the States many times. They love it.
k I'm afraid he's out. He just (leave).
l They never (fail) an exam. They're very intelligent and hard-working.
m We (have) that old car for twenty years now.
n "You (call) the fire brigade?"
"Not yet, but I'll do it now."
o Paul (play) truant last Wednesday morning.
p "You (not know) that he (be) abroad?"
"No, I didn't."
q Last night it (rain) cats and dogs.
r The play (begin) at seven o'clock and we (arrive) there at half past seven, so we (miss) the beginning.
s John (take) the kids to the zoo, but they'll come back soon.
t I (lose) my wallet. Can you help me to find it?
u We (spend) two days there a year ago.
v I (not pay) you last night because I (not have) any money on me.
w I (forget) to bring the onions, but I'll go to the shop round the corner and I'll buy some.
x They (not watch) their favourite soup opera yesterday because the electricity (go) off.
y "He (send) her a bunch of flowers on her birthday."
"When her birthday (be)?"
"Two weeks ago."
z We (not hold) last week's meeting because Mr Brown (have) an important appointment, and could not attend it.
El present perfect continu es forma amb have been + verb-ing
You haven't been studying. You've been reading comics.
(negativa, afirmativa » No estudiaves. Llegies còmics. » Literal: No has estat estudiant. Has estat llegint còmics.)
She has been working in this factory for two years.
(afirmativa » Fa dos anys que treballa en aquesta fàbrica.)
I know that we have not been doing the proper thing.
(negativa » Sé que no hem fet/hem estat fent el correcte.)
Have you been smoking? It smells of tobacco.
(interrogativa » ŋHas fumat/estat fumant? Fa olor de tabac.)
I (try) to solve the problem for the last twenty minutes, but I can't work it out.
You (cheat) me. This is intolerable.
He (smoke) that horrible cigar since he arrived. Can you tell him to put it out?
"They (sleep) for ten hours. Shall I wake them up?"
My mother (make) fairy cakes all morning. Would you like one?
De vegades, podem usar el present perfect simple i el continu indistintament: She has been working/She has worked here for twenty years now
. Ara bé, aço no és sempre possible. Vegem els exemples següents:
She has always lived in this house.
(Sempre ha viscut en aquesta casa. » En aquest cas, expressem una situació permanent. El present perfect continu no és possible ací.)
I have loved her since we were children.
(L'estime des de petits. » "Love" no va en temps continus
; per tant, no cal dir que només és possible el present perfect simple.)
He has been painting that wall.
(Ha estat pintant aqueixa paret. » Ací indiquem que la paret no s'ha acabat de pintar, o que la pintura no s'ha assecat encara.)
He has painted that wall.
(Ha pintat aqueixa paret » Però no ens diu quan. Pot ser que fins i tot la pintara la semana passada.)
He has painted two walls so far.
(Ha pintat dues parets fins ara. » Es menciona la quantitat.)
They (lie) on the beach all morning. Tell them to come and have a snack. They can get sunburnt if they spend so much time in the sun.
She (do) aerobics, and now wants to have a shower.
She always (believe) in you. Please don't let her down.
I (draw) a beautiful landscape. I'm going to give it to my girlfriend this evening. Do you like it?
We (study) English for two years now. Time flies.
10. Exercici de revisió.
a " How long you (learn) Esperanto?"
"I (learn) Esperanto since last year."
b Belinda (not shut) the door. She always leaves the door open.
c They (arrest) him two weeks ago.
d She (be) sent to prison. We must appeal against the sentence.
e My sister (type) all the afternoon. She (type) ten pages so far.
f I (fail) this exam many times. I think I'll never be able to pass it.
g It's the second time you (make) this mistake. You should pay more attention to what I say.
h You (pull) my leg since I arrived. Please stop pulling my leg once and for all.
i They (have) a car accident in June and are still in hospital.
j We never (reveal) a secret, so don't worry: your secret is save with us.
k "What you (do) since you (arrive)?"
"I (look) for you. Where you (be)?"
"We (walk) in the country."
l There (be) a slight increase in road accidents over the last two months. I suppose it is due to the holiday season.
m When I (visit) Africa, my life (change) completely. I (meet) my Mr Right and (get) married. Now I've got two children and am very happy.
n I (take) Arabic lessons for two years, but I find Arabic very difficult to learn.
o You (not say) anything in the last half hour. Are you cross with me?
p It (sleet) since early this morning. I wonder when it will stop.
q When Mary (come), he was writing a letter. He (stand) up and (give) her a kiss. Then he (continue) writing his letter.
r "You ever (write) a poem?"
"Well, I just (write) one. Would you like me to read it for you?"
s That night he (put) on his hat and (go) for a walk, but he never (return).
t You (not phone) me to say you weren't coming. You (have) me worried, as I (think) something bad had happened to you.
u The spaghetti that you (cook) on Monday (taste) delicious. It's the best spaghetti that I ever (have).
v She (dig) in the garden, which is why she is so dirty now.
w "Peter (come) home yet?"
"Yes, I think so. Why?"
"There's somebody at the door asking for him."
x I (fall) asleep during the film, so I (not see) the end, but I (be) so exhausted that my eyes wouldn't stay open.
y They (want) to engage me as a translator, but they (pay) so little that I (not accept) their offer.
z We (not earn) much money this month, and (spend) a lot. We should try to cut down our expenses if we don't want to go bankrupt.
11. El passat pefect simple es fa amb had + participi de passat:
He had done it/He'd done it. (afirmativa » Ho havia fet.)
