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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell avançat pas a pas (English Grammar Step by Step)

 

     UNIT 10 - Page 2
     PERSONAL PRONOUNS, POSSESSIVES AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS



   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

11 Examples: (reflexive pronouns)
   I didn't enjoy myself at the party.
   You are always looking at yourself in the mirror.
   He is always feeling sorry for himself.
   She helped herself to a piece of chocolate cake.
   The house itself is very small.
   We revised it ourselves/We ourselves revised it.
   Make yourselves comfortable, boys.
   They built their house themselves/They themselves built the house.


   Reflexive pronouns relate to the subject of the sentence; hence the the subject of the sentences agrees with the reflexive pronoun in number and gender, as in the above examples. However, a reflexive pronoun may also refer to an object: I saw the king (object) himself at the palace.

a  My mother told me to behave __________.
b  You're always flaunting __________! I'm afraid to tell you that you are quite plain.
c  If you don't look after __________, you will have health trouble in the near future.
d  Everybody thinks he has a screw loose because he's always talking to __________; but I daresay he is the sanest person on earth.
e  I cut __________ when I was chopping an onion into small pieces.


12 Example:
   The Queen herself was at the demonstration.

   Reflexive pronouns can mean "personally" or "in person", that is, they act as intensifiers.

a  I'll stick to the rules __________.
b  The King __________ will propose the new candidate.
c  Mrs Spenser __________ came to see me.
d  He will put her out of the job __________.
e  They bought these fresh eggs __________.


13 Examples:
   I enjoy travelling on my own. (on + a possessive adjective + own)
   I enjoy travelling by myself. (by + reflexive pronoun)

   On my own and by myself are synonyms. They mean "alone" or without help".

a  My sister is only eight years of age. She has painted this picture all by __________.
b  This machine switches on all by __________. You only have to programme it to come on at a certain time.
c  He likes being all on __________ own.
d  They say that they would love to live on __________ own, but that they can't, since they're under age.
e  We built this mountain shelter by __________, which protects us from rain and snow whenever we come here to climb.


14 Example:
   Tim wrote the book himself/Tim himself wrote the book.

   This sentence mean that he did not obtain any outside help.

a  Our butler __________ made this cake. He's a very good cook.
b  My nephew __________ took in this suit a bit.
c  The sentry __________ stopped the three enemies from entering the fort.
d  My daughter made this perfume __________. Doesn't it smell great?
e  Our children painted this cupboard __________.


15 Revision exercise.
a  If anybody sees me talking to an invisible woman, they'll think I'm speaking to __________. So we'd better not talk in public places.
b  __________ pretends to be a rough boy; but, actually, __________ isn't.
c  A new opportunity presented __________ to her, and she seized __________ with both hands.
d  The quest for immortality has been one of the principal issues in the human race throughout the centuries. Some of __________ find it necessary to have children because it is a good way of continuing __________ lineage, of transmitting __________ genes to __________ offspring. Others search for __________ through art or investigation. As a case in point, we could mention Antoni Gaudí i Cornet, who built La Sagrada Família, one of the most symbolic monuments in Catalan culture. __________ will never die. People will remember __________ through __________, since this great work of art is a pride for the Catalan nation.
e  Other people try to find immortality through religion. __________ think that there will be another life, better than the one __________ are living presently.
f  "Whose car is this?"
   "It's __________. I bought __________ yesterday. Do __________ like __________?"
   "Yes, __________ do. Would __________ mind giving __________ a ride?"
   "Of course not. Get in. Where do __________ want to go?"
   "Anywhere."
g  Mr Taylor warned __________ about the fire. But for __________, we would be dead now.
h  His spouse __________ poisoned him.
i  The Blakes will supply __________ with drinks and sandwiches if we pay __________ in advance.
j  I feel contempt for Mr and Mrs Johnson, since __________ are the most dishonest people __________ have ever met.
k  Miss Spenser is always talking to __________. It is said __________ has got a screw loose.
l  "I think the Duncans have cleaned out the department store next door. __________ are professional thieves."
   "__________ think __________ should give __________ the benefit of the doubt.
m  "You should bear in mind that second-hand car prices have plummeted recently. This is why __________ can only offer __________ a thousand pounds for __________ old car."
   "But __________ is only four years old!"
   "Well, __________ take __________ or leave __________."
   "__________ think __________ will try another dealer."
n  "Have you heard the latest news about Miss Squire?"
   "__________ was run down by a truck for all __________ know."
o  I have no time for pedantic people. __________ send me up the wall.
p  "Would you like __________ to refresh __________ memory?"
   "No, you don't have to."
q  "Which of you hinted that we had cleared them out at cards?"
   "__________, as I saw __________ with __________ own eyes."
r  My son always keeps __________ nose to the grindstone. __________ is beloved by __________ workmates and by __________ employer.
s  Ms King says that __________ wants to be by __________.
t  "Who is it?"
   "It's __________. Come on, open the door once and for all!"
u  Everyone got on the bus, didn't __________?
v  We had a flat of __________ own.
w  The President of the USA __________ was for her proposal.
x  Somebody called her a little rascal, and __________ smiled at __________.
y  Mrs Curtis is very ugly, but Mr Curtis is even uglier, so __________ is not so ugly as __________.
z  I need a bathroom to __________. I don't like to share with anybody.


