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Gramàtica anglesa de nivell avançat pas a pas (English Grammar Step by Step)

 

     UNIT 14 - Page 3
     A, AN, SOME, ANY, NO, NOT, NONE, EACH, EVERY AND THE; COMPOUNDS OF SOME, ANY, NO AND EVERY



   Fill in the blanks as appropriate.

33 Examples:
   An elephant has an incredible memory.
   The elephant has an incredible memory.
   Elephants have an incredible memory.


   The sentences above mean roughly the same.

a  __________ giraffe has a long neck.
b  __________ apple is a very healthy fruit.
c  __________ mother and __________ father are indispensable for bringing up a child.
d  It's not easy to understand __________ women.
e  __________ orange has a lot of vitamin C.


34 Revision exercise.
a  Can you pass me __________ salt, please?
b  When I arrived there, __________ entire building had been demolished.
c  She considers __________ tulips __________ best flowers on earth.
d  We must find __________ to go with __________ curtains.
e  __________ girl in blue is retarded.
f  Switch off __________ light, please.
g  __________ knows this. It's __________ secret.
h  Make sure that __________ gear lever is in neutral.
i  __________ cocks crow.
j  __________ boys look up to their fathers.
k  He hears this radio programme __________ single day. He's very keen on it.
l  We fell in love with __________ other at first sight.
m  I haven't got __________ vinegar. Have you got __________?
n  I detest reading __________ yellow press.
o  They took __________ chances, since they thought it was very risky.
p  __________ has seen your gold ring __________. I think you should go to __________ lost property office.
q  If __________ you should see __________ golden scimitar, please tell me immediately.
r  Can you turn down __________ heating, please? It's very hot in here.
s  __________ goose cackles.
t  These rakes are ten quid __________.
u  This photocopier can photocopy __________, as it is __________ best on the market.
v  He belongs to __________ club or other. There are so many in this town that it is very difficult to tell you which one he is __________ member of.
w  We haven't had __________ corn this year. If it hadn't hailed, we would have had __________.
x  The lighthouse keeper's wife is __________ very charming person.
y  He left home without eating __________.
z  __________only drawback to living in this region is its extreme climate.


35 Examples:
   The English defeated the Castilian Armada in 1558.
   (The) Americans think they are the rulers of the world.


   Nationality adjectives ending in -ch, -ese, -sh or -ss are turned into nouns by adding the. If they have another ending, they take an -s, and the may often be left out.

a  __________ Portuguese are very friendly towards strangers.
b  __________ Dutch should be afraid of living in a country where most of it is below sea level.
c  __________ Germans are very hard-working people.
d  __________ Italians love pasta.
e  __________ Japanese are experts at making electronic goods.


36 Example:
   The rich should help the poor.

   Apart from the words seen in the above section, there are adjectives referring to people that can be change into nouns by adding the article the. If we use the plus a plural surname, we refer to a family: The Evans are coming home for dinner.

a  __________ young don't worry about ageing.
b  __________ Greens are delighted with their new car.
c  __________ disabled should be helped to find work.
d  __________ strong shouldn't take advantage of __________ weak.
e  __________ Taylors failed to turn up at the party.


37 Examples:
   She plays the saxophone.
   His half-brother plays football very well.
   The telephone allows two people to talk to each other over the earth.
   Television is the most popular mass media.


   Notice that we use the before musical instruments, but we do not, before sports and games. Note that "television" does not take the definite article, unless we refer to the televion set" in particular: Can you turn the television7 (set) down? I'm trying to concentrate.

a  They can't play __________ flute.
b  I like __________ tennis.
c  __________ swimming is the healthiest sport.
d  She's learning to play __________ viola.
e  Please switch on __________ radio: I want to hear the news.


38 Examples:
   "Where is your mother? I haven"t seen her for ages!"
   "She's in hospital now. She's very ill."
   I'm going home to do my homework.


