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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell avançat pas a pas (English Grammar Step by Step)

 

     UNIT 14 - Page 2
     A, AN, SOME, ANY, NO, NOT, NONE, EACH, EVERY AND THE; COMPOUNDS OF SOME, ANY, NO AND EVERY



   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

17 Revision exercise.
a  They didn't set __________ trap for mice.
b  If __________ student should fail, he or she will have another opportunity in September.
c  I detest __________ fleas.
d  __________ houseflies are really a nuisance.
e  His daughter's __________ lovely creature.
f  There are __________ dragonflies in the garden.
g  They didn't observe __________ lack of confidence.
h  __________ mallet will do.
i  There's __________ inn near here.
j  We haven't reached __________ the peaks we wanted to.
k  __________ copper is used in electrical equipment.
l  I haven't got __________ low-heeled shoes. Do you have __________? I need __________ for tomorrow's party.
m  __________ lady told him that he was in danger. (= __________ unknown lady told him that he was in danger.)
n  Have you got __________ friends here? __________ friend of mine told me that you have.
o  No-one found __________ bolt on the floor.
p  She asked me whether __________ us had seen the head-on collision between the two lorries.
q  "Do you fancy __________ sweets?"
   "Yes, please."
r  She's __________ European citizen.
s  They gave him __________ honorific title.
t  When I reached home, I could perceive __________ horrid smell.
u  __________ us have come to the conclusion that it's not worth the hassle.
v  You can ring __________ us at __________ time you need a friend.
w  It's __________ oak tree.
x  We employed __________ these materials to reinforce the roof of our cottage.
y  This job does not require __________ experience. Anybody can do it.
z  There aren't __________ compasses.


18 Examples:
   When he died, he left no children.
   We have no time to lose.
   No employee should enter this area.


   No4 means "not any" or "not a". No is followed by a noun (and sometimes, by an adjective); if we use a determiner + a noun, not must be used: Not a single mistake should be allowed. No cannot act as a pronoun; instead, we have to use none:
     "Have you got any cocktail sticks?"
     "No, I'm afraid we have none left/No, I'm afraid we haven't got any left."
     I have looked for toothpicks everywhere in the house, but I have found none/..., but I have not found any.

   For none, see unit 15, section 1.

a  No, there are __________ felt-tip pens left/No, there are __________ left/No, there aren't __________ left.
b  There was __________ train to that village yesterday night, so we stayed here.
c  __________ prisoner should leave this enclosure.
d  No, they have __________ furniture in the house/No, they have __________ in the house/No, they haven't got __________ in the house.
e  __________ many people attended the reception.


19 Example:
   Some thirty wizards assembled there.

   Some here means "more or less", "approximately", "about".

a  We carried out __________ two thousand urine tests.
b  I used __________ fifty safety pins.
c  __________ four million pounds were taken from the company's funds.
d  She said "the snow blinds me" for __________ ten times.
e  He told her __________ fifteen dirty jokes yesterday evening.


20 Example:
   She stayed for some weeks.

   The above sentence means that she stayed for quite a long time.

a  She's been waiting for him for __________ hours.
b  They have been running for __________ time. They have an incredible resistance.
c  They walked for __________ miles before they were able to find water.
d  It was __________ months later when he realized he couldn't live without her.
e  We have known each other for __________ years.


21 Examples:
   Some intervention she made!
   He's some worse now.
   Some friend he is! He never does me a favour.


   In the first instance, some means "important"; in the second, "a little"; in the third, it expresses irritation.

a  __________ help they are! They never do anything in the house.
b  "How are you?"
  "I'm feeling __________ better now, thank you."
c  __________ people they are! They ripped off my calculator.
d  That was __________ snack!
e  __________ hope it is!


22 Revision exercise.
a  __________ people think my half-sister is a dear, others don't.
b  This medical treatment will do you __________ good. (= It is useless.)
c  This treatment will not do you __________ good. (= It is useless.)
d  We caught __________ eighty tarantulas.
e  __________ help you are! You've been lying on the grass for the last three hours!
f  The weightlifter lifted up __________ pounds. It amazed everybody.
g  They've got __________ blankets, but not enough.
h  __________ school you sent me to! It was dreadful!
i  We saw __________ the exhibits, but not all of them.
j  She avoided __________ comment(s) on my style of dress.
k  She made __________ comment about his eyesight. (= She did not say anything about it.)
l  If __________ you is interested in this matter, please let me know.
m  We didn't buy __________ cheap outfit.
n  Is there __________ cheese? (= I'd like __________.)
o  Is there __________ cheese? (= I'm going shopping, and if there isn't __________, I'll buy __________.)
p  This word should be written with __________ r at the end.
q  You have committed __________ sins, but I haven't committed __________.
r  We didn't find __________ gold last week.
s  She failed her examination because she made __________ twenty mistakes in her written paper.
t  He'd been running for __________ kilometres when he fell dizzy.
u  __________ a soul was found in the street.
v  She usually uses __________ overhead projector in her classes.
w  She sells __________ daisies.
x  You can give me __________ these photographs. (= I don't mind which one you give me.)
y  __________ hour __________ (= per or each) day will be enough.
z  The van was __________ write-off after being involved in __________ collision with __________ tow truck.