We had not repaired the roof/We hadn't repaired the roof. (negativa » No havíem reparat la teulada.)
Hadn't they met before?/Had they not met before? (interrogativa negativa » ŋNo s'havien conegut abans?)
a When I got home, my mother (bake) some bread, so I had some.
b He said that she (perform) serveral miracles up to then, which is why she had so many followers.
c I never (come) across so big a snake in my whole life, so I was frightened to death.
d He told me that his mother (not be) able to come the day before because she was ill in bed.
e He wondered if they (go) to the party the previous night.
12. El passat perfect continu es fa amb had + been + verb-ing:
It had been raining. (afirmativa » Traducció literal: Havia estat plovent.)
We had not been watching TV./We hadn't been watching TV. (negativa » Traducció literal: No havíem estat veient la tele.)
Had they been running? (interrogativa » Traducció literal: ŋHavien estat corrent?)
a She (drive) all day, so she felt very tired, and decided to stop and spend the night on a motel.
b Paul (swim) quite a while because the water was warm and didn't want to get out of the swiming-pool.
c He said that she (play) the violin for hours on end and that it was about time for her to stop.
d He (talk) ill about Margaret since the beginning of the party, but when I told him that he shouldn't criticise her, as she was not present, he got angry and left.
e I said that he (speak) all the time and that he should let the others speak, but he took no notice and went on speaking.
13. El passat perfect simple i el continu són els passats del present perfect simple i el continu. Per tant, les regles que acabem d'esmentar per als temps presents s'apliquen també als respectius passats.
They have never been to London. (present perfect simple » No han estat a Londres mai.)
He has been singing. (present perfect continu » Ha estat cantant.)
They had never been to London. (passat perfect simple » No havien estat a Londres mai.)
He had been singing. (passat perfect continu » Havia estat cantant.)
A més, cal tenir en compte que el passat perfect simple o continu és més passat que el passat simple o continu. Ho podem representar de la manera següent:
— — — ↓ — — — — — ↓ — — — — ↓ — —
(passat perfect) ← (passat) ← (present)
Vegem uns exemples ilˇlustratius ara:
When Mary got to the bus station, her bus had already left. (Quan Mary va arribar a l'estació d'autobusos, l'autobús ja havia sortit » És a dir, l'autobús va eixir abans que ella arribara.)
When I dropped in on them, they had finished dinner and were having a cosy chat and some brandy. (Quan els vaig visitar, havien acabat de sopar i teníen una conversa agradable mentre prenien una mica de conyac.)
When I went home, I could perceive a delicious smell: my mother had been making apple jam. (Quan vaig anar a casa, feia una olor molt bona: ma mare havia estat fent melmelada de poma.)
a The course (start) that day, and none of us ever (fly) a plane.
b I got my hands dirty because I (repair) the car.
c He shouted at me because I (forget) my book at home.
d Thomas (cheat) at cards, but they discovered it and forced him to give them back their money.
e When he entered the garage, his dad (mend) his bike, so they went for a ride on their bikes immediately.
14. Exercici de revisió.
a Margaret (stay) up that night because his little son (fall) ill.
b They dismissed us from our jobs because he (let) the cat out of the bag and (say) that we (rob) the company.
c They (play) cards all night. For this reason, James (want) to stop, but John didn't, as he (lose) a fortune.
d I wanted to take my car, but then I remember that I (leave) the car keys at home, so I (have) to take a bus.
e Constance (come) twice this morning. She said that she will come back at half past eleven.
f It (snow) since ten o'clock. I hope it will stop soon because it will ruin my crops if it doesn't.
g I (not have) to wake her up yesterday because she already (get) up.
h She (escape) from jail last night, and nobody (see) her yet. She must be hidden somewhere.
i Somebody (steal) her purse while she was walking across this park.
j The priest (paint) the pew, so I got my clothes dirty. He should have written a notice warning that the paint was still wet.
k When the police (get) there, the robbers already (rob) the bank and (leave). The police (look) for them everywhere, but they (be) nowhere to be found, so they (run) away with the money. This (occur) ten years ago, and they still (not be) caught. I do not think the police will ever catch them after such a long time.
l I (see) her many times, but we never (be) introduced. I suppose she lives near by.
m "What a bad odour!"
"I (make) pickled sardines. Don't you like them?"
n It is thought that Noah (build) an ark to save his family and a pair of every sort of animal from perishing in the Flood.
o My son (not sleep) at home last night, and still (not show) up. Maybe he (have) an accident with his motorbike.
p You (not follow) my advice last week, and they (fire) you. I (tell) you this would happen.
q "I (not put) on this suit yesterday evening because it (be) creased, since my mother (not iron) it."
"You could have ironed it yourself! That's not a good excuse."
r I (read) this passage at least ten times, but I still don't understand it. Could you explain it to me?
s "I'd like to watch TV, but the television set is broken."
"He (mend) it, so you can watch it."
t "I'm going to take the car."
"You aren't going to take it: you (drink) a lot and are very drunk."
u When he (tell) his parents that he (fail) his driving test, they got very angry with him.
v He (smoke) again lately because of his wife's sudden death. He can't get used to the idea of her death. He (adore) her.
w We (not realise) what was going on until Ann (burst) into laughter.
x She (divorce) him because she (think) that he was seeing another woman.
y My doctor said that I (have) the attack of indigestion because I (overeat), and that I should stop eating so much.
z We (go) out together since I (come) to this city. We want to marry next autumn.