   Some buildings are built for a particular purpose. For instance, a hospital is for treating people's illnesses. If you were going to a hospital as a patient you would say, "I'm going to hospital"; but as a visitor, "I'm going to the hospital," as this is not the purpose of a hospital. We go to bed and are in bed in order to sleep, otherwise we use the: She sat on the bed. When the word "home" is used alone, the is always dropped; but if it is modified by another term, the8 is necessary:
     They stayed at home the whole afternoon.
     They stayed at/in the home of the man who had a scar
     on his face.

   As for the substantive "work", the must be omitted: She's at work. We say in/at/to the office or in/at/to the bank, but in/to town (unless it is modified by another term: She's gone to the town she was born in).

a  He's been in __________ prison for over two years.
b  She often goes to __________ church. She thinks it is very useful to pray.
c  She entered __________ church, as she wanted to take a photogragh of the altar.
d  When he left __________ school, he became a millionaire.
e  "Go to __________ bed immediately! It's very late to be up for a young girl like you."


39 Revision exercise
a  __________ Canadians have a vast territory. Canada is __________ second-biggest country in __________ world.
b  Time for __________ bed , children!
c  He's in __________ prison for theft.
d  __________ __________ apples are rotten. We'll have to select __________ good ones from __________ bad ones.
e  __________ Joneses think that __________ skulduggery is going on here.
f  "I'd like to buy __________ pair of nail clippers/__________ nail clippers."
   "I'm afraid we haven't __________/I'm afraid we have __________."
g  __________ lottery draw will take place in __________ week.
h  I assure you that I have heard __________ strange.
i  Have you roasted __________ meat? It smells of __________ meat.
j  He gives her __________ ring __________ single evening. They love __________ other a lot.
k  She went to __________ prison to visit her son.
l  Mr Smith is at __________ office. He won't come back __________ home till three o'clock.
m  I'd prefer to stay at __________ home rather than go out.
n  You will be taken to __________ court if you commit __________ offence.
o  I think people should help __________ blind and __________ elderly to cross __________ street.
p  __________ Swiss have four official languages.
q  __________ can do this exercise. It's as easy as __________.
r  __________ bulls bellow.
s  __________ us have a picture of you. You send us __________ __________ last Christmas.
t  There's __________ in __________ house. __________ went away last week. I think they are on holiday.
u  __________ brother you are! You have never done me __________ single favour.
v  I haven't found your petticoat __________. Where on earth did you leave it?
w  "Have you got __________ brothers or sisters?"
   "No, I haven't. I'm __________ only child."
x  Take __________ you like. Make yourself at __________ home.
y  __________ __________ single error will be allowed in your papers.
z  How about playing __________ soccer?


40 Examples:
   If you go to Barcelona, you should visit your aunt.
   Why don't we go to Australia next Autumn.
   She went to Catalonia to spend the rest of her life.
   Most of the Netherlands is below sea level.


   We do not use the to name cities, continents and countries or states, but we do with plural names of countries.

a  __________ Edinburgh is the capital of __________ Scotland.
b  She lives in __________ Manchester.
c  Filipino and English —and sometimes Castilian— are Spoken in __________ Philippines.
d  __________ Asia is the biggest continent on earth.
e  __________ Oregon is a state in __________ North America.


41 Examples:
   The north of Catalonia is very popular for its ski resorts.
   Southern Catalonia is very hot in summer.
   London University/The University of London was founded in 1836.
   Is the State of Israel worth visiting?
   The Soviet Union/The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics/The USSR was more powerful one or two decades ago.


   The is usually necessary when two nouns are joined by of.

a  They are travelling towards __________ Gulf of Mexico.
b  __________ Straits of Gigraltar is a natural border between Africa and Europe.
c  __________ United States (of America) was founded in 1776.
d  __________ Bay of Pigs is in Cuba.
e  __________ United kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) consists of England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.


42 Examples:
   Lake Michigan is one of the largest in North America.
   The (River) Tagus flows into the Atlantic (Ocean).