23 Examples:
   We test each bulletproof vest.
   Every professional football player has to train regularly.

   Sometimes it does not really matter whether we use each or every, but there is a difference in meaning. Each carries the idea of "one by one". Every implies that something is regarded collectively. The first example is equivalent to Bulletproof vests are tested one by one. Instead of the second example, we could have said All professional football players have to train regularly. We say every single day, nearly every day, and so forth, which is due to the fact that we consider the items as a group: I come here nearly every day/practically every day. And last but not least, each refers to two or more people or things; and every, to three or more: Each parent is essential in the education of a child. We cannot say Every parent is essential in the education of a child, since we have only two parents.

a  I work __________ night, as I'm a nightwatchman.
b  __________ student will have to take an oral exam.
c  __________ cerebral hemisphere controls different parts of our body.
d  They go to Eivissa __________ year, since they love its sun and beaches.
e  She shouts at me almost __________ time we meet.


24 Examples:
   Each of them loves noodle soup.
   Each of our kids got poor marks at school.
   Our friends have each bought a very large Elizabethan house.
   He paid us ten pounds each/He paid each of us ten pounds/He
   paid us each ten pounds.
   They have ten dogs, and each (one) has its kennel.


   In the above examples, each is not a determiner, but an indefinite pronoun. Therefore, every is not possible. Each may also be used as an indefinite adverb: These paintbrushes are/cost £1 each. Notice the following sentence as well: Each and every one of them had to pay the fine, which emphasizes the idea of "one by one". Note also the reciprocal pronoun each other: We see each other at the weekend. For more details about the usage of each other, see unit 10, section 17.

a  We went to ten used-car dealers, and __________ them told us that our car was worthless.
b  She gave them __________ a kiss.
c  These croissants are 20p __________.
d  __________ you should take things easy.
e  __________ and every one of us cannot stand the sight of powerful people destroying the Earth.


25 Revision exercise.
a  There's __________ uniform left.
b  She tried on __________ one-piece swimsuit.
c  __________ twin has his own bed.
d  She told __________ her pupils the truth. (But not to all of them.)
e  We need __________ barbed wire to fence our thatched cottage.
f  My godson gave __________ the girls a bun.
g  A couple of swallows builds a nest on the roof ledge of our hayloft __________ summer.
h  They didn't serve us __________ lobster.
i  She's __________ real raver.
j  You're __________ early bird!
k  I don't see __________ idlers. Everybody is working hard.
l  "Have you seen __________ good films on the telly recently?"
  "No, I haven't."
m  __________ these pastry brushes will be all right. (= It does not matter which one we take.)
n  We have __________ time to lose. If we don't hurry, we'll be in dire straits.
o  She learnt __________ word of his letter by heart.
p  I think of you __________ single minute.
q  I wanted to have all my wisdom teeth extracted, but my dentist didn't pull __________ them. She told me that my gums were infected, and that they had to be desinfected before pulling the teeth.
r  I sent them __________ __________ postcard.
s  She has __________ passion for __________ turtle-doves.
t  These pumpkins cost £3 __________.
u  They asked me whether __________ us had been overseas.
v  "Chinese food should be eaten with chopsticks. Have you brought __________?"
  "No, I'm afraid I have brought __________."
w  They called out my name __________ ten times.
x  __________ essay she wrote! It was the best one in the whole class.
y  They __________ told me __________ secret.
z  Please don't buy me __________ lavish gifts.


26 Examples:
   Somebody/Someone has been here recently.
   Is there anything on the luggage rack?
   May I have something to drink?
   If anybody/anyone phones, tell them I'll be back right away.
   Anybody/Anyone can do it, as it is as easy as winking.
   It was impossible for anybody/anyone to arrive there on time.
   It's the best bread (that) anybody5/anyone in the house has tasted for years.
   She loves him more than anybody/anyone else in the world.
   Why are you putting on your coat? Are you going somewhere6?
   I didn't find your nail file anywhere.


   The compounds of some and any have the same rules as some and any. Here they are: somebody/someone, anybody/anyone, something, anything, somewhere and anywhere.

a  It's difficult for __________ to beat Olivia at draughts.
b  If __________ wrong should happen, ring me up at once.
c  Do you want __________ to eat?
d  We have more tourists here than __________ else in the island.
e  Would you like to have __________ else?


27 Examples:
   I didn't see anybody/anyone in the sitting-room.
   I saw nobody/no-one in the sitting room.
   There isn't anything in that drawer.
   There's nothing in that drawer.
   I didn't go anywhere.
   I went nowhere.


