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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell mitjà pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)


     UNITAT 10


   Posa els verbs entre parèntesis en la forma adequada.


1. Hi ha tres tipus d'oracions subordinades condicionals. El primer es construeix de la manera següent: if1 (present), (will + infinitiu2) o (will + infinitiu) if (present). Aquest tipus s'usa per a indicar que quelcom és possible, probable o real.
   If we have time, we will pay you a visit. (Si tenim temps, et farem una visita.)

a  If you (buy) me a beer, I (help) you with your homework.
b  If he (be) punctual, we (catch) the 10.45 train.
c  If it has stopped raining, I (show) you round town.
d  You (arrive) late if you (not hurry) up.
e  If it (continue) to snow, we (not be) able to go there today.


2. Hi ha també les combinacions següents dins el primer tipus:
   If you want a kiss, come here. (if (present), (imperatiu3) » Si vols un petó, vine ací.)
   Don't do it if you're not sure. ((imperatiu) if (present) » No ho faces si no estàs segur.)
   Metals expand4 if they're heated. (un fet universal→if (present), (present) » Els metalls es dilaten si s'escalfen.)
   If (=whenever) she comes in, he (always) goes out. (un hàbit→if (present), (present) » Si ella hi entra, ell (sempre) hi surt / Cada vegada que ella hi entra, ell (sempre) hi surt.)
   You can stay here if you like. (En lloc de will, podem emprar un altre modal. » T'hi pots quedar si vols.)

a  Metals (contract) if they (be) cooled.
b  (not stand) up if you (be) tired.
c  If I (go) home late, my parents often (get) angry.
d  (sit) down if you (want) to take another tea.
e  If it (be) hot, we usually (spend) the day on the beach.


3. Pel que fa al segon tipus, l'utilitzem per a indicar que quelcom és improbable o irreal, i té l'estructura següent: if (passat), (would + infinitiu) o (would + infinitiu) if (passat).
   If I were5 you, I would6 tell the truth. (Jo en el teu cas, diria la veritat.)
   If she were here, she would know what to do. (Si ella estiguera ací, sabria què fer.)
   I'd buy a big house if I won the lottery. (Em compraria una casa gran si em tocara la loteria.)

a  If it (not be) raining cats and dogs, I (go) with you.
b  What you (do) if you (see) a burglar at home?
c  If he (has) the answer, he (not share) it.
d  If Lionel (get) to know this, he (ruin) your marriage.
e  You (have) to obey me if your dad (be) here.


4. El tercer tipus es refereix al passat, i el passat no el podem canviar. Per això, l'anomenem "condicional impossible". Té la forma següent: if (passat perfect7), (would have + participi de passat) o (would have + participi de passat) if (passat perfect).
   If she had been here, we would have won the match. (Si hagués estat ací, hauríem guanyat el partit.)
   They could8 have helped us if they hadn't had the accident. (Ens haurien pogut ajudar / Podrien haver-nos ajudat si no haguessen tingut l'accident.)

a  If you (love) them, you (not abandon) them.
b  If Mary (be) in, she (answer) the phone.
c  They (not run) out of petrol if they (fill) their car in.
d  If he (express) his feelings, he (not lose) her.
e  If I (not have) an important meeting, I (take) you out to dinner last night, but I couldn't skip that meeting.


5. Si volem connectar quelcom present o futur amb quelcom passat, podem mesclar els tipus dos i tres, com s'ha fet als exemples de davall:
   If you had drunk that, you would be dead now. (Si t'hagueres begut això, ara series mort.)
   If my son were ill, I would have noticed. (Si mon fill estiguera malalt, me n'hauria adonat.)

a  I (be) rich now if I (marry) him then.
b  I (take) the dog out to do his business tomorrow morning if you (lend) me a hand this morning.
c  If they (need) your help now, they (say) something about it before they left.
d  If you (not tell) anybody as I told you, we (not be) in such an embarrassing situation now.
e  If he (not study), he (not be) the chairman of this company now.