   We use the with the names of rivers, seas and oceans, but we don't with the names of lakes.

a  __________ Seine is in France.
b  __________ Amazon is the second-largest river in the world.
c  The north of __________ Baltic Sea is icebound in winter.
d  __________ Lake Superior is on the border between the United States of America and Canada.
e  We shall have to cross __________ Rhine.


43 Examples:
   The Canary Islands is one of the best spots in the world to go on holiday if you are looking for hot weather.
   I have never been to Majorca.
   They want to climb the Alps next summer.
   (Mount) Etna is the highest volcano in Europe. It is in Sicily.


   The is used before the names of groups of islands and chains of mountains, but it is not before single islands and mountains.

a  __________ Apennines are situated in Italy.
b  __________ Antilles are in the West Indies.
c  __________ Pyreness mark a natural frontier between the Castilian and French empires.
d  __________ (Mount) Everest is the highest peak on earth.
e  "Have you ever been to __________ Corsica?"
   "No, I haven't, but I'd like to."


44 Revision exercise.
a  __________ Portugal is a fascinating country.
b  Let's play __________ rugby this afternoon!
c  She's going to __________ doctor because her head aches terribly.
d  __________ Mississipi is __________ longest river in __________ North America.
e  __________ Belfast is __________ capital of __________ Northern Ireland.
f  __________ Thames flows through __________ London.
g  __________ Antipodes are made up of __________ Australia and __________ New Zealand.
h  __________ Arctic Ocean is frozen.
i  __________ lonely feel very miserable.
j  He's been __________ in __________ world. He enjoys travelling a lot.
k  __________ creature can live in __________ Dead Sea.
l  "Would you like __________ beer mug?"
   "No, thanks."
m  "Do you fancy __________ onion soup?"
   "Yes, please."
n  __________ Urals, which mark a natural border between __________ Asia and __________ Europe, are very rich in minerals.
o  __________ fish is in __________ freezer.
p  "__________ is waiting at the door."
   "Please tell them I'm out."
q  She pointed out that they had __________ money to fill up the tank, which was a nuisance, as they had almost run out of petrol.
r  "He toured __________ world last year. He went to __________ Greece, __________ Italy, __________ Hawaii, __________ Alaska, and so forth.
s  "This pair of nail scissors was __________ cheapie."
   "You always buy __________ cheap things."
t  __________ sick should be looked after at __________ home, when possible, of course.
u  __________ Normans arrived in __________ Britain in 1066.
v  __________ __________ saucers got broken last night. I think we'll have to buy __________ new ones to replace __________ broken ones.
w  "(Have you heard) __________ news from your daughter?"
   "I'm afraid not."
x  She gave him __________ but sadness. She's very affectionate towards __________ people.
y  He has __________ weakness for __________ large cigars.
z  I have looked __________ in the house, but I still can't find __________ chestnuts that you bought yesterday. I wanted to roast __________.


45 Examples:
   We are going to the Sahara (Desert) next spring.
   In order to cross the (English) Channel, you can do it by going to Dover or Calais, and taking a ferry.
   The Panama Canal connects the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans across Panama.
   The French Riviera is very famous for its holiday resorts.


   We do not leave out the article the before the names of deserts, channels or canals and regions9.

a  __________ Goby (Desert), which is situated in central Asia, is one of the largest in the world.
b  __________ Suez Canal links the Mediterranean and the Read Seas.
c  "Where's __________Kalahari (Desert)?"
   "In South Africa."
d  She's going to spend her summer holidays in __________ Middle East.
e  __________ Celedonian Canal is in Scotland.


46 Examples:
   Hyde park is in central London.
   Fifth Avenue is well-known worldwide.
   I'd like to go shopping to Oxford Street10.
   This is Victoria Station.


   The must normally be dropped before the names of parks, avenues, streets, stations, and so forth. "Bristol Road", refers to a street; but "the Bristol road", to a road that goes to Bristol.

a  She arrived at __________ Heathrow at a quarter to seven.
b  Take __________ Madison Avenue.
c  __________ Convent Garden used to be a fruit and vegetable market.
d  I'd like to go to __________ Buckingham Palace to see the Changing of the Guard.
e  __________ Broadway is declining popularity nowadays.


