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Gramātica anglesa de nivell mitjā pas a pas (Intermediate English Grammar Step by Step)

 

     UNITAT 9
     VERBS IRREGULARS

 

Versiķ compacta

 

infinitiu passat simple participi de passat traducciķ1
arise arose arisen sorgir, presentar-se
awake awoke awoken despertar(-se)
be was, were been (és)ser/estar
beat beat beaten pegar, copejar
become became become convertir(-se) en, fer-se, tornar-se
begin began begun comenįar
bend bent bent doblegar(-se)
bet bet bet apostar
bind bound bound lligar, enquadernar
bite bit bitten mossegar, picar
bleed bled bled sagnar
blow blew blown bufar
break broke broken trencar
breed bred bred criar, reproduir-se
bring brought brought portar
broadcast broadcast broadcast emetre, transmetre
build built built construir
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned cremar(-se)2
burst burst burst esclatar, rebentar-(se)
buy bought bought comprar
cast cast cast llanįar, tirar, assignar
catch caught caught agafar
choose chose chosen escollir
cling clung clung agafar-se, aferrar-se
come came come venir o vindre
cost cost cost costar
creep crept crept arrossegar-se
cut cut cut tallar
deal dealt dealt tractar, comerciar
dig dug dug cavar
do did done fer
draw drew drawn dibuixar
dream dreamt, dreamed dreamt, dreamed somiar
drink drank drunk beure
drive drove driven conduir
dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled viure, habitar
eat ate eaten menjar
fall fell fallen caure('s)
feed fed fed alimentar, nodrir
feel felt felt sentir-se
fight fought fought lluitar, barallar(-se)
find found found trobar
flee fled fled fugir
fling flung flung llanįar, fer quelcom rāpidament
fly flew flown volar
forbid forbad(e) forbidden prohibir
forget forgot forgotten oblidar(-se['n])
forgive forgave forgiven perdonar
freeze froze frozen gelar(-se), congelar(-se)
get got got aconseguir, fer-se
give gave given donar
go went gone anar(-se'n)
grind ground ground moldre
grow grew grown créixer, cultivar, fer-se
hang hung hung penjar3
have had had haver, tenir
hear heard heard escoltar
hide hid hidden amagar(-se), ocultar(-se)
hit hit hit pegar, copejar
hold held held agafar(-se), celebrar
hurt hurt hurt fer mal
keep kept kept mantenir, guardar
kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled agenollar(-se)
know knew known saber, cončixer
lay laid laid posar, estendre, apostar
lead led led conduir, llevar
lean leant, leaned leant, leaned inclinar(-se)
leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped saltar
learn learnt, learned learnt, learned aprendre, esbrinar
leave left left deixar, abandonar, anar-se'n
lend lent lent deixar, prestar
let let let deixar, permetre
lie lay lain ajeure's, gitar-se, estar4
light lit, lighted lit, lighted encendre('s), ilˇluminar5
lose lost lost perdre
make made made fer, fabricar
mean meant meant significar, voler dir
meet met met trobar(-se), cončixer(-se)
mistake mistook mistaken equivocar(-se), confondre('s)
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood entendre o interpretar malament
oversleep overslept overslept adormir-se, quedar-se dormint
overtake overtook overtaken avanįar, passar al davant, sorprendre
pay paid paid pagar
put put put posar
quit quit, quitted quit, quitted deixar (de), dimitir, anar-se'n6
read read read llegir
ride rode ridden muntar, anar amb
ring rang rung sonar, tocar, trucar, telefonar
rise rose risen sortir, augmentar, alįar-se
run ran run cķrrer
saw sawed sawn serrar
say said said dir
see saw seen veure
seek sought sought buscar
sell sold sold vendre('s)
send sent sent enviar
set set set posar, situar, fixar
sew sewed sewn cosir
shake shook shaken sacsejar, tremolar
shed shed shed mudar, vessar, desprendre's
shine shone shone brillar
shoe shod shod ferrar
shoot shot shot disparar
show showed shown mostrar, ensenyar
shrink shrank shrunk encongir(-se)
shut shut shut tancar(-se)
sing sang sung cantar
sink sank sunk enfonsar(-se), sumir(-se)
sit sat sat asseure('s)
slay slew slain matar, assassinar
sleep slept slept dormir
slide slid slid relliscar, esvarar(-se)
sling slung slung llanzar
slink slunk slunk escapolir-se
slit slit slit tallar
smell smelt, smelled smelt, smelled olorar
smite smote smitten remordir, afligir
speak spoke spoken parlar
spell spelt, spelled spelt, spelled lletrejar
spend spent spent passar, gastar
spill spilt, spilled spilt, spilled vessar(-se)
spin spun spun (fer) girar, giravoltar, donar voltes
spit spat spat escopir
split split split dividir(-se), partir(-se)
spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled fer malbé, malcriar
spread spread spread estendre('s), propagar(-se), untar(-se)
spring sprang sprung saltar, brollar
stand stood stood estar dempeus, posar, tolerar
steal stole stolen robar
stick stuck stuck enganxar(-se), posar, clavar
sting stung stung picar, coure
stink stank, stunk (US) stunk pudir, empestar
strew strewed strewn, strewed escampar, espargir, cobrir
stride strode stridden fer passes llargues, fer camades / gambades
strike struck struck copejar, pegar, tocar (l'hora)
string strung strung enfilar, encordar
strive strove striven escarrassar-se, esforįar-se
swear swore sworn jurar, blasfemar, dir paraulotes
sweep swept swept agranar
swell swelled swollen inflar-(se)
swim swam swum nedar
swing swung swung balancejar(-se), engronsar-se, gronxar-se
take took taken agafar(-se), prendre('s), portar, emportar-se
teach taught taught ensenyar
tear tore torn trencar(-se), esquinįar(-se)
tell told told contar, dir
think thought thought pensar, creure
throw threw thrown llanįar, tirar
thrust thrust thrust clavar, ficar, empčnyer
tread trod trodden trepitjar
undergo underwent undergone sofrir, passar per
understand understood understood entendre
undertake undertook undertaken emprendre
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen descongelar(-se)
unwind unwound unwound relaxar-se, desenrotllar(-se), descargolar(-se)
upset upset upset trasbalsar, disgustar, regirar, fer mal
wake woke woken despertar(-se)
wear wore worn dur (posat), desgastar(-se)
weave wove woven teixir, entreteixir
wed wed, wedded wed, wedded casar(-se) (amb)
weep wept wept plorar
win won won guanyar, tocar
wind wound wound enrotllar, serpentejar, donar corda a
withdraw withdrew withdrawn retirar(-se), treure
wring wrung wrung retōrcer, escķrrer
write wrote written escriure

 

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1  Cal tenir en compte que només s'hi han posat alguns significats. Si vols informaciķ més detallada, consulta un bon diccionari.

2   Alguns verbs (com ara burn, dream, dwell, etc.) tenen formes regulars i irregulars indistintament. No obstant aixō, en anglčs britānic solen emprar-se les formes irregulars, i en americā, les regulars.

3  Hang és regular amb el significat de "penjar-se", és a dir, el passat i el participi de passat es formen amb -ed: hanged.

4  Lie quan significa "mentir" és regular: lied (passat i participi de passat).

5  En anglčs britānic, el passat i el participi de passat és normalment lit. Lighted s'usa davant d'n nom: a lighted cigarette (una cigarreta encesa).

6  Quitted s'utilitza principalment en anglčs britānic.

Autor: Miquel Molina i Diez

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