16 Example:
   He shaves every morning.

   Reflexive pronouns are not often used to refer to actions we generally do, unless we want to give a special emphasis to the action itself: My daughter dresses herself, and she is only four years of age. An exception to this is the verb dry: He dried himself (off) with a towel. It is worth mentioning as well that a few verbs do not take reflexive pronouns, e.g. concentrate and relax: If you don't concentrate on your studies, you'll fail.

a  After I get up __________, I wash __________, and have breakfast __________.
b  Take this towel, and dry __________.
c  I think you should relax __________.
d  Mr Woods never washes __________. He smells very bad.
e  Martha never makes __________ up.


17 Examples:
   John and Anne love each other9.
   We love them.
   She only loves herself.


   The first sentence implies a reciprocal action, ie a mutual action; or in other words: John loves Anne, and Anne loves John. The second example denotes that the action expressed by the subject falls on other people or things. The third instance states a reflexive action, since herself refers back to she.

a  We write to __________ once a week. We love __________ very much.
b  She is very vain. She's constanly looking at __________ in the mirror. She doesn't care about other people. In my opinion, she only thinks of __________.
c  We send __________ presents at Christmas. Last year I sent __________ a ball, and he sent __________ a talking doll.
d  They kissed __________ on both cheeks whenever they met (__________).
e  Her father has been overseas for ten years. She always sends __________ a photograph of her at Christmas.


18 Revision exercise.
a  I've just taken one of these tablets, and __________ head is spinning round.
b  She made this colander __________. Isn't __________ lovely?
c  He loved my niece a lot, and now __________ can't get __________ out of __________ mind.
d  The garden __________ is immense. That house is a genuine bargain.
e  __________ doctor first told her that __________ was carrying twins, but when __________ was told that __________ was carrying triplets, it left __________ speechless.
f  I don't know what is happening to us, but now __________ hardly talk to __________.
g  Words fail __________. I can't express how happy __________ am.
h  Glow-worms are my favourite insects, since __________ produce a betwiching green light at night.
i  The first time __________ eyes met, we felt a marvellous sensation. I reckon __________ was love, love at first sight.
j  Don't worry; __________ bark is worse that __________ bite. She's not that bad!
k  The raiders were not caught, because __________ managed to get to Mexico.
l  __________ is on the tip of my tongue!
m  She had breakfast all by __________.
n  As it was Eliza's birthday, everybody drank to __________ health.
o  She told me that she had sworn on __________ mother's grave that __________ would never marry again, but that __________ had broken __________ promise when __________ married me.
p  If we don't clip __________ wings, they will cause __________ a lot of trouble.
q  She took __________ by the arm, and __________ went out of the building. He was very happy because __________ were together again.
r  The first time he saw her, __________ was leaning out of a window. Such was __________ beauty that he thought __________ had seen a deity. The next day, he went to the same place at the same time to see if __________ goddess was leaning out of the window, but __________ wasn't.
s  I like working on __________ own.
t  They used to write to __________ every week. They were very good friends.
u  If you don't relax __________, __________ will fall ill.
v  He hates eating by __________.
w  The mayoress __________ open the ceremony.
x  Nobody except __________ ate the set dinner, which is why they got poisoned, but he didn't.
y  "My father has a lot of reponsibility on __________ shoulders. __________ is a very important politician. How about yours?"
   "Well, __________ is a sweeper. __________ sweeps and cleans the streets. Thanks to people like __________, __________ streets are cleaned, so __________ is a person with a lot of responsibility as well.
z  To __________ mind, Picasso is the best cubist painter. I like __________ paintings very much.


____________________
9  Formerly, each other related to two people or things; and one another, to more than two. Nowadays this distinction is no longer in use, that is, both terms can be used as synonyms. Still, one another probably retains a more general sense: People should help one another.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2 and the key

   Contents

   Introduction

   Notes

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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