47 Examples:
   If you go to London, you should visit the British Museum.
   He's staying at the Meliá Hotel.
   They're showing a good film at the Odeon/on (the) television.
   She reads The Sun.
   Let's go to Macdonalds/MacDonalds/MacDonald's.


   The should not be omitted with the names of museums, hotels, cinemas, newspapers, and so on. However, if the genitive case11 is used with these nouns, they do not take the, as in the last example above.

a  __________ Colosseum is an amphitheatre built in Rome nineteen centuries ago.
b  __________ Prado is a museum in Madrid.
c  __________ Tate Gallery opened in 1897. It is in London.
d  __________ London Palladium is a theatre famous for its musicals and variety shows.
e  She reads __________ Daily Mirror because it is left-wing.


48 Revision exercise.
a  Dublin is __________ capital of __________ Republic of Ireland.
b  "If I ever go to __________ Asia, I'll go to __________ Far East.
   "Me too. I'd like to visit __________ Hong Kong, __________ Beijin and __________ Tokyo."
c  You need __________ visa to enter __________ North America.
d  __________ Nile is __________ longest river on earth.
e  __________ (Mount) Kilimanjaro has two peaks.
f  "Which is the largest river in __________ South America.
   "__________ Amazon."
g  __________ living should respect __________ dead.
h  We went to the gunsmith's to buy __________ powder, but they didn't have __________ left/...but they had __________ left.
i  __________ Piccadilly Circus is __________ very famous square in central London.
j  There aren't __________ trade unions in this area.
k  She can't afford to buy __________ those silver spoons.
l  __________ Beatles was one of the most popular bands in __________ world.
m  This time next month, we'll be sunbathing and looking at __________ beautiful girls in __________ Hawaiian Islands.
n  If you want to learn about __________ history of __________ London, you should go to __________ Museum of London.
o  __________ North Pole, which is covered with ice, was first reached by Robert E. Peary in 1909.
p  She works in __________ Victoria Street.
q  __________ Arizona has __________ desert climate.
r  They don't believe in __________ fortune-tellers.
s  We don't like __________ these bookcases. Have you got them in __________ other colours?
t  __________ Persian Gulf is in __________ Indian Ocean.
u  __________ National Portrait Gallery is in __________ London.
v  __________ moral values of__________ Catalonia of __________ 18th century are not the same as __________ moral values of today.
w  It was __________ very cold winter night, and she was in __________ the middle of __________ with __________ water or food. Thankfully, she found __________ to spend __________ night: __________ deserted old house.
x  __________ London Bridge, __________ only one across __________ Thames until __________ year 1747, was bought by __________ United States of America in 1968.
y  __________ Earth is blue, and __________ Mars, red.
z  He despises __________ Perkins.



____________________
7  Observe the following:
     She's watching television/TV.
     Is there anything good on (the) television?
(The article is normally dropped.)
     She's on the telephone.
     He tried to contact her by telephone, but the line was engaged all the time.

8  Instead of the another determiner is sometimes found: They stayed at/in Sebastian's home/his home.
9  Note the following: Patagonia is a region in/of Argentina and Chile.
10  Compare it with the following sentence: He lives in the high street. "The high street" is the main street in a town.
11  See footnote 6 in unit 11.

Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

Pages: 1, 2, 3 and the key

   Contents

   Introduction

   Notes

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)

3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)

4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)

5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)

6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)

7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)

8  Irregular verbs

9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)

10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)

11 The genitive case (the key)

12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)

13 Gender (the key)

14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)

16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)

17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)

18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)

19 Adjective order (the key)

20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)

21 Do and make (the key)

22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)

24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)

25 Passive sentences (the key)

26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)

27 Purpose (the key)

28 Word order (the key)

29 Inversion (the key)

30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)

31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)

32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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