   In general, we cannot make two negatives in the same clause. Thus, we cannot say I didn't see nobody/no-one in the sitting-room, There isn't nothing in that drawer or I didn't go nowhere.

a  I stayed at home the whole afternoon, so I went __________.
b  I stayed at home the whole afternoon, so I didn't go __________.
c  There was __________ in the wardrobe. It was empty.
d  There isn't __________ in the cupboard. It's empty.
e  __________ saw me at the party because I didn't go there.


28 Examples:
   Everything was mistaken.
   Everybody/Everyone was tired out, so we stayed there.
   Some people say that God is everywhere.


   Every means "all". The same goes for its compounds.

a  The party was a complete failure. __________ went wrong.
b  The party was a roaring success. __________ enjoyed it.
c  He told her __________, so she knows the whole truth.
d  When we were in Paris, we saw the same man __________. I think he was following us.
e  __________ knows her, since she's very popular in this town.


29 Revision exercise.
a  She's the most conceited person that I know. She thinks that she knows __________, that she's the most beautiful girl on earth and that she does __________ better than __________ else in the world.
b  I've looked __________ in the house, but I still can't find the sellotape. We'd better go to the stationer's and buy __________.
c  We should send out __________ circular to all the union members.
d  When she told him that she had fallen in love with him, he went as red as __________ beetroot.
e  We write to __________ other __________ month.
f  What __________ rogue your godfather is!
g  __________ pickpockets will be prosecuted.
h  We haven't got __________ luxury goods in our Georgian house.
i  Would you mind giving me __________ to drink, please? I'm terribly thirsty.
j  They don't want to hold __________ dance on their wedding day.
k  Come __________ day you like, but do come.
l  That's __________ way to address __________ lady! Go and apology to her.
m  __________ way will she allow you to smoke cigars in her bedroom. She loathes them.
n  "__________ there?"
   "I don't think there is __________. If __________ was there, they would have answered you."
o  There were __________ boys; __________ (one) was in low spirits, for __________ had payed attention to them since they had arrived there.
p  "Have you got __________ to spend the night?"
   "No, I haven't; but don't worry, I'll sleep under the stars!"
q  __________ you hide from me, I'll find you. You have __________ escape from me.
r  You ought to be __________ gentleman, and buy her __________ bouquet of flowers.
s  We have just gone through __________ awful ordeal. After all we've been through, __________ will stop us.
t  __________ went according to plan. This is why I propose __________ toast.
u  __________ them stooped very low when they told __________ in the party that she was __________ easy girl. After all, they're her friends, and the people at the party shouldn't have heard about that.
v  My cousin Deborah is constantly walking past us with her nose in the air. We have passed her __________ twenty times for the last month, and she didn't even say goodbye to us.
w  "Is there __________ I can do for you?"
   "No, thank you. I don't need __________."
x  I feel very unhappy. Scarcely __________ wants to be my friend.
y  __________ years later, she ran into him again when she was walking along __________ very busy street in __________ far-off country.
z  I'm __________ longer going to tolerate her criticism.
   She criticises __________ I do, __________ I wear, __________ I say. It's very irritating!


30 Examples:
   The capital of Catalonia is Barcelona.
   The moon revolves around the earth.
   This is the largest cot (that) I have ever made.
   Mary is the best marathon runner in the world.


   The is used before things or people that are unique and before superlative adjectives or adverbs. For more details about superlatives, see unit 18, sections 6, 7 and 17.

a  From some of the windows of my cottage, you can see __________ Mediterranean Sea washing __________ cliffs. This brings up memories of __________ wonderful time I spent with my former partner.
b  __________ sun's rays are essential to life on this planet.
c  This is __________ worst omen I have had for years and years.
d  When you look up at __________ sky at night, you see __________ stars above.
e  __________ earth is __________ only planet we have to live on, so we ought to love it and to lavish care on it.


31 Examples:
   I bought a bomber jacket yesterday.
   The person you met yesterday is a bumpkin.
   There's some ground cinnamon in the larder.
   The furniture my grandmother gave me is very antique.


   A (with singular countable nouns) and some or any (with plural and uncountable nouns) suggest that we are introducing a new item in our conversation. The, on the other hand, implies that we already know the person or thing we are talking about.

a  __________ fodder is in __________ basement.
b  We need __________ more hay.
c  I think you should pull out __________ choke before you start your car every morning.
d  Please buy __________ small paintbrush. __________ one I have here is too big.
e  We haven't got __________ napkins


32 Examples:
   He doesn't like firing guns.
   She loves listening to music.


   The is not used with plural and uncountable nouns when they are used in a general sense. See also section 16 in this unit.

a  She never sings at __________ karaoke bars.
b  She reads __________ books in her leisure time.
c  They never take __________ salt in their meals.
d  We should take __________ sterner measures.
e  He never has __________ chicken.


____________________
4  See also unit 16, section 3.
5  Any is used in comparative and superlative clauses. See also unit 18, section 16.
6  The usage of somewhere is due to the fact that we expect an affirmative answer. If you are putting on your coat, it implies that you are going out.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2, 3 and the key

   Contents

   Introduction

   Notes

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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