6. Completa les oracions condicionals següents:
a  If there is another strike, we...
b  If it weren't sprinkling with rain, we...
c  He wouldn't be so unhappy if...
d  They would have come if...
e  If I were you, I...
f  If it hadn't been for you, I...
g  I could have helped you if...
h  She may forget about it if...
i  Your marks are very poor. You'll have to repeat the year unless...
j  I'll lend him my car provided that...
k  Nobody will know our secret so long as you...
l  If you play truant again, you...
m  If he hadn't been driving so fast, he...
n  If they fired me, I...
o  If he hadn't caught me red-handed,...
p  If I hadn't entered that disco then,...
q  If it continues without raining, our crops...
r  They'd give you a bonus if...
s  If it weren't for her, they...
t  We would have arrived at the meeting in good time if...
u  My parents often get cross with me if I...
v  Don't let the cat out of the bag again if you...
w  He may find out the truth if...
x  Life would have been much harder for him if...
y  If you need more money,...
z  If you say that again,...


7. Torna a escriure les oracions de més avall amb if, i sense alterar el significat.
   I'm tired, so I won't dance.
   If I weren't tired, I'd dance.

a  It's spitting with rain, so I won't go out.
b  Tell me what happened or I'll get angry.
c  The reason why she was so sad was that her husband had abandoned her.
d  Either you keep your mouth shut, or you'll get into trouble.
e  She couldn't attend the reception because she was ill in bed.
f  I think you should drink less.
g  He made a lot of mistakes in his composition, so he failed.
h  He lives abroad, so we seldom see each other.
i  Visit us some time next week, and we'll take you sightseeing.
j  Put this record on and I'll dance with you.
k  I can't go there with you because I have a lot of things to do.
l  Your stomach aches so terribly because you didn't follow my advice last night.
m  We didn't buy the flat, as it was extremely expensive.
n  Keep calm. It'll do you good.
o  He's so lonely because he's very selfish.
p  They used low-quality materials to build the house, so they will have to pull it down now.
q  In my opinion, you should sell the house at a cheaper price.
r  The neighbours' dog kept on barking the whole night, so I didn't sleep a wink.
s  I don't want to go for a swim because it's rather chilly outside.
t  I didn't go to school today because I have an awful headache.
u  I'm afraid of spiders, so I was very frightened.
v  I didn't say hello to you because I didn't see you.
w  I don't travel very often. I'm very poor.
x  He robbed a bank, so he was arrested.
y  I conquered her heart thanks to you.
z  I was infatuated with her, which is why I covered up for her.


1  Si escrivim primer l'oració subordinada condicional, posem una coma abans de començar la principal, però no, al contrari:
   If we begin now, we will finish before dark. (Si comencen ara, acabarem abans que es faça fosc.)
   We will finish before dark if we begin now. (acabarem abans que es faça fosc si comencen ara.)

   Hi ha altres alternatives a if:
   If she doesn't help me, I won't be able to go. (Si no m'ajuda, no podré anar-hi.)
   Unless she helps me, I won't be able to go. (A no ser que m'ajude, no podré anar-hi.)
   I'll go if he shuts up. (Hi aniré si calla.)
   I'll go provided (that) / providing (that) / as long as / so long as he shuts up. (Hi aniré a(mb la) condició que / sempre que / mentre calle.)

   En preguntas, només l'oració principal va en interrogativa:
   Will he come if it rains? (Vindrà si plou?)
   If it rains, will he come? (Si plou, vindrà?)
2  Will té la forma contracta 'll, i will not, won't.
3  Els imperatius són ordres, peticions, etc. Es caracteritzen perquè no es menciona el subjecte.
4  Will expand és possible també, però menys usual: Metals will expand if they are heated.
5  Observa que en aquest tipus de condicional fem servir were per a totes les persones, almenys en un estil més formal.
6  La forma contracta de would és 'd. En comptes de would podem fer ús d'altres modals en condicional, com ara could o might, però amb matisos de significat.
7  Veges la unitat 7, seccions 11 i 12 per a més informació sobre el passat perfect continu.
8  Nota que en compte de would caben altres verbs modals en condicional, però aquests aporten matisos diferents.
Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez
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